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process. The critical load of a column is usually determined when buckling occurs.

Buckling of column is caused by imperfections in column or the overloading upon the

column. This experiment was designed with the objectives to determine the theoretical

predictions when the columns start to buckle and how to increase their critical load. It was

assumed that the longer the columns, the easier the column to buckle. Another assumption

was made that the increasing ratio of the columns would decrease their critical stress. The

experiment was set up and the hand wheel is turned to increase the critical compressive

load on the column. For the result we obtained from the experiment, the experimental value

obtained is different from the theoretical value obtained. So, we can conclude that it is

important to determine the buckling load of a column in a real building industry.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Column is a straight slender member subjected to an axial compressive load. For a

relatively short member, the column will remain unchanged when loaded, and failure will

occur by yielding of the material. However, if the member is long, a different type of

behaviour will be observed. Buckling of column will occur when the compressive load

which is a critical load act upon the column. Buckling is a bending action in which the

lateral deflection will become very large with a little increase in load. It also can occur even

if the maximum stress in the column less than the yield stress of the column. The buckling

of the column is affected by the physical properties of material, column length, moment of

inertia of a cross-section and the end conditions. The objectives of the experiment are to

determine the relationship between the critical load and the types of end conditions.

Through this experiment, we also can find out that the length of strut will affect the

buckling of the column. We have use the standard code as stated in the laboratory to carry

out this experiment. Three different length of struts which is 320mm, 370mm and 520mm

of aluminium struts are being tested in this experiment. The significance of this study is to

let us know how critical the impact caused by the failure or collapse of column due to

buckling of column. So, it is very important for us to know the relationship between the

critical load and the length of column. In addition, the types of end condition is also a factor

that affect the buckling of column.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

The long history of buckling theory for structures began with the path breaking

investigation on the buckling of columns by Euler in 1744. The first significant treatment

of plate buckling happened in the 1800s. Based on Kirchhoff assumptions, the stability

equation of plates was derived by Navier in 1822 under lateral load. In 1883, Saint-Venant

modified the equation by including axial edge forces and shearing forces. The modified

equation formed the basis for much of the work on stability of plates with various loads

and boundary conditions. The most basic form of plate buckling problem is a simply

supported plate under uniaxial compression. In 1891, Bryan gave the first solution for the

problem by using the energy method to obtain the values of the critical loads. He assumed

that the deflection surface of the buckled plate could be represented by a double Fourier

series. In 1925, Timoshenko used another method to solve the problem. He assumed that

the plate buckled into several sinusoidal half waves in the direction of compression.

Formulations of the equations that determine the state of deformation at which the buckling

starts, that is, the so-called state of neutral equilibrium, critical state or initial buckling state,

appeared in the theory of elasticity in the beginning of the twentieth century (for e.g. by

von Karman in 1910).

3.0 METHODOLOGY

For Part 1,

1. The bottom chuck is fitted to the machine and the top chuck is removed (to give two

pinned ends). Then, a strut with a certain length is selected and the cross section is

measured using the Venier callipers provided and the moment of Inertia is calculated.

2. The position of the sliding crosshead is adjusted to accept the strut using the thumbnut

to lock off the slider. Then, a maximum amount of travel is ensured to enable the hand

wheel threat to compress the strut. Finally, the locking screw is tightened gently.

3. The handwheel is back off carefully so that the strut is resting in the notch but not

transmitting any load. The force meter is adjusted to zero using the front panel knob.

4. The strut is loaded carefully. If the strut begins to buckle to the left, flick the strut to

the right and vice versa (this reduces any error associated with the straightness of strut).

Then, the handwheel is turned until there is no further increase in load (the load may

peak and then drop as it settles in the notches).

For Part 2,

1. To study the effect of end conditions, the procedures in Part 1 is then repeated by

changing end conditions. The bottom chuck is removed and the specimen is clamped

using cap head screw and plate to make a fixed-pinned end condition. While, the

specimen is clamped at both end to make a fixed end condition.

2. Then, the procedures above is then repeated using different length of struts.

3. The result is recorded in table and the values of 1/L2 are calculated for the struts.

4.1 RESULTS

a) Fixed-fixed End

STRUT LENGTH EXPERIMENTAL 1 THEORETICAL

2

(m-2)

NUMBER (m) BUCKLING LOAD (N) 𝐿 BUCKLING LOAD (N)

1 0.322 191 9.6447 299.50

2 0.371 153 7.2653 225.61

3 0.522 94 3.6699 113.97

Table 1

b) Pinned-pinned End

STRUT LENGTH EXPERIMENTAL 1 THEORETICAL

2

(m-2)

NUMBER (m) BUCKLING LOAD (N) 𝐿 BUCKLING LOAD (N)

1 0.322 59 9.6447 74.88

2 0.371 45 7.2653 56.40

3 0.522 19 3.6699 28.49

Table 2

c) Fixed-pinned End

STRUT LENGTH EXPERIMENTAL 1 THEORETICAL

2

(m-2)

NUMBER (m) BUCKLING LOAD (N) 𝐿 BUCKLING LOAD (N)

1 0.322 101 9.6447 152.81

2 0.371 75 7.2653 115.11

3 0.522 30 3.6699 58.15

Table 3

Width and Thick of the Strut:

Reading Width, b (m) Thick, d (m)

-3

1 19.00 × 10 1.95 × 10-3

2 19.50 × 10-3 1.89 × 10-3

3 19.50 × 10-3 1.92 × 10-3

Average 19.33 × 10-3 1.92 × 10-3

Table 4

4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

Given, Ealuminium = 69 GNm-2

= 69 × 109 Nm-2

Width, b = 19.75 × 10-3 m

Thick, d = 2.05 × 10-3 m

bd3

From equation, I =

12

(19.33×10−3 )(1.92×10−3 )3

=

12

= 1.14 × 10−11 𝑚4

Derivation of Euler’s equation

𝐸𝐼𝑦 ′′ = 𝑀 = −𝑃𝑦

𝐸𝐼𝑦 ′′ + 𝑃𝑦 = 0

which has the solution

𝑃 𝑃

𝑦 = 𝐴𝑠𝑖𝑛 (√ 𝑥) + 𝐵𝑐𝑜𝑠 (√ 𝑥)

𝐸𝐼 𝐸𝐼

Where A and B are constants determined from the boundary conditions.

When y = 0, x = 0 and x= L

∴ B=0

𝑃

𝑦 = 𝐴𝑠𝑖𝑛 (√ 𝑥)

𝐸𝐼

𝑃

𝑦(𝐿) = 𝐴𝑠𝑖𝑛 (√ 𝐿)

𝐸𝐼

During buckling of the column, sin (π) = 0

𝑃

(√ 𝐿) = π

𝐸𝐼

π2 𝐸𝐼

𝑃𝑐𝑟 =

𝐿2

DISCUSSION

Table below showing the comparison between experimental and theoretical ratio by end

condition.

Gradient ratio, n 16.67 12 6.8

Experimental factor, k 0.036 0.00694 0.0216

Theoretical factor, k 0.5 1 0.7

Referring to the results from the calculation, we can conclude that, the different

between the theoretical and experimental results are very big for the three end conditions

which is fixed-fixed, fixed-pinned and pinned-pinned. Thus, the percentage (%) of the

difference between the theoretical and experimental results are obvious and big. After

carrying out the experiment, we observed that the longer length of strut will give us bigger

degree of deflection of the strut but only within a small value of compressive force acted

upon it. While for a shorter length of strut, it will result in smaller degree of deflection and

it requires a larger force for it to buckle.

For the fixed-fixed condition, the factor k in Euler’s formula is 0.5, but the experimental

factor k is 0.036. However, for pinned-pinned condition, the given factor is 1, while the

experimental factor k is 0.00694 which is obviously different from the theoretical value of

factor k. For the fixed-pinned condition, the obtained experimental value of factor k is

0.0216 while the theoretical factor k is 0.7. The difference between the experimental and

theoretical factor k might be due to the systematic error or random error occurred during

the experiment undergo. Systematic error may include the defect of laboratory device or

materials used while random error may be parallax error or error that usually done by the

person.

The buckling of a strut also affected by the cross-section of the strut, type of end

conditions, physical properties such as Modulus of Elasticity of a material being tested and

length of struts.

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, we can find out the relationship between the length of strut and

the critical load it can sustain. Besides that, we also learn that the effect of different types

of end condition towards the buckling of the column where in real experiment, we cannot

obtain the exact value of the buckling load as same as the experimental value of buckling

load. Through this laboratory experiment, we also learn that the vital of determination of

the critical load for a column as in a real construction industry, prediction and estimation

of a critical load act toward the column is important in a design and planning process.

Finally, we can conclude that buckling load of column will affected by the length and type

of end conditions of the column. Hence, we need to take into consider the impact of the

buckling of column before any design and planning of building.

REFERENCES

R. C. Hibbeler (2000). “Mechanic Of Materials.” 4th. ed. England: Prentice Hall

International, Inc.

http://web.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/AMME2301/Documents/mos/Chapter09.pdf.

Last accessed 8th April 2013

Available: http://lecture.civilengineeringx.com/building/structural/FIGURE-3.88-

Buckling-of-a-pinended-column-under-axial-load.jpg. Last accessed 25th Mar 2013

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