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Topic V I : Statics

1. A 100 kg block rests on an incline. The t:oefficient or \�'hat. is most ucarly the horizontal frictimrn I force
stali c frit:tio11 between t.he block a11d the rmnp is 0.2. between the ladder and floor?
The rnnss of the cable is negligible, and the pu lley a t
(A) 180 N
point C i s frictionless.
(8) 220 N
frictionless (C) 270 N
(D) 320 N

10 N�
3. A 100 kg block rests on a frictionless iucline. Forces
arP applied to the block as shown.

40 m

## What is the smallest block B mass that will start the

100 kg block moving up the incline?
(A) 44 kg What is the minimum force, P, such that no downwar<l
motion occurs'!
(B) 65 kg
(A) 50 N
(C) 76 kg
(B) 200 N
(D) 92 kg
(C) 490 N
2. A 10 111 long ladder rests against a frictionless wall. (D) 850 N
The coefficient o f static friction between the ladder and
the floor is 0.4. The co111bi11ed weight of the lad <l cr and 4. Two spheres, one with a muss of 7.5 kg and t.he other
an individual can be idealized as au 800 N force applied with a mass of 10.0 kg , are in equilibrium as sho w n.
at point B, as showu.

## If all surfaces are frictionless, what is most 1 1early the

magnitude of the reaction at point B'!
c (A) 170 N
(B) 200 N
(C) 210 N
(D) 2110 N

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE VI-2 F E M EcHA N 1cAL nE v 1 E w M A N u r. L

5. W h at. are tLe :ir. nnrl y-eoordinalcs of t. he cf'ntroi<l of 7. A sign li as n mass of 150 kg. The sign is aL.t aC'hed tu
the area shown'? t hewall by a pin at. point B a11d is s11pportcd by a cable
hetweeu poin t s A ;ind C.

- �0 A
2 Ill

y -41

zz
8 cm

zz
"q
ov�

z� B
1.5 m
5 cm

-z��
c D

��
0

��

150 kg

cm 4 cm 6 cm x �
��
2

� 4m
�I
(A) (2.5 cm, 3.4 cm)
(B) (2.8 cm, 3.3 cm) Determine L.he approxin1ate force in the cable .

## (C) (3.2 cm, 4.2 cm) (A) 1900 N

(D) ( 3 . 4 cm, 3.7 cm) {13) 2500 N
{C) 3800 N
6. The cautilever truss shown supports a vert.ical force (D) 5000 N
of 600 000 N applied at point. G .
8. A 11 hiclined force, F, i s applied to a block o f nwss m.
There is 110 movement, <lue to sliding.
D

500 cm

600000 N

## What is the minimum coeflicient of static friction

between the block and the ramp surface such that. no
motion occurs?
What, is most nearly th e force i n member CF? 1lF
(A)
(A) 0.96 �· IN 3F + 5mg
(B) 1.2 rvIN F tan B
(B)
mg
(C) 1 .6 MN
(D) 2.3 M N 3F
(C)
4 F + 5mg
F
(D)
mg

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
D I A G N 0 s T I c E x A M : s T A T I c s DE VI-3

## 9. A rope suppo1tiug a mass passes ovel' a horizontal SOLUTIONS

tree branch. The mass exerts a force of 1000 N on the
rope. The radius of t.hc branch is 75 mm. The coefficient. 1 . Choose coordinate axes parallel aucl perpeu<licular to
of static frict.ion bet.ween the rope and all the surfaces il the incline.
cont.acts is 0.3, and the angle of coutacl is 300 ° . What is
most uearly the 111inirnum force necessary to hold the
mass in posit.ion?
(A) 0.0 N
(B) 210 N
(C) 790 N
(D) 1 200 N

## 1 0. 'fhe weight. of a 500 kg homogcuous crate is sup­

porlt:d by three wall-mounted cables, as shown. If the block is at rest, all forces arc in equilibrium, so the
sum of the forces must be zero.
A v
L Fr = O
= mug - mAg(sin B + /ts cos B)
The smallest urnss of block B t.hat will start the block

� + (0.2) (�))
moving is

## 171B = lllA (sin B + /Ls cos B) = ( 100 kg) (

= 76 kg
(Note that the frictional force serves to increase, not
x decrease, the force required to accelerate the block.)
2. Draw the free-body diagram.

## If the force in cable AD is 5950 N , most. nearly, what is

the sum of t.he x�components in cables BD and CD? /1 =
7m
(A) '1700 N
(B) 5200 N
(C) 5900 N
(D) G500 N

## Since the wall is frictionless, the floor must support all of

the vertical force.

L Fv = O
= Cy - 800 N
C'y = 800 N

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
DE VI-4 F E ,,., E c H A tJ I c I\ L A E v I E \'I M /\ N u A L

= 3.42 Ill

b-
- h 7m_

= 2.5[i Ill

-b -
r/ = 3.42 2.55
SU lll

## II = LU 111 must. he ZP.ro.

= 0.87 111

= Fu cos 1 ° - FA co 30°
5 s
L MA = O
FA = F'B (
cos 15° )
cos300

= J . 1 2Fu
L F11 = 0
= (800 N ) d - C 11 a + CrLsin 70°

( )
= (800 N)(0.87 m) - (800 N)(3.4 2
= Fn sin 1 5° + FA si 30° - (7.5 kg) 9.81 2
m)

(
Ill
+ Cr( 10 m)sin 70°
n
m) (800 N)(0.87 m)
s
.r (800 N)(3.42 - ( 10.0 kg) 9.81
C = ��)
-

( I 0 m)siu 70°
= Fn sin 15° + l . 12Fn sin 30° - 1 72 N
= 2 1 6.!J N ( 220 N)
= 0.816Fn - 172 N
( Cr < Jl·sN since motion is not. impen<liug. )
The reaction force at point B if the system is in equilib­
T/1e answer is (8). rium is
Fn = 210.3 N (210 N)
3. Choose coordiuate axes that are parallel a n<l perpen­
dicular to the incline.
5. Divide the shape into regions. Calculate the area and
locate the centroid for each region.

B ern

5 cm

mg

## For no downward motion to occur, the forces must be in

equilibrium, which means the sum of all forces must be 2 cm 4 cm 6 cm
zero. The force required to mai ta n equ ili b ri um is
n i
LF,. = 0 = P - mgsin O
For regi on I (rectangular),
A = (2 c ) ( 5
P = mg sin 0 m cm) = 10 cm2
.Xe = -- = 1 cm
2 cm
= (100 kg) 9.81 ( :1�)sin 30° 2
= 2.5 cm
5 cm
= 490 N Yc = - 2-

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
D I A G N 0 s T I c E x A M : s 1· A T I c s DE VI-5

## Ji'or region ll (rectangular), Use the met.hod of sect.areiopositi

ns. ve. moments about joint E.
811111

## A = {2 cm)(8 cm) = 16 cm2

Clockwise 1110111cuts

2 cm + 4 cm 3
I >wt-; = o
=
:i;c
2
= cm = (600 000 N)(800 cm) - CF(:rno cm)
8 = cmC!U
,, = --
.J r
2
ti CP = (600000300N)(800 cm
cm)

A = G) (2 cw)(8 cm) = 8
For region (triangular),
ill
= 1 600 000 N ( 1.6 !vlN)

:Cr = 4 cm + G) (2 cm) = 4. 6 7 cm
cm2

## 7. Draw the free-body diagram.

I
8 cm
Ye = 3- = 2.67 cm
-
!' ,
I '' 2.5 m
-- 1 ,
I '
I
Calculate the centroidal d y-coordinalcs. au 1.5 m

LXc,i A i
x- I
I
. M
= =
ny

:c, . T L:Ai
cm)(lO cm2 ) (3 cm)(16 cm2 )
(1 +
+ (tl.67 cm)(8 cm2 )
+
10 cm2 16 cm2 + 8 cm2
= 2.80 cm (2.8 cm) Find the length of the cable.
M = °"'Yc i i A LAc = j( l.5 (2 m2) 1112) +
Yc = �
A i L..,LA
, 'i = 2.5 ll1

(1 . 5 ) FAc
cm)(lO cm2 ) + (4 cm)(16 cm2)
(2.5 The verticalcomponent of in the cable
the force is
+ (2.67 cm)(8 cm2)
10 cm2 + 16 cm2 + 8 crn2 FAc • =
111
2 .5
• .1 --

## = 3.25 cm (3.3 cm)

Ill

= 0.GFAc
6. Dra\v the free-body diagram for the truss. L:Mo = my(2 m) FAc,y(2 m)

-

D
'
'
=0
- (0.6)FAc(2 m)

## (150 kg) ( 9.81 �;) (2 m)

�-- - ----- G
/
=0
E

FA c =
f600000 N
. -------
. 11112
= 2,152.5 N (2500 N)
Equilibrium
CD and DF ofarcpin D requires that the forces in members

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE VI-6 F E M IE c u A N I c A L R E v I E w M A N u A L

8. Draw t.he rree-body <liagram. 9. The angle of contact must be expref;.•:;ed ill radia11s.

(300°)2rr
B=
3G0°

## Prom the eq u ation for hell. friction, the force necessary

to hold the mass ill position is

F1 = F2e110
rlg F2 = .fl
el'/)
1000 N
= e(0.3)(1i.2� ind)

= 208 N (210 N)

lf llO motion occurs, the forces are in equilibrium. The 1 O. The length of cable A D is
eq11ilibri11m equations arc

= N - F cos B - mg = J(-10 m) 2 + (5 m)2 + (-2.5 m) 2
N = F cosB + mg = 11.456 Ill
L Fr = O
= Fsin B - Ff The :1;.componenL of force in member AD is fou nd from
Ll1c :t:-direct.ion cosine.
= Fsill 0 - µ. N
= Fsin ()
( 1 .456
Fsin ()
Fcos O + mg =
I
- lO
Ill
) (5950 N)

(�) + mg
= -5194 N

## F The equilibrium requirement. is LF'r = 0, so

4F
3/i' + 5mg BDz + CDr = - A Dz = 5194 N (5200 N)

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
1. Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22- J Equation 22.2 and Eq. 22.3: Resultant of
2. Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2 Two-Dimensional Forces
3. Systems of Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4

## [ (.t, F,. ) ' ) ']

11. Problem-Solving Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5

Nomenclatu1·e
F � + (t. F,. . ' '' 22 2

F
d distance Ill

force N
ill moment N·m
I' dista11ce Ill

,

H resultant N Description

## The resultant, or sum, F, of 11 Lwo-dimensional forces is

Subscl'ipts equal to the sum of the components. Tlic direct.ion of the
0 a11gle deg resultant with respect to Lhe :v-axis is calc11Iated from
Eq. 22.3.

1 . FORCES
Statics is the study of rigid bodies that are stationary.
Equation 22.4 Through Eq. 22.9:
To be stationary, a rigid body must be in static equilib­
Components of Force
rium. In the language of statics, a statio11ary rigid body
has no u11bala11cecl fol'ces acting on it. F, = F cos0.1: 22.4
Force is a push or a pull t.hat one body exerts on F,1 = F cosB,1 22.5
another, including gm vitational, electrostatic, magnetic, Fz = FcosfJ, 22.6
and contact influences. Force is a vector quantity, hav­ cosO:r = F, / F 22.7
ing a magnitude, direction, and point of application.
cos Uy = Fu/ F 22.8
Strictly speaking, act.ions of other bodies 011 a rigid body cosO, = F,/ F 22.9
are known as external forces. If twbalanced, an external
force will cause motion of the body. Internal fol'ces are Description
the forces that hold together parts of a rigid body.
Although internal forces can cause deformation of a The components of a two- or three-dimensio11al force
body, motion is never caused by internal forces. can be found from its direction cosines, t.he cosines of
the true angles made by the force vector with the :ir , y- ,
Forces arc frequently represented i n terms of unit vec­ and z-axes. {See Fig. 22. 1 . )
tors and force components. A unil vector is a vector of
unit length directed along a coordinate axis. Unit vec­
tors arc used in vector equations to indicate direction Figure 22. 1 Components and Direction Angles of a Force

k.
without affecting magnitude. In the rectangular coordi­
nate system, there are three unit vectors, i, j, and

/ ,.... _ _ - -
-- --

1 - - --
// Fy --
Equation 22.1 : Vector Form of a Two· - line of action

1
/
/

I
Dimensional Force of force F

I
22. 1 I
Description

## The vector form of a two-dimensional force is described

---
by Eq. 22. 1 .

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
22-2 FE ME C H A N I C A L R EVI E \'I M A N U ft. L

E-xample Description
\�I hat. is mos!. nearly the '.i:-componenl. of the 300 N force y,
\Vhen the ;i;, aud z components of a force are knowu,
aL point D on the member shown? tlte re1mlt:-rnt force is given by Eq. 22. L O .

Example
Two forres of 20 N aml ao N act at right a11gles.

\.300 N
8m

## \;\,1hat is most nearly the magnitude of the resultant

2m force?
7.0
(13) 36
(A)

4m (C) 50
150 N
(D) 75
(A) 120 N Solution
(B) 130 N
(C) 180 N
Define the x-axis parallel to force F1•From Eq. 22.10,
the magnitude of the resultant force is
(D) 240 N
R = Jx2 + y2 + z2 = V(20 N)2 + (30 N)2 + (0 N)2
Solution
= 36
U:;e the Pythagorean t.heorem to calculate the hypote­
nuse of the iuclined force triangle. ( Alternatively, recog­
nize that this is a 5-12-13
triangle.)

## /(12)2 + (5)2 13 = 2. MOMENTS

Afoment is the name given to the tendency of a force lo
The :-c-component of the force is rotate, turn, or twist a rigid body about an actual or
assumed pivot point. ( Another name for moment is
Fr = F cos O:x (300 N)( 153)
= torque, although torque is used mainly with shafts and
other power-transmitting machines.) When acted upon
= L l5.4 N (120 N) by a moment, unrestrained bodies rotate. However,
rotation is not required for the moment to exist. When
The answer is (A). a restrained body is acted upon by a moment, there is no
rotation.
An object experiences a moment whenever a force is
Equation 22.1 O Through Eq. 22.13: Resultant applied to it. Only when the line of action of the force
Force passes tlu-ough the center of rotation (i.e., the actual or
as:>umed pivot point) will the moment be zero. (The
momcut may be zero, as whcu the moment arm length
R = J:i·2 + y2 + 22 22. 10 is zero, but there is a trivial moment nevertheless.)
Fr = (x/ R)F 22. 1 1 !\foments have primary dimensions of length x force.
P11 = ( y/R)F
Typical units are foot.-pouncb, inch-pounds, aud newton­
22. 12
meters. To avoid confusion with energy units, moment.s
F, = (z/R)F 22. 13
may be expressed as pound-feet, pow1d-i11ches, and
newton-meters.

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
S Y S T E M S 0 F F 0 R C ES A N D M0 M E NT S 22-3

Equation 22. 1 4: Moment Vector Lhe projection of 1110 onto lhe .T-axis, which is t.he clol
product operatio11.
l11 = r x F 22. 14 Mo,r = i·Mo
Variation = (1 rn)(60 N) + (0 m)(-70 N) + (0 m)(-50 N)
Mo = !Mo / = / r/ I F /sin 0 = tl/F/ [O :::; 180°]
= GO N·m

## tvioments are vectors. The moment vector due to a

vector force, F, applied al a poiut. P, about an axis Right-Mand Rule
passing through point. 0, is designat.ed as M0. The
The liue of action of the moment vector is normal to the

## tor. The sense (i.e., the direction) of the m o ent is

n1omenl also depcnc.ls ou t.he position vector, r, from
point 0 to point P. The moment is calculated as the plane r.ontaining the force vector and tl1c position vec­
cross pmd11ct, r x F. The a,-xis of the moment will be m
perpendicular to lhe plane containing vectors F and r. determined from the right-hand rule. (See Fig. 22.2. )
Any point could be chosen lor point 0, although il is
usually convenient to select point 0 as the origin, and to Righ t-hand rule: Place the position and force
put P in t.he horizontal �;-y plane. In t.hat case, 1lf0 will vectors tail to tail. Close your right hand and

## uct I r / sin shown in the variation equalio11, is !mown as

be a moment about the vertical z-axis. The scalar prod­ po::;ition it over the pivot point. notate the posi­
B, t.ion vector into the force vector aud position
the 1110111e11t arm, ti. your hanci such t.hat. yom fingers curl in the same
direction as the position vector rotates. Your
Example
extended thumb will coincicie with t.he direction
of the rnomcnt.
Wbat. is most nearly the magnitude of the moment about
the �:-axis prociuced by a force of F = lOi - 20j 40k N
+

(A )
acting at the point (2, 1, 1 )
with coorciinates in meters? Figure 22.2 Right-Hand Rufe

(B) 40 N - m
30 N-m line of action
of moment

( C ) 50 N·m
(D) GO N·m
Solution

## The �cyz coordi11ate axes are being used, so point 0

corresponds lo the origin. Work in meters and newtons.
Equation 22.14calculates the moment about the verti­
cal z-a.x is. The cross product can be calculated as a
determinant.

Mo = r x F
= (ryF, - r,Fy)i + (r,F:r - r:rF,)j Equation 22. 1 5 Through Eq. 22. 1 7:
+ (rLFy - ryFr)k Components of a Moment

## = (2i + j + k) x (lOi - 20j + 40k) Ar, = yF, - zFy

= ( (1 m)(40 N) - ( 1 m)(-20 N)) i
22. 15
J\fy = zFr - �i:F, 22. 16

## + ((1 111)(10 N) - (2 111)(40 N))j

M, = xFy - yFr 22. 17

Variations
+ ( (2 m)(-20 N) - (1 m )( lO N)) k

## = 60i - 70j - 50k N ·m My = M cos By

t.10 is the moment about the origin, not the x-axis as
requested. The moment about t.he x-axis is found as

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
22-4 F J:: M E C t-1 A t� I C A L AEV I EW M A tJ U A L

## Equal.ion 22.15, Eq. 22.Hi, and Eq. 22. 1 7 ca n be used t u

determine the compo11e11ts of the moment from I.lie
cornpo11e11t of a force a ppl ied at. point (:1�', y, z) referenced
to an origi n at. (0, 0, 0). The resultant moment. magni­
tude can be reconst.it.uled from its cu111ponents.

M= MJ.2 + J\!2
y + i\!l
2

## The ciirection cosi11es of a force can be used to determine

t.hc components of t.he moment about the coordinate
a.xes, as shown in the variation eqnat.ions.

Example
What is most. nearly the maguitucle of the moment. about
the x-axis produced by a force of F= lOi - 20j + 40k N
3. SYSTEMS OF FORCES
Any collect.ion of forces aud moments in three­
acting at t.he point (2, 1 , 1 ) with coordinates in meters? dimensional space is statically equivalent to ;:i single
(A) 30 N·m resultant force vector plus a single resultant moment
vector. ( Eit.licr or bot.h of these res ul t an t s can be zero.)
(B) 40 N·m
(C) 50 N·m Equation 22. 1 8 and Eq. 22. 1 9 1
(D) 60 N·m

- "<\'
F- '--'F " 22. 18
Solulion
M = L(r,, x F,,)
This is the same as the previons examµle. Use Eq. 22. l[).
22. 19

Description
Mr = yF, - zFy
The �,'- , y-, and z-components of the result.ant force,
= ( I m)(40 N) - (1 m)(-20 N) given by Eq. 22.18 are the sums of the :ir , y-, and z­
= 60 N·rn componenls of the individual forces, respectively.
The answer is (D). The resultant moment vector, given by Eq. 22.19 is
more complex. It includes the moments of all system
forces around the reference axes pins the components
Couples of all system moments.
Any pair of equal, opposite, and parallel forces consti­ Variations
tutes a couple. A couple is equivalent to a single moment
vector. Since the two forces are opposite in sign, the :z.'- , y-,
three- ]
and z-components of the forces cancel out. Therefore, a
body is induced to rotate without. tra11slation. A couple
JI 11 II

## = iLFL,; + jLFy.i + kLF,,i [ dimcnsion11l

can be cotmteracted only by another couple. A couple can i=l i= I i=I
be moved to any location without affecting the equilib­
rium requirements. (Such a moment is known as a free
moment., moment of a couple, or coupling moment.)
In Fig. 22.3, the equal but opposite forces produce a Mr = L(yF, - zFy); + L(M cos B.r ) ;
moment vector, M0, of magnitude Fe/. The two forces
can be replaced by this moment vector that can be
i i

## moved to any location on a body. M y = L(z F .r - :cF,); + L( M cos By),

i ;

Mo = 2rFsinB = Fd
If a force, F, is moved a distance, d, from the original
point of application, a couple, M, of magnitude Fd
must be added to counteract the induced co11ple. The
combination of the moved force and the couple is 1Thc NC;;ES
J. FE Refel'e.11cc Handbook (NCEES Ha11dbook) uses both

known as a fo1'ce-couple system. Alternatively, a 11 1111d i for sununation \'Oriabl«?S. Though i is tradiliormlly used to

## force-couple system can be replaced by a single force

indirnte swnmation, 11 <lppl'm� to be used as l he su111111atio11 v11riable in
order to indicate l hat the tiummat ion is over all 11 of I he forces and all n
loca ted a distance d = M/ F away. of the position vectorti that make np the systc111 (i.e., i= 1 to 11).

PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
S Y S T E M S O F F O R C E S A N O M O M E t� T S 22-5

Equation 22.20 and Eq. 22.21 : Equilibrium Two· and Three-Force Members
Requirements
l\lc1 nbers limited to loading by two or Lhree forces in the
s11me plane are special cases of eq11ilibri11m. A two-force

Lhe same line of art.ion ( i.e., arc collinear ) and are equal
m e mbe l cau be in equilibrium only if Lhe two forces have
.l)J,. = 0
_LF., = 0 22.20 '

22.21
bnt opposite.
Description J 11 most cases, two-force mcwbers are loaded axially,
An object is static when it is st.atio11ary. To be station­ and the line of action coiacides with Lhe member's lon­
ary, all of L.he forces aud rno111cnl.s on the object m11st be gitu<liual <Lxis. By choosing the coordinate sysLern so
in equilibrium. For an object to be in equilibriu111, l.lte Lhat. one axis coincides with the liuc of action, only one
rcsultaut force and moment vectors musL boLh ht� zero. equilibrium equation is needed.

The following equat.ions follmv directly fro1n Eq. 22.20 A three-force member can be ill equilibrium only if the
and Eq. 22.2 1 . three forces are coucmrent or par::illel. Stat.eel auother
way, the force polygon of a three-force 1nember in equi­
libri11m must close Oil itself. If the member is in equilib­
riuui and two of the thrf'e forces arc lmow11, Lhe third
can he determined.

4. PROBLEM·SOLVING APPROACHES

Determinacy
When the equations of equilibrium are independent, a
rigid body force system is said to be slat ically delermi­
nat.e. A statically determinate system can be solved for
all unlrnowns, which are 11s11ally reactio11s supporting
Lhe body. Examples of delenninate beam types are illus­
trated iu Fig. 22.4.

## These equat.ions seem to imply that six simultaneous

equations must be solved in order to determine whet.her
a system is in equilibritw1. WhHc this is true for general (a) simply supported beam
three-dimensional systems, fewer equations arc neces­
sary for most problems.

Concurrent Forces
(b) overhanging beam
A concurrent. fon;e system is a category of force systems

where all of the forces act at the same point.
If the forces on a body are all coacurrent forcf's, then
only force equilibrium is necessary to ensure cornplet.e
cqui Ii briu m. �I
�t.::::::::::::::::::::::::::�

� (c) cantilever beam

In two dimensions,
When Lhe body has more supports than are nece1>Sary
for equilibrium, the force system is said to be stalical/y
i11de/.ermi11ale. In a statically indeterminate system, one
or more of the supports or members can be removed or
reduced in restraint without affecting the equilihri11m
position. Those supports alld members are knowu as
In tlu-ec dimensions, redundant supports and redundant. members. The num­

_L Fr = O
ber of redundant members is known as the degree of
indeterminacy. Figure 22.5 illustrates several common
indeterminate structures.

## L /y = O A body t.hat. is statically indeterminate req11ires additional

_L Fl = O
equations to supplement the equilibriwn equations. The
additional equatiom; typically involve deflections and
depend on mechanical properties of the body or supports.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
22-6 F E M E C II /\ N I C A L R E V I E W M A t� U A L

Figure 22.5 Examples ol Indeterminate Systems arc co1u.:cpt1mlly rP111oved 111ust be replaced by the forcPs
;md nwme11ts those port.ions impart to thP body. Typi­
cally, the body is isolated from its physical suppor t s in
order to lielp eval1 1 a l e t.hc reaction forces. In ot.her cases,
(a) beam with multiple supports t.he body 111ay be sectioned (i.e., cul) iu order t o deter-
111i11e the forces a l Lhe scdion.

Reactions
The first step in solvi11g most statics problems, after

## reaction forces (i.e., the reacl-imis) supporting t.he body.

7.
clrawi11g; the free-body diagram, is to delermit1e the
(b) beam with two pinned supports

## The manner in which a body is supporled detennint>s

the lype, location, and direct ion of the react.ions. Co111-
111on support types are shown in Table 22. 1 .
For bt>ams, t.he two most commo11 types of supports are
(c) propped cantilever
the roller support and the piru1erl support.. The roller
support, show11 as a cylinder supporting the benm, sup­
ports vertical forces 011Jy. Rat her than support. a hori­
zontal force, a roller support simplj' rolls inlo a 11ew
equilibrium posit.io11 . Only one equilibriu111 equation
(i.e., the sum of vertical forces) is needed at a roller
support. Generally, the terms simple support and simply
supported refer to a roller support.
The pinned support, shown as a pin an<l clevis, supports
both vert.ical and horizontal forces. Two equilibrium

## Generally, there will be vertical and horizontal compo-

equations iue needed.
(d) structure with two pinned supports

## 11e11ts of a reaction wheu one body touches auother.

Free-Body Diagrams However, when a body is in contact with a frictionless
A free-body diag1·am is a representatio11 of a body in
s111jace, t here is no frictional force component parallel to
the surface, so t.he reaction is normal to the conlact
equilibrium, showing all applied forces, moments, and surfaces. The assu111ption of frictionless contact is par­
reactions. Free-body diagrams do not consider the i nter­ ticularly useful when dealing with systems of spheres
nal structure or constrnclion of the body, as Fig. 22.6 and cylinders in co11tact with rigid supports. Frictionless
illustrates. contact is a lso assumed for roller and rocker supports.
Figure 22.6 Bodies and Free Bodies The procedure for findi11g determinate react.ions iu two­
dimensional problems is st.raightforwmd. Determinate
structures will have either a roller support a11d pinned

## step 1: Establish a convenient set of coordinate axes.

support or two roller snpporls.

## (To simplify the analysis, one of the coordinate

directions should coincide wit.h the direction of
the forces and reactions.)
body step 2: Draw the free-body diagram.
step 3: ncsolve the reaction at t.he pinned support (if
any) into components normal and parallel to t.he
coordinate axes.

## clockwise) for purposes of taking moments.

step 4 : Establish a positive direct.ion of rotation (e.g.,

## free body free body

s/.ep 5: Vh'ite the equilibrium equal.ion for moments
about the pinned connection. (By choosing the
pinned co1111ection as the point about which to
take moments, the pi11ned connection reactions
Since Lhe body is in equilibrium, the resultanls of all do not enter into the equation.) This will usually
forces and rnome11ts on the free body are zero. In order determine the vertical reaction at the roller
to mai11tain equilibrium, any portions of the !Jody that support.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
S Y S T E M S O F F O R C E S A N D M O M E N T S 22-7

Tal.Jlc 22. 1 Types of Two·Dimensional Supports �lep 6: Write the equilibrium equation for t.he forcPs in
reactions and number or the vcrt.iotl directio11. Usucilly, t. his equation will
type of support have t.wo 1 1 11know11 vert.ical reactions.
moments unknowns'

simple, roller, rocker, step 1: Subst.iLute the lmown vertic-<ll reactiou from
ball, or frictionless step 5 into the equilibrium equal.ion from step 6.
This wi11 delerminP the second verticl'l I reactio11.

~ reaction normal to
surface, no moment
I
slep 8: VVrite the equilibrium equatioH for Lhc forces in
the horizontal direct.ion. Since I.here is a mini­
mum of one 1mlu1own react.ion co111po!lcnl. in the
horizontal direction, t.hi:; step will determine

JLL
that component.
step 9: If necessary, combine Lhc verLical and horizonLal
cable in tension,
force cornpone11ts al. t.he pinned con11cction into

~ reaction in line
no moment
1

L:;;
frictionless
guide o r collar

I >
��
reaction normal to 1
?//////&
rail, no moment

built-in, fixed

l=�
support

two reaction 3

���
components,
one moment

frictionless hinge,
pin connection, or

rough surface

reaction in any 2
direction,

J2 �
no moment

## 'The number of unknowns is valid for two-dimensional prob·

lems only.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
s

## I. Statically Deterrninatc Trnsses . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1 Figure 23.2 Special Types of Trusses

2. Plane Truss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2
3. J'vfet.hod of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . 23-2
4. Method of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 23-3
Pratt roof truss
(gabled)
Nomenclature
F force N
"' moment N·m
Pratt bridge truss
(flat o r through)

## A truss or frame is a set. of pin-connected a�cial 111e111be1·s

1 . STATICALLY DETERMINATE TRUSSES

## (i.e., /.wo-force 111e111bers). The connection points are

Howe roof truss
known as joints. Member weights are disregarded, and (gabled)
trnss loads are applied only at joints. A structural cell
consists of all members in a closed loop of members. For
the trnss to be stable (i.e., to be a rigid truss), all of the Howe bridge truss
structural cells must be triangles. Figure 23. l identifies (flat or through)
chords, end posts, pa nels, and other elements of a typical
bridge t.russ.

## Figure 23. 1 Parts of a Bridge Truss Fink roof truss

joint
Fink roof truss
(with cambered
end post bottom chord)
--.....

I� .. 1
panel web scissors roof truss
members

/VV'\Z'\
length

## Warren bridge truss

Several types of trusses have been given specific names.
Some of the more common named trnsses are shown in
Fig. 23.2.
Trns.5 loads are considered to act only in the plane of a K bridge truss
truss, so trusses are analyzed as two-dimensional struc­
tures. Forces in truss members hold the various truss
parts together and are known as i11lemal forces. The
internal forces are found by drawing free-body diagrams. VVil.h typical bridge trusses supported at the ends au<l
loaded downward at the joints, the upper chords are
A lthough free-body diagrams of truss members can be

## grams of the pins (i.e., the joints) arc drawn. A pin in

ahnosL always in compression, and t.hc end panels and
drawn, this is not usually done. Instead, free-body dia­ lower chords are almost always in tension.
compression will be shown with force arrows pointing Since truss members arc axial members, the forces on
toward the piu, away from the member. Similarly, a pin the truss joints are concurrent forces. Only force equi­
in tension will be shown wit.h force arrows pointing away librium needs to be enforced at each pin; the sum of the
from t.he pin, toward the member. forces in each of the coordinate directions equals zero.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
23-2 F E M E C H A N I C A L n E V I E \V M A N U /\ L

## by inspection. One of t.hese <'Hses is zern-Jorce members.

Forces i11 t.russ memhers can sometimes he detcrrn.i11ed Example

A t.hjJd 11ic111ber frnming i11Lo a joint. already com1ect.ing Most nearly, what arc reactions F1 aml F2 for t.he truss
two collinear members C'fltTies no internal force unless shown?
there is a load applied at that joint. Similarly, hot.It
members forming an apex of the truss arc zero-force
members unless there is a load applied at the apex.
(Sec Fig. 23.3.)
Figure 23.3 Zero.force Members

Sm Sm Sm Sm

= F'2 =

## (C) Fi = 2500 N ; F2 = 2500 N

(B) Fi = 1300 N; F2 = 3800 N

## (D) F, = 3800 N; F2 = 1300 N

A truss will be slatical/y del.erminal.e if
Solution
no. of members = (2)( no. of joints) - 3 Calculate t.hc reactions from Eq. 23. 1 and Eq. 23.2. Let
clockwise moments be positive.
If the left-hand side of the equal.ion is greater than Lite
right-hand side (i.e. , there arc membe,.s), the
redundant LMA O = (uOOO N)(8 m) - F2 (32 m)
F2 = 1250 N (1300 N) [upward!
=
truss is statically indeterminate. If Lhe left-hand side is
LF11 = 0 = F1 + 1250 N - 5000 N
less than t.hc right-hand side, the truss is twstable and
F, = 3750 N (3800 N) (upward]
2. PLANE TRUSS
A plane truss (planar truss) is a rigid framework where The answer is (D).
all truss members are within the same plane and are
connected at their ends by frictionless pins. Exlernal
The me/hod of is 011e of the methods that c;:in be
loads are in the same plane as the truss and arc applied 3. METHOD OF JOINTS
at the joints only. joints
used to find the internal forces in each truss 1nc111ber.
This method is useful when most or all of the t.russ
Equation 23.1 and Eq. 23.2: Equations of member forces arc to be calculated. I3e<'ause this method
when a single isolated member force is to be calculated.
LF,, = 0 23. 1
The method of joints is a direct application of the equa­
tions of equilibrium in Lhc and y-directious. Tradi­
:v-

LM,, = 0 23.2
tionally, the met.hod begins by fimling the reactions
supporting the truss. Next the joint at. one of the reac­
tions is evaluated, which determines all [.he member
Description forces framing into the joint. Then, knowing one or more
A plane truss is statically dctcnninate if t.hc truss reac­ of the member forces from the previous step, an adjacent
tions and member forces can be determined using the joint is analyzed. The proces.5 is repeated until all the
equations of equilibrium. If not, the truss is considered unknown quantities are dctermjned.
statically indeterminate. AL a joint, there may be up to two unknown Jllcmber
1Thcan<l for summatio1 variables. Though is traditionallyusesusedbothto
NCEES FE Reference l/andbook (NCEES l/andbook)
forces, each of which can have dependent and �;- J.r

11 i i
components. Since there arc two equilibrium equations,
indicateto summati on, thesummntion is O\'asC'r althesummati
11 appears to he nse<I orces1 vnriablalelin the two unknown forces can be determined. Even
order indicntcvectors
that l of i
11 he fo and 11 though clctenuirrnte, however, the sense of a force will
uf the position that up the system (i.C'., to
11rnkc i= J )
11 . often be unknown. If the sense cannot be determined by
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
T R U S S E S 23-3

logic, a11 arbil rary decision can be made. If the i 11correcl Solution
dircclion is chosen, the force will be ucgat.ive.
C11t the t rnss as shown.
Occasionally, Lhere will be three u 111rnown 111embPr
forces. ln that. case, an additional equat.ion must be
c D

'' 25 m

## The mcllwd of sections is a direct approach to fo1ding

4. METHOD OF SECTIONS
A ,,_�--1f-�
-- ---"l-�'..-¥
.- ��-¥'��4-�----"'

N N N N �
E · F G
� 20 � 20 � 20 � 20
I
forces in a ny truss member. This met.hod is convP.nient 20 m rn rn rn rn
when only a few truss 111ember forces are unknown.
As wiLh t.he previow; method, the firnl. slep i s to find the 5000 N 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 N 5000 N
support reactious. Then a cuL is made through the l:russ,
passing t.hrough the unknown member. (Know i n g where
Draw t.he free body.
Lo cut the trnss is the key part. of this method. Such
lrnowlcdge is developed only by repeated p ractice . ) BC
Finally, all thJ"ee conditions of equilibrium a re applied
as needed to t. he remaining trnss portion. Si11ce there arc

N
t.hree equi l i bri um equations, the cut cannot pass
through more than t.hree members i n which the forces
arc unknown.
5000 N 2000 N 2000

## u11k11own forces e xcep t CE. Let clockwise momcnls be

Example
Taking moments about point A will eliminate all of the
A trnss is loaded as shown. The support reactions have

c D
IMA = 0
(2000 N)(20 m) + (2000 N)(40 m)
-CE(40 m) = 0
CE = 3000 N

5000 N N N
� -20 m '
2000 2000
20 m ���
2000 N 2000 N N N
2000 5000

## Most. nea rly, what is t he force in member CE?

(A) l OOO N
(n) 2000 N
(C) 3000 N
(D) 4000 N

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 1> a s s . c o m
1 . P ulleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1 Figure 24. 1 Mechanical Advantage of Rope-Operated Machines
2. Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

## 3. Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24- 1 ordinary

4. Belt Frictio11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2 fixed free pulley differential
5. Square Screw Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211-3 . . . . . .
sheave sheave block pulley block
(n sheaves)

Nomenclature
d inside diameter Ill

## D outside diameter Ill

F force N
[/ gravilatio11al acceleration, 9.81 m/s2
Ill mass kg
M moment N·m
1l number
N normal force N
JI pilch 111
p power w

T torque N·m
w w w
v velocit.y 111/s 2 n
IV weight N

Symbols
Q pit.ch angle deg equal to the number of ropes coming to and going from
T] efficiency t.he load-carrying pulley, The diameters of the pulleys
8 angle of wrap radians arc not factors iu calculating the pulley advantage.
µ coefficient of frict.ion
tf; a11gle deg
2. CABLES
Subscripts An ideal cable is assumed to be completely flexible,
f friction massless, and incapable of elongation; it acts as an axial
m mechanical The term tension or tensile force is conuno11ly used in
s slal.ic place of member force when dealing with cables.
tangential
The methods of joints and sect.ions used in truss analysis

## concentrated loads. ( Sec Fig. 24.2. ) After separating the

can be used to determine the tensions in cables carrying

## A pulley ( also known as a sheave) is used to chaugc the

1 . PULLEYS
reactions into x- and y-components, i.t is particularly

working together ( known as a block and tackle) can also All cables will be found to be in tension, and ( with
direction of an applied tensile force. A series of pulleys useful to sum moments about one of the reaction points.

( See Fig. 24. 1 . ) will be the same in all cable segments. Unlike the case of
a rope passing over a series of pulleys, however, ihe total
If the pulley is attached by a bracket to a fixed location, tension in the cable will not be the same in every cable
it is said to be a fi�ced pulley. If the pulley is attached to a segment.
load, or if t.he pulley is free to move, it. is known as a free
pulley.

## that all ropes ( fiber ropes, wire ropes, chains, belts,

3. FRICTION
i\fost simple problems disregard friction and assume

## etc. ) are parallel. In such cases, the pulley advantage is

Friction is a force that always resists motion or
impending motion. Ii always act.s parallel to the

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
24M2 I" J1l M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U I\ L

## Figure 24.2 Cable l'lilh Concentrated Load Exam ple

A 35 kg block resting on the 30° incline is shown.

## contacting surfaces. The frictional fo rce , F, exe rted O i l

What is most nearly the frictional force at the point of
a stationary body is known as stat-ic friction, Coulomb
impending slippage?
fric/.io11, and flu·id friction. If the body is moving, the
friction is known as dynamic friction and is less than (A) 37 N
the static friction. (B) 52 N
(C) 89 N

## Equation 24.1 Through Eq. 24.4: Frictional

(D) 100 N
Force 1
Solution
F \$ µ,N 24. f From Eq. 24.3, t.he frictional force is
ft.,N [point
F < 11.J\I (no sUp occurri11g] 24.2 F = p,,N = p8( mgcos¢)

[slip occurring]
F = of irnpeudiug slip) 24.3
= (0.3) ((35 kg) (9.81 ��)cos30°)
F= /LA.N 24.4
= 89.2 N (89 N)
Values
· ·· ·· · ·
···· ·
· · ·· · ·
· · · · · · · ·· · · · · ·
· · · ··· ·· · · ·
· · · · · ·· ··········· · · . .... ..................
· ·

4. BELT FRICTION
· · ··· · ·
· · - ·

. ..
· · ·

Description
· · ·
· · ·· ·· · · ·· · · ··
·
.

The actual magnitude of the frictional force depends on Friction between a belt, rope, or band wrapped around
the normal force, N, and the coefficient of friction, ft, a pulley or sheave is responsible for the transfer of
between the body and the surface. The coefficient of torque. Except when stationary, one side of the belt
kinetic friction, /Lk, is approxi mately 753
of the coeffi­ (the tight side) will have a higher tension than the
cient of static friction, µ,. other (t.he slack side). (Sec Fig. 24.3.)
Equation 24.1
is a general ex pression of the laws of Figure 24.3 Belt Friction
frictio11. Several specific cases exist depending Oil
whether slip is occurring or impending. Use Eq. 24.2
when no slip is occurring. Equation 24.3
is valid at the
point of impending slip (or slippage) , and Eq. is 24.4
valid when slip is occurring.
F2 (loose)
For a body resting on a horizontal surface, the normal
force is t.he weight of the body. F1 (tight)

## If a body rests on a plane inclined at an angle </> from the

24. 5
horizontal, the normal force is

Description
N = mg cos</>
The basic relationship between the belt tensions and t.he
coefficient of friction neglects centrifugal effects and is
given by Eq. F1 is the tension on the tight side 24.5.
1 Allhough the NCEES FE Reference Handbook (NCEES Handbook) (direction of movement); F2 is the tension on the other
uses bold, Eq. 24.2 through Eq. 24.4 arc not vector equations. side. The angle of wrap, 0, must be expressed in radians .

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
P U L L E Y S , C A B L E S , A N D l= R I C T I O N 24-3

## The power transmitted to a belt running at Laugential

velocity v is 1 circumferential
collar support

Example
A rope passes over a fixed sheave, as shown. The Lwo A square screw thread is designated by a 111ean radius, r,
rope ends are parallel. A fixed load on one encl of the pitch, p, and pitch angle, The 7Jitch, p, is t.he dislance
o: .

rope is supported by a constant force on the other encl. between corresponding points on a thread. The lead is

=
The coefCicient. of frict.ion between the rope and the the distance the screw advances each revolution. Often,
sheave is 0. 30. double- and triple-threaded 8Crews are used. The lead is
one, two, or three times the pitch for single-, double-,
P = 2rrr tana
fixed
µ 0.30 and triple-tlueadecl 8Crews, respectively.
sheave

## load Equation 24.6 and Eq. 24.7: Coefficient of

Friction and External Moment
What is most. nearly t.he maximum rat.io of tensile forces
in the two rope ends?
11 = t� rn </> 24.6

Pr lan(a ± /J)r
(A) l . l
(B) 1.2 lvl = 24.7
(C) 1.6
Description
(D) 2.6
The coefficient of friction, µ, between the threads CRn be
Solulion
designated directly or by way of a thread friction angle, ¢.
The torque or external moment, �M. required to turn a

(2 ra<l)
The angle of wrap, B, is 180°, but it. must. be expressed in square screw iu motion against an axial force, P (i.e.,
(J = ( 180° ) 3 0 = rr rad r is the mean tlu·ead radius, Mis the torque on the screw,
rr

## 60 and P is the tensile or cmnpres.5ive force in the screw (i.e.,

Fi = Fz e1'fJ is the loa<l being raised or lowered). The angles are added
Fi for tightening operations; they are subtracted for loo8en­
=
e(o.3o)(n rad) ing. This equation assumes that all of the torque is used
F2
to raise or lower the load.
2.57 (2.6)
In Eq. 24.7, the "+" is used for screw tightening (i.e.,
=

Either side could be the tight side. Therefore, t.he when the load force is opposite in direct.ion of the screw
restraining force could be 2.6 times smaller or larger movement). The "-" is nsed for screw loosening (i.e.,
than the load tension. when the load force is in the same direction as the screw
movement). If the torque is zero or negat.ive (as it would
Tl1e answer is (D). be if the lead is large or friction is low), then the screw is
not self-locking and the load will lower by itself, causing
the screw to spin (i.e, it, will "overhaul"). The screw will
. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . ... ..... . . ... . . .. .. .... . ... .. .. . ..... ... ......... .. ... .
be self-locking when tan :S IL. L\'

A power screw changes angular position into linear The torque calculated in Eq. 24.7 is required to over­
position (i.e., changes rotary motion into traversing come thread friction and Lo raise the load (i.e., axially
motion). The linear positioning can be horizontal (as compress the screw). Typically, only 10-15% of the
in vices and lathes) or vertical (as in a jack). Square, torque goes into axial compression of the screw. The
Acme, and 10-degree modified 8Crew threads are com­ remainder is used to overcome friction. The mechanical
monly used in power screws. A square screw thread is efficiency of the screw is the ratio of torque wit.bout
shown in Fig. 24.4. friction to the torque with friction. The torque without
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
24-4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

friction can be calculated from Eq. 24.7 (or the variation Solu/io11
cquat.ion, depending on t.he Lravcl direction) using c/> 0.
M1=0
=

## The friction angle, ¢, is

= 5.7 1°
11,,, = � ¢ = arctan 11 = arctan 0. 10

## In the absence of an antifriction ring, an additional

torque will be required to overcome friction in the collal'. Use Eq. 24.7. Only the screw !.hrca<l friction ( 17% of the
Since the collar is gen eral l y flat, the norm a 1 force is the

lvl
total torque in this application) contributes to the ten­

P=
jack load for the pmpose of calculatiug the frictional sile force in the bolt. Tl1e force in t.he bolt is
force.

## ( O.O� 111 ) tau(1 5° + 5.71°)

r tan(a + ¢)
E xample (0.17)(18 N-m)

## 17% of this torque is used to overcome screw tluead

The nuts on a collar are each tightened to 18 N·n1 torque.

## friction. The bolts have a nominal diameter of 10 mm. = l619 N ( ! GOO N)

The tlu·eads are a simple square cut with a pitch angle of
15°. The coefficient of friction in the tlU"eads is 0. 10. Tiie answer is (D).

## What is the approximate tensile force in each bolt?

(A) 130 N
(B) 200 N
(C) 410 N
(D) 1600 N

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
1 . Centroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1 Equation 25.1 and Eq. 25.2: First Moment of
2. l'vlomenL of Inertia . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25- 12 an Area in the X·Y Plane 1

L::r,, a ,,
Nomenclature
a subarea ui2 1\[ n11 = 25. 1
a Ieng! h or radius 111
A area rn2
b base 111 25.2

Ill
d distance 111

It

J x dA
height
T moment of inertia 111-1 Variations
4
l, y product of inertia 111
J polar 1110111ent of iuertia ·I
111 My = = L :i;;A;
leuglh Ill
total lengt.h 111
Mr = J yd.A = LY;A;
f.,
m mass kg
!If stfltical moment 1113
Description
II vol ume Ill� L:�c,, a,,
The quantity is known as the first moment. of the
Similarly, L Yn a " is known as the firsl moment of the
v vol u me m

area firsl area moment
or with respect to the y-a."<is.
Symbols area with respect to the :v-axis. Equation 25.l and
B angle deg Eq. 25.2 apply to regular shapes with subareas a,..
The two primary applications of the first moment are
Subscripts
determining centroidal locations and shear stress distri­
a area butions. In the latter application, the first moment of
c ccntroidal the area is known as t.he statical moment.
deg degrees
I line Centroid of Line Segments in the x·y Plane
o origin
polar For a composite line of total length L, the location of the

j x dL
p
rad radians centroid of a line is defined by the following equatio11s.
u vol ume

= --L
-- =
1 . CENTROIDS Xe
L:x;L;
The cent.roid
of an area is often described as the point at L L;

L Y; L;
whjch a thi11, homogeneous plate would balance. This
J y dL
Yc = -L- =
definition, however, combines the definitions of centroid
and center of gravity, and implies gravity is required to
identify the cent.raid, which is not true. Nonetheless, L L;
this definition provides some intuitive understanding of
the centroid. 1
The NCEES FE llefe1·ence Ha11dbuok (NCEES lla11dbook) deviates
from conventional notation in several ways. Q is the most common
Cent.mids of continuous functions can be found by the symbol for the fir.;! area 11 101 11c11t (then referred to as the statical
methods of integral calcuh1s. For most engineering 111ome11t), although symbols S and Al arc also cnco11nlered. To avoid
applications, though, the functions to be integrated are confusion witIi the moment of a force, l he subscript a is used lo
regular shapes such as the rect.angular, circular, or com­ drsignatc the moment of an area. The NGEES Hn11dbook llS<'S n low­
ercase a to designate the area of a subar<'a (instead of 11 ;) . The NCEES
posite rectangular shapes of beams. For these shapes, Hnndbook uses 11 as a sununation variable (instead of i), probably to
simple formulas are readily available and should be indicate that the moment hns to be calculat<xl from all 11 of the
used. subareas that 111akc up l he total nren .

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
25-2 FE M E C H A t� I C A L fl E V I E \'/ M II N U A L

Using t.he NC'EES Jlandbook notation, lhe equations Equation 25.3 Through Eq. 25.S: Centroid of
would be written ns an Area in the x-y Plane 2

25.3

25.4

M,, /A = "L,y,,a,J A
LYrt lll
Ytc = --
L- !10, = 25.5

Example
Variations
Find the approxiuiatc and y-coorclinales of the cen­
t.raid of wire ABC.
:Ii-

A J y dA
Ye = J
\

Description

## The centroid of an area A con1posed of subareas a., (see

Eq. 25.3) is located using Eq. 25.4 and Eq. 25.5. The
location of the centroid of an area depends only on the

## nates (xaci YaJ, or, more conunonly, ( :c,,, y,.).

segment 2 geomet.ry of t.he area, and it is identified by the coordi­
c
x

10 m
Example
{A) 0.43 m; 1.3 m What. are the approximate �� and y-coordinates of t.hc
(B) 0.64 m; 2.8 m centroid of the area shown?
{C) 2.7 m; 1 .5 m
{D) 3.3 m; 2.7 111 y
B ern
5 cm
Solution
The total length of the line is 4 cm
diameter
"L,L; = 12 m + 10 m = 22 m

## The coordinates of the centroid of the line are

1 0 cm

"L,:i: ;L;

;
7 cm
:i;c =
c
"L,L;
- 1 2 n sin 3 0° ) {12 m) + (¥)( lo m)
t:.1
l cm
x
22 Ill
1 cm
= 0.64 Ill

LY; L ;
Ye = � (A) 3.tl cm; 5.6 cm

(
L,, L;
{ 1 2 m)cos 30°
2
)
(12 m) + (0 m){lO m)
(B) 3.5 cm; 5.5 cm
(C) 3.9 cm; 4.4 cm
= --'-- -- ---'- - -- - - - --
22 Ill (D) 3.9 cm; 4.8 cm
= 2.83 m (2.8 m) 2111 Eq. 25.4 and Eq. 25.5, the subscript a is used to designate the
cent roid of an area, but this co11ve11tio11 is largely omitte<l thro11ghout
Tile answer is (B). tltc rl'Sl of the NCEES fla11dbook.

PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T n 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 25-3

Solution Description

Calculate the total area. The centroid of a volume V composed of subvolumes u,,
(see Eq. 25.6) is located using Eq. 2G.7 through Eq. 25.9,
which are analogous to Lhe equatio11s used for cent.raids
of areas aud l i nes .
rr(4 cm) 2
= (8 cm)(lO cm) - A solid body will have both a cent.er of gravity and a
4
centroid, huL the local.ions of these two points will not
- (2 c111)(2 cm) necessarily coincide. The earth's attractive force, which
= 63.43 cm2 is called weight, can be as:;umed to act through the
ce11ter of gravity (also known as the ce11ter of mass).
Find the first moments ahout. the :v-axis and y-axis. Only when the body is homogeneous will the cen troid of
a uolume coincide with the ce11ter of gravity.

## (-rr(4 �mf(7 cm))

J\1o r = L; y11 a 11

+ ( - (2 cm)(4 cm2 ) )
Example
= (5 cm)(80 cm2) +
The structure shown is formed of three separale solid
aluminum cylindrical rods, each wit h a 1 cm diameter.

= 304.03 cm3

1\1!ay = L;xua,.
(4 cm)(80 cm2) + (- (5 cm) G) (4 cm)2)
+ ( - (2 cm)(4 cm 2 ) )
=

10 cm
= 249. 1 7 cm3

## The :v-coordinate of the cent.raid i s

lvlayI A =
24 cm
249.17 cm3
Xe = 2 = 3.93 cm (3.9 cm) x
63.43 cm

## The y-coordinate of the centroid is

What is the approximate :v-coordinate of the centroid of
304.03 cm3 = the structure?
Ye = Iii/ ar / }
I = 4 . 79 cm (4.8 cm)
63 . 43 cm2 (A) 14.0 cm
The answer Is (D). (B) 15.2 cm
(C) 15.9 cm
Equation 25.6 Through Eq. 25.9: Centroid of (D) 16.0 cm
a Volume 3
Solution

## (�) ( 1 cm)2(24 cm) = 18.85 cm3

v = L; 11,, 25. 6 Use Eq. 25.7.

(L::r,. 1111)/ \I

## (�) ( 1 cm)2(10 cm) = 7.85 cm3

:1·1,,. = 25. 7 V1 =

2

## Zt'C = (L;z11u,,)/ \I 25.9 V =

3
G) ( 1 cm)2(26 cm) = 20.42 cm3
V = 18.85 cm3 + 7.85 cm3 + 20.42 cm3
�The NCEES Hnmlbook uses lowercase u to designate the area of a
= 47. 1 2 cm3
suuvolume (instead of I';) . In Eq. 25.7 through Eq. 25.9, the subscript
u is used to designate the centroid of a volume, but. this co11ventio11 is
largely omitted tlLroughout the rest of the NCEES Ha11dbook.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
25-4 F E M E C M A N I C A L A E V I E W M A N U A L

## (2tl 2cm) (18.85 cm3 ) + (24 cm)(7.85 cm3 )

= Cl:::CvcVn) / \I
y k-th
X,.

+(
24 cm ) (20A2 c 3 ) bL
-----1 x
2 m
b
47 . 12 cm3 a rea. and centroid
= 14.0 cm
A = bh/2 25.23

(The rr/4 and area terms all cancel and could have been .t:< = b/3 25.24
omi t.ted.)
Ye = h/3 25.25
area moment of 'inertia
f.r, = blt3/36 25.26
Equation 25. 1 0 Through Eq. 25.50: Centroid
and Area Moments of Inertia for Right I = b:3 h/36
Y
. 25.27

y Iy = IPh/12

I/C
25.29
I
I
/J
x x T''l.
.t,
= h2/18 25.30

## r2y, = b2/18 25.31

area a11d centrnid
r; = h2 /6 25.32
A= bh/2 25. 10
r2!I = b2/6 25.33

## :1;r. = 2b/3 25. 1 1

p1'oduct of ·inertia
Ye = h/3 25. 1 2

## I,.,y, = - A bh/36 = - b2 h2 /72 25.34

area moment of inertia
f,.u = Abh/12 = b2/i2/24 25.35
I,., = bh;3/36 25. 13

y�
Iu, = b311/36 25. 14

## I, = bli°"' /12 25. 15

ly = b3 lt/4 25. 16
b

## ( radius of gyration)2 area and ce11tmid

:c(" = ( a + b)/3
r2x, = h2/18 25. 1 7 A = bh/2 25.36

25.37
r2y, = b2/18 25. 18
Ye = h/3 25.38
r; = h2 /6 25. 19
a rea moment of inertia
r2y = b2/2 25.20
Ir, = bh3 /36 25.39

## fru = Abh/4 = b2/i2/8 25.22 Iy = [bh(b2 + n b + a2)]/12 25.42

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T R 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E A T I A 25-5

a.-xis is
/ '2r, = /i2/J8 25.43

25.44

r; =
= 3.266 cm
112/G 25.45

25.46

## product of inertia = 0.599 cm (0.6 cm)

I ,,,1, = [Ah(2(/ - b)J/36 25.47
25.48

1.,11 = [Alt(2a + b)J/ 12 25.49 Equation 25.51 Through Eq. 25.62: Centroid
and Area Moments of Inertia for Rectangles
25.50

Description •C

x x
Equation 25.10
to Eq. 25.50
give the areas, centroids,
and moments of inertia for triangles.
,___
_ ___,
b

The traditional moments of inertia, I,, and 111 (i.e., the area and cent.raid
second moments of the area), arc always positive. How­
ever, the product of inertia, Ir,y,, listed i n Eq.
negative. Since the product of inertia is calculated as
is 25.34, A = bh 25.51

lzy = L:xiyiA;, where the :ri and Y; are distances from Xt = b/2 25.52

## the composite centroid to the subarea

these distances can be either positive or negative
Ai,
and since
Ye = h/2 25.53

## depending on where the centroid is located, the product

of inertia can be either positive or negative. area moment of inertia

Example
1J = bli3 /3 25.54

## If a triangle has a base of 13

cm and a height of cm, 8 I.i:, = bh3/J2 25.55

## what is most nearly the vertical distance between the

centroid and the radius of gyration about the :zraxis? .] = [bh(b2 +h2)1/12 25.56

(B) 0.6 cm
(C) 0.7 cm
r;= li2/3 25.57

## (D) 0.8 cm r2 = h2/12

:r,
25.58

r2 b2/3= 25.59
Solution !I

From Eq.
location is
25.38, the y-component of the ccntroidal 25.60

prod11ct of inertia
Ye = h/3 = 8-3cm- fr,y,= 0 25. 6 1

= 2.667 cm 25.62

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
25-6 F E M E C H /\ N I C A L R E V I E \'I M A N U A L

Description Description
Equation 25.5 1 lo Eq. 25.62 give the area, centroids, Equation 25.63 through Eq. 25.68 give the area, cen­
and moments of inertia for rectangles. t.mids, and moments of inertia for t.rapezoids.
Example
Example
\Vhat are most nearly Lhc area and they-coorclinate,
A 1 2 cm wide x 8 cm high rectangle is placed such t.hat respectively, of e tr i of the t.rapezoicl shown?
the c n o d
its centroid is located at the origin, (0, 0). What Lhe
is

ll'�D10 om
pe ent g change in the product
rc a e i e ti if the
i rotated 90° co n er
tangle s u t clockw e about rec­
is
of u r a
the origin?
(A) -32% ( d ecrease)
(B) 0%
I I x
(C) 32 % ( in crease ) 1 2 cm
(0) 64% (increase) (A) 95 cm2; 4.6 cm
(Il) 1 10 cnl; 5.4 cm
Solution
(C) 120 cm2; 6. 1 cm
The product of inertia is zero whenever one or more of (D) 140 cm2; 7.2 cm
the reference axes arc Lines of symmetry. In this case,
both axes are lines of symmetry before aud after the
r otati on . From Eq. 25.61, Ir, y, = 0. Solution
The answer is (8). The area of the trapezoid is

## A = h ( a + b)/2 = ( J O cm) ( 7 cm + 12 cm)

2
Equation 25.63 Through Eq. 25.68: Centroid = 95 cm2
and Area Moments of Inertia for Trapezoids
From Eq. 25.64, the y-coordinate of the centroid of the
trapezoid is

/�
J
=-� h(2a + b)
Yc = 3(a + b)
cm)
x
( 10 cm)((2)(7 cm) + 1 2
(3)(7 cm + 12 cm)
= 4.56 cm
area and centroid

=
h(2a + b)
!Jr
25.64
3(o + b)

## area moment of inertia Equation 25.69 Through Eq. 25.80: Centroid

h:i ( a2 + 4 a b + b2)
and Area Moments of Inertia for Rhomboids
J - ---
- - --,---
1', - 36( o + b)
25.65
y

_ h3(3a + b) c.
Ir - 25.66
12
b

=_
area and centroid
h2 (a2 + 4ab + b2)
A = ab sin 8
2 .;,__18(a + b) -'-
____
r
,., 25.67 25.69

2 = -,.--- --- -
�i;,. = ( b + a cos 0)/2 25.70
lt2(3a + b)-,
Yt = (a sin 0)/2
r 25.68
r 6( a + b) 25.71

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T A 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E A T I A 25-7

## area moment. of inertia ( radius of gyration)2

25.72 .2 = r2 = a 2/4
, r, Yt
25.87

## r2I = r2y = 5 a2 /4 25.88

25.74

l,1 = [absiu O(b + a cos0)2 ]/3 - (a21l si n O cosB)/6 ,.2Ji = a2/2 25.89
25.75

prod11ct of inertia
lr,y, = 0
= (a sin 0)2 /12
25.90
r;, 25.76

25. 9 1

## r2!J = ( b + a cosB)2 /3 - (abcos0)/6 25. 79

product, of inertia
x
25.80
area and centroid

Description 25.92

Equation 25.69 through Eq. 25.80 give the area, cen­ =a 25.93
troids, and moments of inertia for rhomboids.
x,.

y,. = a 25.94

## Equation 25.81 Through Eq. 25.1 1 6: Centroid area moment of inertia

and Area Moments of Inertia for Circles4

-�­
� x
25.95
YI

Ix -
- I11 - rr a2b2 - .!!____
urta·I
r: - b'I
x - 25.96
4 4

J = n (r� - ri)/2
I
25.97
m'ea and centroid

Xe = a 25.82
25.98

Ye = a 25.83
25.99

## area moment. of inertia

25. 100
Ix = l,1
r "
= rr a 1 /4 25.84

## l:r:y = Aa2 25. 102

4In Eq. 25.81 through Eq. 25.116, t.he NCEES Handbook designates
t.hc radius of a circle or circular segment as a, rather t.han as the
conventional ,. or R, which me used almost. everywhere else in t.he 25. 103
NCEES Handbook.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
25-8 F E M E C W A N I C A L R E V I E W MANUAL
Solution
The product. of inertia of a circle can be a positive value,

## the axes. The absolute value is zero (i.e., is minimized )

a negative value, or zero, depending on the location of
x x when at leasL one of the axes coincides with a line of

## ing the origin to the center of the circle (a <lista11ce of

synunetry. Although this can be accomplished by mov­

## 5 cm recognizing that this is a 3-4-5 triangle) , a shorter

area and centroid

## A = rra2 /2 25. 104

move results when the y-axis is moved 3 cm to the right.
,t;r = (I 25. 105 Then, l.he y-axis passes through the centroid, which is
sufficient to reduce the product of inertia to zero.
y,. = 4a/3rr 25. 106

## area moment of inertia

Equation 25.1 1 7 Through Eq. 25.1 25:
_ o4(9rr2 - 64) Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for
I r, - 25. 107 Circular Sectors
72rr

�­
� x
y�
1v, = rra4 /8 25. 108

## l 1 = rra.J./8 25. 109

1 !1 = 5rra4/8 25. 1 10

## area and centroid

--B
A = 010 25. 1 1 7

a2(9rr2 - 64)
25. 1 1 1
:G" = 2Ja sin
f) 25. 1 18
36rr2
Yc = 0 25. 1 19
r2 = a 2 /4 25. 1 12

;
y,

sin B cos B) / 4
area moment of inertia

=a
r = o2/4

r� = 5 n2/4
25. 1 13
a'1(B -

## + sin fJ cos fJ) /11

I;, = 25. 120
25. 1 14
I y 4 ( fJ 25. 121

## product of ine1-t-ia (radius of gyration) 2

I,,y, = 0 25. 1 15 r2
'=-
a2 (B - s i n O co s B)
-'--------'- 25. 122
4 f)
lr11 = 2a� /3 25. 1 1 6
2 a2 (0 + si n 0 cos0)
rv = 4
0
25. 123

Description
product of inertia
Equation 25.81 to Eq. 25. 1 1 6 give the area, centroids,
and moments of inertia for circles. 25. 124

25. 125
Example

## (x, y) = (3 cm, 4 cm) . �viost nearly, what is the minimum

The center of a circle with a radius of 7 cm is located at Description
distance that the origin of the :ir and y-axes would have Equation 25 . 1 1 7 through Eq. 25.125 give the area, cen­
to be moved in order to reduce the product of inertia to troids, and moments of inertia for circular sectors. In

(A )
its smallest absolute value? order to incorporate fJ into the calculations, as is done
for some of the circular sector equations, the angle must
3 cm be expressed in radians.
(B) 4 cm
(C) 5 cm
(D) 7 cm

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T Fl 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 25-9

e
Example
A grassy parcel of laud shaped like a rhombus has
adjaceut sides measuring 50 m and 1 20 m with a 65° 2
r:r
o2 1
=4 [
-
2 sin3 cos e
38 - 3 siu B cos B ] 25. 131

[i ]
included angle. A small, straight creek runs between the
opposing acute corners. A goat is humanely tied to the
bank of the creek at one of the acute corners by a 110 m 2
r =
a2 + 2 siu3 rJ cos (J 25. 132
long rope. \Vithout crossing the creek, most nearly, on !I
4 0 - sin O cos O
what area of grass can the goat graze?
(A) 450 m2 ]Jl'oducl of inertia
(B) 710 m2 25. 133

## (C) 910 Ill2 fry = 0 25. 134

(D) 26 000 m2

Description
Solution

( ) (�)
Equation 25.126 through Eq. 25. 1311 give the area, cen­
The creek bisects the 65° angle. The goat sweeps out a
troids, and moments of inertia for circular segments .
circular sector wit.h a 40 m radius.
65°
swept angle 2 Equation 25. 1 35 Through Eq. 25.145:
0= = = 0.2 836 rad
2 2 360° Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for
Parabolas
Use Eq. 25. 1 1 7. The swept area is

## area and centroid

Equation 25.1 26 Through Eq. 25.1 34:
Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for A = 4ab/3 25. 135
Circular Segments
Xe = 3a/5 25. 136

Ye =
y
0 25. 137

c
area moment of inertia
''
x I,., = I,. = 4ab3/15 25. 138
'

[e ;�
ly, = 1 6a:1b/175

4aa bI7
25.139
area and centroid
ly = 25. 140
si1 2
A = a2 _
25. 126

e

## 3 e - sin cos e r2r, = rI2 = b2/5

2a sin3 e
:i;r = 25. 127
25. 14 1

Ye = 0 25.128 r� = 12a2/175
,
25. 142

## area moment of inertia r2" = 3a2/7

e
[
25. 143

!,. = -
Aa2
4
2 sin3 BcosB
30 - 3 sin cos e
1 - ------
J 25. 129 vrodttct of ·inertia
l:r,y, = 0
e - sm l;cy = 0
25. 144

. e cos e
J
A a2 [ + 2 sin3 BcosB
.=
I ,, 1 25.130
4 25.145

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
25-10 F E M E C H I\ N I C I\ L R E V I E W M A N U A L

## Description area moment of inertia

n 25.136 =
t.Equati
roids, oand momentthrough ertia25.for145parabol
.s of inEq. give the
as. area, ce11- IL 2nl/'/15 25. 149

## Iv= 2ba 7 �1 25. 150

Example
The entrance frwith
eewaya to28amcitbase
y passes under amdecorati vAe ( m dius of gyration) 2

, ; = 1,2
paraboli
famous c arch and a 200 hei g ht.
/5
h. e citytheillusionist con(, actsbehind
the ciatycurtai
with na draped
plan to clown
make . 25. 151

r� = a2 /7
tfrom diarch.
sappear from
1f theng,drape spans theandentirereinwidth and 3 25. 152

pl'Ochicf, of ineitia
height
ihow
ncrease of the openi and if scams forcement
by 15%, most nearly,
muchthedrapery
materialfabri
requic wirements
l be needed?
(A) 3700 m2 lr,1 = Aab/4 a2b2
= 25. 153

(B) 4300 m2
(C) 7500 m2 Description
(D) 8600 ni2
Solution troids, and25.moments
Equation 146 through Eq. 25.for153scmigivpearabol
of inertia the area,
as. cen­
b is half of the width of the arch. Example
.\'hat is most nearly the area of the shaded section
\above
b = 282111 = 14 m the parabolic curve shown?
y 7 cm
Eq. 25.135.theIncluding
reiUsenforcement, requiredtheareaalliowance
s for seams all(!
A = (1 + allowance)- 4ab3
= (1+0.15) ((4) (200 3m) 14 m))
3 cm
( x
=4293 m2 4300 m2) ( (A) 7 cm2
(B) 9 cm2
The answer Is (B). (C) 11 cm2
(D) 14 cm2
Equation 25.1 46 Through Eq. 25.153:
Solution
Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for
Semiparabolas
From isEq. 25.146, the semiparabolic area below the
curve
A - 2ab/3 - (2)(3 cm)(7
3 cm)
_

= 14
_
below

cm2
area and centroid The shaded area above the parabolic curve is
A= 2ab/3 25. 146 Anbovc = A - Abctow = (7 cm)(3 cm) - 14 crn2
Xe = 3a/5 25. 147 7 cm2
=

## y,, = 3b/8 25. 148

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T R 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 25- 1 1

## spandrel. The height is h = :iJI= (3 cm) 3 = 27 cm. Th e :ir

Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for Treal cc as the base and y as the height. n is 3 for this
General Spandrels (nth Degree Parabolas)
and y-coordiuates, respectively, are

( 1) ( ) =
n+
v

(3 cm)
3+ 1
Xe = b= 2.4 cm
n+2 3+2

## ( IT'e<i and centroid

b
y
, � m (;�:1 ) (27,c"') ( �;�
1 �
( ) 2 ( 1

A = bh/( 11 + 1)
--
= 7.714 cm (7.7 cm)
25. 1 54

n+l
·c - b 25. 155 The answer is (DJ.
. ,. 11 + 2

y =h n+l
25.156
,. 2 211 + 1
Equation 25.1 61 Through Eq. 25.167:

---­
Centroids and Area Moments of Inertia for
area mom en/. of inertia
nth Degree Parabolas
bh 3

-
I - 25.157 v = (11/bl/n)xlln
r - 3(3n + 1 ) V

f, = h b-
3
25. 158
n+3
x
y

b

r = - .;____
__ _
area and centroid
2

A = -- bh
2 h (n + l)

11 + 1
25. 159
r 3(3n + l ) n
25. 161

,.
2 = 11 + 1 b2 25. 160
n+l
Y n+3 X = b 25. 162
e 2n + 1
11 + 1
Description Y = h 25. 163
r 2(n + 2)

..
Equation 25.154 through Eq. 25.160 give the area, cen­
troids, and moments of inertia for general spandrels. area moment of inertia
n
Example I = bh3 25. 164
3(11 + 3)
nates of the centroid of the shaded area between x = 0
For the curve y= x3 , what are the approximate coordi­
I = _1_- 1 b3 h 25. 165
and x = 3 cm? Y 3n + l

,:z
= 7l + 1
h2 25. 166
.i: 3(n + 1)

3 cm x r2 = n + 1 b2 25. 167
Y 3n+ 1
(A) 1.6 cm; 7.8 cm
(B) 1.8 cm; 5.8 cm Description
(C) 2.0 cm; 18 cm
Equation 25.161 through Eq. 25.167 give the area, cen­
(D) 2.4 cm; 7.7 cm troids, and moments of inertia for nth degree parabolas.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
25- 12 F E M E C II A N I C A L n E V I E \'I M A N U A L

Equation 25.168: Centroid of a Volume Eq. 25.170, it. is apparent why the moment of inertia is
also known as the second m0111ent of the area or second
al"ea momenl.

Descript ion
Equation 25. 1 71 and Eq. 25.1 72:
Equation 25.168 provides a convenient met.hod of locat­ Perpendicular Axis Theorem
ing the centroid of an object that consists of several
isolated component. masses. The masses do 11ot have to
be contiguous and ca11 be distributed throughout space.
[t is implicit that the vectors that terminate at t.hc
I z = .J = f,1 + I, - J (.1:2 + J/)dA 25. 1 7 1

## These vectors have the form of 1:,i + rJ + rzk. The cud

submasses' ce11troids are based at the origiu, (0, 0, 0). I = r2A
,.
25. 172

## coordiuates, ( r,.J, l'cyi rr:) ·

origin, the vector components can be interpreted as
le = Ix, + I y,

Descript ion
2. MOMENT OF INERTIA Tbe polar momenl of 'inel"lia, J or I., is required in
torsional shear stress calculations. It can be thought of
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... ..., _ , , ,................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,

## The moment. of inertia, I, of an area is needed i11 n1ech­

anics of materials problems. It is convenient to think of as a measure of an area's resistance to torsion (twisting).
the moment of i11crtia of a beam's cross-sectio11al area as The definition of a polar 1noment of inertia of a two­
a measure of the beam's ability to resist bending. Given dimensional area requires three dimensions because Lhe
equal loads, a beam with a small mome11t of i11ertia will reference axis for a polar moment of inertia of a plane
bend more than a beam with a large moment of inert.in. area is perpendicular to the plane area.
Since t.he moment of inertia represents a resistance to The polar moment of inertia can be derived from
bending, it is always positive. Since a beam can be Eq. 25. 171.
asymmetric in cross section (e.g., a rectangular beam) It is often easier to use the perpendicular axis theorem
and be stronger in one direction than another, the to quickly calculate the polar moment of inertia.
moment of inertia depends 011 orientation. A reference
axis or direction must be specified. Perpendicular axis theorem: The moment of iuertia of a
plane area about an axis normal to the plane is equal to
The symbol I,, is used Lo represent a moment of inertia the sum of the moments of inertia about any two
with respect to the x-axis. Similarly, ly is the moment of mutually perpendicular axes lying in the plane a1 1d
inertia with respect to tbe y-ax_is. I,, and fy do not passing through the given axis.
combine and are not components of some resultant
moment of inertia. Since t.he two perpendicular a,"Xes can be chosen arbi­
trarily, it is most convenient to use the cent.roidal
Any axis can be chosen as the reference ax.is, and the moments of inertia, as shown in the variation equation.
value of the moment of inertia will depend on the refer­
ence selected. The moment of inertia taken with respect Example
to an axis passing through the area's centroid is !mown

## centroidal moment of inertia is the sm; llest p�ssible

as the ce11troidal momenl of ine1tia, Ir or fy . The For the composite plane area made up of two circles as
shown, the moment of ine1tia about the y-axis is
moment of inertia for the area. 4.7 cm'1 , and the moment of inert.ia about the x-axis is
23.5 cm4•

## Equation 25.169 and Eq. 25.1 70: Second

Moment of the Area

x

## Ir = J y2rJA 25. 170

Description
Integration can be used to calculate the moment of
inertia of a function that is bounded by the :v- and y­
axes and a curve y=J(x). From Eq. 25.169 and

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T fl 0 I 0 S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 25-13

## \.\lhat. is the approximate polar moment. of inertia of the Example

area takeu about t.he intersection of the '.i'- an<l y-axcs? The moment of iuert.ia about the '.i!-axis of the cross
0 section shown is 334 000
cm' 1 • The cross-sectional area
(n)
(A) cm-1
1'1 cm'1
8G
is cm2, and the thicknesses of Lhe web an<l t.lte flanges
arc the same.
(C) 28 Clll-1
(D) 34 cm' 1

## Solution --t 40cm

Use the perpendicular axis theorem, as given by
Eq. 25.171 . x centroi
axisdal x
J = I 11 + Ir
= 4.7 crn·1 +
23.5
(
crn·1
= 28.2 28
cm4 cm'1 )
40 cm

x' x'
Equation 25. 1 73 and Eq. 25.1 74: Parallel
Axis Theorem \Vhat. is most nearly t.he moment of iuertia about the
cent.roidal axis?

## 25. 1 73 (A) 2.4 x 10' 1 cm·1

25. 1 74
(B) 7.4 x lff1 cm'1
(C) 2.0 1055x cm-1
Description
If the moment of inertia is kJ1owJJ with respect to one
(D) G.4 10 x cm4

## axis, the moment of inertia with respect to another, Solution

parallel axis can be calculate<l from the parallel axis
theorem, also known as the transfer axis theorem. This
t!Jeorem is use<l to evaluate tile moment of inertia of
Use Eq. 3.79.
troidal axis is
The moment of inertia around the cen­

- u;A
areas that are composed of two or more basic shapes. d
is the distance between the centroidal axis and the

## 334 000 - 86 2)(40 + 402 )

/� = Ix, + d� A
second, parallel axis.
Ir, = I�

-cm
-
The second term iu Eq. 25.173
and Eq.
much larger than the first term in each equation, since
25. 1 74
is often
= cm,1 ( cm cm
2
areas close to the centroidal ax.is do not affect the
moment of inertia considerably. This principle is
exploited in the design of strnctural steel shapes that
= 24 400 10
cm'1 (2.4 x '1 cm'1)

## <lerive bending resistance from fla nges located far from

t.he cent.roidal axis. The web does not contribute signifi­
cantly to the moment of inertia. (See Fig. l.) 25.
Figure 25. 1 Structural Steel Shape Equation 25. 1 75 Through Eq. 25.1 77: Radius
of Gyration

## 1 ':r = /Ir / A 25. 1 75

/f;JA
axis
- ---
centroidal ___ _ r11 25. 176
=

JJTA
rr = 25. 1 77

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
25- 14 F E M E C M A N I C A L A E V I E W M A N U A L

horizontal axis passing through t.he cenLroid?
(A) 0.86 cm
rJI2 = ,.,£2 + r2!J (B) l. 7 Clll
(C) 2.3 cm
Descrlptlori (D) 3.7 cm
Every nontrivial area has a centroidal moment of iner­
tia. Usually, some portions of the area are close to the
centroidal a.xis, and other portions are farther away.
Solu/1011
The radius of gymt.io11, r, is an imaginmy distance from The area is
tlle ccntroidal axis at which the entire area can be
assumed to exist without changing the moment of iner­ A = (2 cm)(4 cm) + (2 cm)(6 cm ) =
20 cm 2
not limited to circular shapes or polar a.xes. This concept
is illustrated in Fig. 25.2. By defmition, the radius of g}1ration is calculated with
respect to the centroidal axis. From Eq. 25.175,
Figure
area = b/1 .
25.2 Radius of Gyration of Two Equivalent Areas
57.209cm'1
cm)

1 70 (1. 7
area = b/J
.jJJ)A =
cm2
Tr = ---- = Clll

## -----��"1;' :-�:.-:1 :.�-:.� i-=-�-_-_-=--=-_-_�}x

x
Equation 25.178 and Eq. 25. 1 79: Product of
Inertia
b
l:ry = J xydA 25. 178
The radius of gyration, r, is given by Eq. and 25.175
Eq. The analogous quantity in the polar system
25.176.
is calculated using Eq. 25.177. 25. 1 79

## Just as the polar moment of inertia, can be calculated J,

from the two rectangular moments of inertia, the polar Desctipt ion
radius of gyration can be calculated from the two rec­
The product of inertia, I1y, of a two-dimensional area is
tangular radii of gyration, as shown in the second varia­
found by multiplying each differential element of area
tion equation.
by its :l.i- and y-coordinate and then summing over the
entire area.
Example
For the shape shown, the centroidal moment of inertia The product of inertia is zero when either axis is an axis
about the ;i'-axis is cm4 . of symmetry. Since the a.-xes can be chosen arbitrarily,

yl--
57.9 the area may be in one of the negative quadrants, and
the product of inertia may be negative.

l� :J: l 2 cm
6 cm
The transfer theorem for products of inertia is given by
�-----�
IE
Eq. 25. 1 79.(Both axes are allowed to move to new
F
positions.) dz and dy are the distances to the centroid
i n the new coordinate system, and Ix' Ye is the centroidal
product of inertia in the old system.

1-----1 x
2 cm

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m