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NEET 2018

BIOLOGY CRASH COURSE


Biomentors Classes Online, Mumbai
KEYNOTES – ANIMAL KINGDOM (Vertebrates)
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1. Phylum – Chordata
Ø Fundamentally characterised by the presence of à
• a notochord,
• a dorsal hollow nerve cord and
• paired pharyngeal gill slits
Ø Bilaterally symmetrical,
Ø Triploblastic,
Ø Coelomate
Ø Organ-system level of organisation.
Ø Possess a post anal tail
Ø Closed circulatory system.
2. Phylum Chordata is divided into three subphyla:
Ø Urochordata or Tunicata,
Ø Cephalochordata
Ø Vertebrata.
3. Subphyla Urochordata + Cephalochordata à Protochordates
Ø Exclusively marine.
4. In Urochordata à Notochord is present only in larval tail
Ø Examples: Urochordata – Ascidia, Salpa, Doliolum;
5. In Cephalochordata à Notochord extends from head to tail region and is persistent
throughout their life.
Ø Examples: Cephalochordata – Branchiostoma (Amphioxus or Lancelet).
6. The members of subphylum Vertebrata
Ø Possess notochord during the embryonic period.
Ø The notochord is replaced by a cartilaginous or bony vertebral column in the
adult.
Ø “all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates”
Ø Besides the basic chordate characters,
• vertebrates have a ventral muscular heart with two, three or four
chambers,
• kidneys for excretion and osmoregulation and
• paired appendages which may be fins or limbs.
7. Class – Cyclostomata
Ø All are ectoparasites on some fishes.
Ø Elongated body bearing 6-15 pairs of gill slits for respiration.
Ø Cyclostomes have a sucking and circular mouth without jaws
Ø Their body is devoid of scales and paired fins.
Ø Cranium and vertebral column are cartilaginous.
Ø Circulation is of closed type.
Ø Cyclostomes are marine but migrate for spawning to fresh water.
Ø After spawning, within a few days, they die.
Ø Their larvae, after metamorphosis, return to the ocean.
Ø Examples: Petromyzon (Lamprey) and Myxine (Hagfish).
8. Class – Chondrichthyes
Ø Marine animals
Ø Streamlined body
Ø Cartilaginous endoskeleton
Ø Mouth is located ventrally.
Ø Notochord is persistent throughout life.
Ø Gill slits are separate and without operculum (gill cover).
Ø The skin is tough, containing minute placoid scales.
Ø Teeth are modified placoid scales which are backwardly directed.
Ø Their jaws are very powerful.
Ø These animals are predaceous.
Ø Due to the absence of air bladder, they have to swim constantly to avoid
sinking.
Ø Heart is two-chambered (one auricle and one ventricle).
Ø Some of them have electric organs (e.g., Torpedo) and some possess poison
sting (e.g., Trygon).
Ø They are cold-blooded (poikilothermous) animals, i.e., they lack the capacity
to regulate their body temperature.
Ø Sexes are separate.
Ø In males pelvic fins bear claspers.
Ø They have internal fertilisation and many of them are viviparous.
Ø Examples:
• Scoliodon (Dog fish),
• Pristis (Saw fish),
• Carcharodon (Great white shark),
• Trygon (Sting ray).
9. Class – Osteichthyes
Ø both marine and fresh water fishes
Ø Bony endoskeleton.
Ø Streamlined Body.
Ø Mostly terminal mouth
Ø Four pairs of gills ; covered by an operculum on each side.
Ø Skin is covered with cycloid/ctenoid scales.
Ø Air bladder is present which regulates buoyancy.
Ø Heart is two chambered (one auricle and one ventricle).
Ø They are cold-blooded animals.
Ø Sexes are separate.
Ø Fertilisation is usually external.
Ø They are mostly oviparous and development is direct.
Ø Examples:
• Marine – Exocoetus (Flying fish), Hippocampus (Sea horse);
• Freshwater – Labeo (Rohu), Catla (Katla), Clarias (Magur);
• Aquarium – Betta (Fighting fish), Pterophyllum (Angel fish).
10. Class – Amphibia (Gr., Amphi : dual, bios, life)
Ø Live in aquatic as well as terrestrial habitats
Ø Most of them have two pairs of limbs.
Ø Body is divisible into head and trunk.
Ø Tail may be present in some.
Ø The amphibian skin is moist (without scales).
Ø The eyes have eyelids.
Ø A tympanum represents the ear.
Ø Alimentary canal, urinary and reproductive tracts open into a common
chamber called cloaca which opens to the exterior.
Ø Respiration is by gills, lungs and through skin.
Ø The heart is three chambered (two auricles and one ventricle).
Ø These are cold-blooded animals.
Ø Sexes are separate.
Ø Fertilisation is external.
Ø They are oviparous and development is indirect.
Ø Examples:
• Bufo (Toad),
• Rana (Frog),
• Hyla (Tree frog),
• Salamandra (Salamander),
• Ichthyophis (Limbless amphibia)
11. Class – Reptilia
Ø Creeping or crawling mode of locomotion (Latin, reptum, to creep or crawl).
Ø Mostly terrestrial animals
Ø Body is covered by dry and cornified skin, epidermal scales or scutes
Ø Do not have external ear openings.
Ø Tympanum represents ear.
Ø Limbs, when present, are two pairs.
Ø Heart is usually three-chambered, but four-chambered in crocodiles.
Ø Reptiles are poikilotherms.
Ø Snakes and lizards shed their scales as skin cast.
Ø Sexes are separate.
Ø Fertilisation is internal.
Ø They are oviparous and development is direct.
Ø Examples:
• Chelone (Turtle),
• Testudo (Tortoise),
• Chameleon (Tree lizard),
• Calotes (Garden lizard),
• Crocodilus (Crocodile),
• Alligator (Alligator).
• Hemidactylus (Wall lizard),
• Poisonous snakes –
o Naja (Cobra), Bangarus (Krait), Vipera (Viper).
12. Class – Aves
Ø The characteristic features à Presence of feathers
Ø Most of them can fly except flightless birds (e.g., Ostrich).
Ø They possess beak
Ø The forelimbs are modified into wings.
Ø The hind limbs generally have scales and are modified for walking, swimming
or clasping the tree branches.
Ø Skin is dry without glands except the oil gland at the base of the tail.
Ø Endoskeleton is fully ossified (bony)
Ø Long bones are hollow with air cavities (pneumatic).
Ø The digestive tract of birds has additional chambers, the crop and gizzard.
Ø Heart is completely four chambered.
Ø They are warm-blooded (homoiothermous) animals, i.e., they are able to
maintain a constant body temperature.
Ø Respiration is by lungs.
Ø Air sacs connected to lungs supplement respiration.
Ø Sexes are separate.
Ø Fertilisation is internal.
Ø They are oviparous and development is direct.
Ø Examples :
• Corvus (Crow),
• Columba (Pigeon),
• Psittacula (Parrot),
• Struthio (Ostrich),
• Pavo (Peacock),
• Aptenodytes (Penguin),
• Neophron (Vulture).
13. Class – Mammalia
Ø Found in a variety of habitats – polar ice caps, deserts, mountains, forests,
grasslands and dark caves.
Ø Adapted to fly or live in water.
Ø The most unique mammalian characteristic is the presence of milk producing
glands (mammary glands) by which the young ones are nourished.
Ø They have two pairs of limbs, adapted for walking, running, climbing,
burrowing, swimming or flying
Ø The skin of mammals is unique in possessing hair.
Ø External ears or pinnae are present.
Ø Different types of teeth are present in the jaw.
Ø Heart is four chambered.
Ø They are homoiothermous.
Ø Respiration is by lungs.
Ø Sexes are separate
Ø Fertilisation is internal.
Ø They are viviparous with few exceptions
Ø Development is direct.
Ø Examples:
• Oviparous-
o Ornithorhynchus (Platypus);
• Viviparous –
o Macropus (Kangaroo),
o Pteropus (Flying fox),
o Camelus (Camel),
o Macaca (Monkey),
o Rattus (Rat),
o Canis (Dog),
o Felis (Cat),
o Elephas (Elephant),
o Equus (Horse),
o Delphinus (Common dolphin),
o Balaenoptera (Blue whale),
o Panthera tigris (Tiger),
o Panthera leo (Lion).