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Characterization of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite reinforced with B4C & Al2O3

Chapter Number: 1

Chapter Title: Introduction & Definition

1. INTRODUCTION:

Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites (PRAMC) have received considerable attention because of their high specific strength, high specific modulus, low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) value and good wear resistance. The PRAMCs were usually produced by powder metallurgy and casting route. Stir casting techniques have advantage over other methods by eliminating the segregation typical of blending. So stir casting the mixture to achieve the homogenous distribution of reinforcement into base alloy became a key step of stir casing process. Fluid stir casting became an effective way to improve reinforcement distribution throughout the matrix. Some research works show that reinforcements such as SiC particles can be successfully incorporated into aluminium matrix using Fluid stir casting technique. The property of composites was improved by the uniform distribution of reinforcement and the refinement of sub-grain size. Boron Carbide (B4C) has many attractive properties, such as low specific gravity, high hardness value, high elastic modulus value and neutron absorption, which help B4C to be widely used as cermets and armour materials. As a promising reinforcement of PRAMC, B4C received little attentions over its counterparts such as SiC and Al2O3. From limited information of B4C reinforced aluminium matrix composites, there are several research works mainly focused on the wettability and chemical reaction between aluminium and boron carbide. Hu et al analyzed the micro-structure and interface of B4C/Al composites fabricated by Boralyn process, but the data of mechanical property about the composites are not reported yet. This paper aims to analyze the composition of B4C/Al and Al2O3/Al composites during Fluid stir casting and the mechanical property of the composites prepared by Fluid stir casting technique. We explore a method to produce the B4C and Al2O3 particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites by Fluid stir casting technique.

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Chapter Number: 2

Chapter Title: Objectives and scope

  • 2. Objective and scope of the project work:

    • 2.1 Scope:

      • 1. Reinforcement of Boron carbide, Boron nitride, Alumina with various compositions into the Aluminium parent metal to enhance the mechanical properties and component life

      • 2. To come up with a new type of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite with higher wear resistance and strength than the existing one.

      • 3. To use the obtained Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite to manufacture the important component of the Washing machine.

        • 2.2 Objectives:

          • 1. To create a composition of special alloy grade to meet the multiple choice of advantages in various industries

          • 2. To prepare the specimens of the same composite with various % compositions

          • 3. To subject the specimens for various tests

          • 4. To compare the results with the existing composite

            • 2.3 Objective tree:

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Fig. 1 Objective tree Chapter Number: 3 Chapter Title: Literature

Fig. 1 Objective tree

Chapter Number: 3

Chapter Title: Literature review

  • 3. Literature review:

    • 1. Title: Production of Boron Carbide Reinforced 2024 Aluminium Matrix Composites by Mechanical Alloying Authors: Cun-Zhu Nie1, Jia-Jun Gu1, Jun-Liang Liu2 and Di Zhang1;* Aluminium and B4C powders were mechanically alloyed in planetary milling apparatus. The AISI 304L milling vial and balls were selected as the milling medium. Milling parameters were selected as follows: ball to powder ratio 20 : 1, sun-disk rotation speed 250 rpm, planetary-disk rotation speed 420 rpm, with Argon atmosphere protection, and with stearic acid (CH3 (CH2) 16CO2H) addition as process control agent (PCA). The B4CP/2024Al composite mixtures which milled 5hrs were loaded into a steel die and cold pressed at 400 MPa, hot-pressed at 570ºc with a pressure of 300 MPa, so a billet with a diameter of 38mm and a height of 50mm was obtained. The hot press billet then hot-extruded at 480ºc by an extrusion ratio of 10:1 used the graphite as lubricant. The monolithic 2024 alloy has an exact hot consolidation process similar to composite as a reference.

2.

Title:

Individual

and

Combined

Effect

of

Reinforcements

on

Stir

Cast

Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites-A Review

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Authors:

Gowri Shankar M.C*a, Jayashree P.Ka, Raviraj Shettya, Achutha Kinia and

Sharma S.Sa

As for the reinforcement, the materials used are typically ceramics since they provide a very desirable combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. The reinforcement is to provide increased stiffness and strength to the unreinforced matrix, ceramic particles with their large elastic modulus and high strength are ideal as the reinforcing particles. Many of the ceramic particles of interest are thermodynamically unstable when they are in contact with pure metals, and will react to form reaction compounds at the interface between the particles and the surrounding matrix.

  • 3. Processing of Boron Carbide-Aluminium Composites

Authors: Aleksander J. Pyzik* and llhan A. Aksay*

BORON CARBIDE (B4C) is a very hard (9.5+ in Mohs scale), low specific gravity (2.52), covalent ceramic that offers distinct advantages for applications involving neutron absorption, wear resistance, and impact resistance. The extreme sensitivity of B4C to brittle fracture (K=3.7MPa * m"2) and the difficulties associated with fabricating fully dense microstructures are serious limitations, however. By using certain additives (e.g., graphite), B4C sintered at high temperatures (>2000c) can produce microstructures with a high density (98.2 % of theoretical density) Full density is usually achieved through costly hot pressing technique; however, even in a fully dense form, the sensitivity of boron carbide to brittle fracture remains a major limitation.

  • 4. Title:

Mechanical behavior of Aluminium based metal matrix composites

reinforced with SiC and Alumina

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Authors: Pulkit Bajaj

According to the type of reinforcement, the fabrication techniques can vary considerably. From the contributions of several researchers, some of the techniques for the development of these composites are stir casting/ Compocasting (Y.H. Seo et al 1999), powder metallurgy (X. Yunsheng et al 1998), spray atomization and co- deposition (C.G. Kang et al 1997), plasma spraying (Y.H. Seo et al 1995) and squeeze- casting (S. Zhang et al 1998). The above processes are most important of which, liquid metallurgy technique has been explored much in these days. This involves incorporation of ceramic particulate into liquid aluminium melt and allowing the mixture to solidify.

Chapter Number: 4

Chapter Title: Methodology

4. Methodology:

4.1 Production:

According to the literature there exists many reinforcement techniques through which the Aluminium matrix can be reinforced to obtain better performance. The reinforcement techniques such as Squeeze casting, Powder blending, Fluid stir casting techniques are usually implemented to reinforce B4C/Al2O3. In this project, Fluid stir casting is used to reinforce.

  • 4.1.1 Squeeze casting

The main technological issue in the development of new pressure assisted casting processes is related to the increase of the holding pressure during the alloy solidification. In fact, it is evident that, by increasing the pressure, the overall quality of the casting generally increases in terms of a smoother surface, lower porosity and higher mechanical properties. This is possible by a technique called Squeeze casting. For aluminium alloys, the application of a holding pressure during cooling plays a very important role in defining casting properties. A significant fine microstructure and higher mechanical properties were measured in terms of hardness and Tensile strength also for aluminium matrix composites, a positive effect of the applied pressure was observed for mechanical properties, since the capital cost of squeeze casting is high, it is not a right choice for this project.

  • 4.1.2 Powder blending

Powder metallurgy (P/M) takes a metal powder with specific attributes of size, shape, and packing, and then converts it into a strong, precise, high performance shape. Key steps include the shaping or compaction of the powder and the subsequent thermal bonding of the particles by sintering. The process effectively uses automated operations with low relative

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energy consumption, high material utilization, and low capital costs. An important benefit of P/M is the ability to fabricate high quality, complex parts to close tolerances in an economical manner.

These characteristics make powder metallurgy well aligned with current concerns about productivity, energy, and raw materials. Further, powder metallurgy is a flexible manufacturing process capable of delivering a wide range of new materials and their mechanical properties. That creates several unique niche applications for P/M such as wear resistant composites. Since this process has several steps to be carried out in order to make the specimens, it is not recommended for this project.

4.1.3 Fluid stir casting.

Manufacturing of aluminium alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Stir casting is a liquid state method of composite materials fabrication, in which a Dispersed phase (ceramic particles, short fibres) is mixed with a molten matrix metal by means of Mechanical stirring. The liquid composite material is then cast by conventional casting methods and may also be processed by conventional Metal forming technologies.

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING energy consumption, high material utilization, and low capital costs. An
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING energy consumption, high material utilization, and low capital costs. An

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

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4.2 Fabrication:

  • 1. The raw materials are ordered and procured according to the requirement. Boron carbide (50gms) and Aluminium oxide (50gms).

  • 2. A survey on Facilities for conducting the casting and testing processes in the locality was made and proper contact between the industrial experts was built.

  • 3. Patterns required for casting the specimen are prepared using wood and plastic pipes.

  • 4. Casting specimen are made by “fluid stir casting technique”. As explained below:

Fluid stir casting:

Aluminium matrix was prepared by mixing the various metals in the form of powder as listed in the characterization chart. A 500gms Aluminium matrix of each proposed composition was prepared. The prepared matrix was heated to around 800ºc and reinforcement metal was heated in a small crucible to its melting point separately. The molten reinforcement metal was reinforced by continuously stirring the molten Aluminium matrix with the mechanical stirring equipment. The required shape and sized mould was made ready and the reinforced molten metal was poured into the mould. After the mould attained the room temperature, required specimens were obtained.

  • 5. The specimen obtained from the fluid stir casting are subjected to machining to obtain the required shape for tensile and wear tests.

4.3 Testing:

Components of each composition are produced. The casted components are subjected to various tests recommended for this project such as, tensile test and wear test. The obtained results are thus compared with the existing LM-24 Aluminium alloy.

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Chapter Number: 5

Chapter Title: Testing & Results

5. Testing:

5.1 Tensile test:

Tensile testing, also known as tension testing, is a fundamental materials science test in which a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until failure. The results from the test are commonly used to select a material for an application, for quality control, and to predict how a material will react under other types of forces. Properties that are directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area. From these measurements the following properties can also be determined: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield strength, and strain-hardening characteristics. Uniaxial tensile testing is the most commonly used for obtaining the mechanical characteristics of isotropic materials. For anisotropic materials, such as composite materials and textiles, biaxial tensile testing is required.

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Chapter Number: 5 Chapter Title: Testing & Results 5. Testing:

Fig. 4

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Observations:

  • 5.1.1 LM-24

Initial length – 198mm

Final length – 200mm

Gauge length – 58mm (before deformation)

Gauge length - 58mm (after deformation)

Gauge diameter – 12.8mm

Tensile strength – 97.9 N/mm²

  • 5.1.2 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 5% Boron carbide

Initial length – 198mm

Final length – 200mm

Gauge length – 60.8mm (before deformation)

Gauge length - 60.6mm (after deformation)

Gauge diameter – 12.76

Tensile strength – 88.357 N/mm²

  • 5.1.3 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 2.5% Alumina

Initial length – 197mm

Final length – 200mm

Gauge length – 60mm (before deformation)

Gauge length - 60mm (after deformation)

Gauge diameter – 12.63mm

Tensile strength – 108.53 N/mm²

  • 5.1.4 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 2.5% Boron carbide

Initial length – 198mm

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Final length – 200mm

Gauge length – 55.4mm (before deformation)

Gauge length – 56.2mm (after deformation)

Gauge diameter – 12.82mm

Tensile strength – 100.54 N/mm²

5.1.5 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 5% Alumina

Initial length – 199mm

Final length – 200mm

Gauge length – 56.3mm (before deformation)

Gauge length – 57.7mm (after deformation)

Gauge diameter – 12.8mm

Tensile strength – 101.79 N/mm²

5.2 Wear test:

Wear is related to interactions between surfaces and more specifically the removal and deformation of material on a surface as a result of mechanical action of the opposite surface. The need for relative motion between two surfaces and initial mechanical contact between asperities is an important distinction between mechanical wear compared to other processes with similar outcomes.

Provided your specimen is flat, a simple test for evaluating its abrasion or wear resistance is the Taber Abraser or Taber Abrader. This instrument is commonly referenced in test specifications as the Rotary Platform, Double-Head (RPDH) Tester. The test piece is secured to the instrument platform, which is motor driven at a fixed speed. Two abrasive wheels are lowered onto the specimen surface, and as the platform rotates, it turns the two wheels. This causes a rub-wear action (sliding rotation) on the surface of the test-piece and the resulting abrasion marks form a pattern of crossed arcs in a circular band that cover an

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area of 30 cm 2 against all angles of weave or grain. A vacuum system removes debris during testing.

 

Sliding

Load

Sliding distance

level

speed

Wt% Sic

 

N

M

 

m/s

  • 1 0.314

9.81

500

2.5

  • 2 0.942

29.43

1000

5

TABLE No. VII Parameters with their values at two levels

5.3 Results and discussion:

Tensile test - Tabulation & Graphs:

6.2.1 LM-24

Load (KN)

Deformation (mm)

0

0

2

2

4

4.4

6

6

8

5.9

10

6.1

12

7.2

TABLE No. I

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Fig. 5 6.2.2 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 5% Boron carbide

Fig. 5

6.2.2 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 5% Boron carbide

Load (KN)

Deformation (mm)

0

0

22

1.9

4

4

6

6.2

8

7.4

10

8.8

TABLE No. II

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Fig. 6 6.2.3 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 2.5% Alumina Load

Fig. 6

6.2.3 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 2.5% Alumina

Load (KN)

Deformation (mm)

0

0

2

3.1

4

5.6

6

6.9

8

7.6

10

8.4

12

8.9

TABLE No. III

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Fig. 7 6.2.4 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 2.5% Boron carbide

Fig. 7

6.2.4 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 2.5% Boron carbide

Load (KN)

Deformation (mm)

0

0

2

2.8

4

5.2

6

6.2

8

7.2

10

8.2

12

9.2

14

10.8

TABLE No. IV

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Fig. 8 6.2.5 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 5% Alumina Load

Fig. 8

6.2.5 Aluminium matrix reinforced with 5% Alumina

Load (KN)

Deformation (mm)

0

0

2

1.8

4

3.0

6

4.9

8

5.8

10

6.4

12

6.9

TABLE No. V

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DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Comparison: Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Results LM-24 5% B4C 2.5%

Comparison:

Fig. 9

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Comparison: Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Results LM-24 5% B4C 2.5%
 

Fig. 10

Results

LM-24

5% B4C

2.5% Al2O3

2.5% B4C

5% Al2O3

Tensile

Stren

97.9 Mpa

88.35 Mpa

108.53 Mpa

100.54 Mpa

101.79 Mpa

gth

 

TABLE No. VI

Wear Test:

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Comparison:

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Comparison: Fig. 11 Results LM-24 5% B4C 2.5% Al2O3 2.5%
 

Fig. 11

Results

LM-24

5% B4C

2.5% Al2O3

2.5% B4C

5% Al2O3

Wear

 

9.89 m²/N

7.775 m²/N

6.17 m²/N

4.59 m²/N

6.57 m²/N

Rate

 

TABLE No. VII

 

Chapter Number: 6

Chapter Title: Conclusion

6

Conclusion:

The synthesis of the proposed matrix was prepared and tested for tensile strength and wear rate. From the results we can observe that the tensile strength of 2.5% Al2O3 is high and wear rate of 2.5% B4C is low. From the Design of experiments it is found that the results obtained are insignificant due to less number of experiments conducted.

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Hence, the results are unreliable. More number of experiments should be conducted in order to obtain the significant values.

Chapter Number: 7

Chapter Title: Reference

7

Reference:

1.

S. K. Kang, D. L. Erich and H. F. Merrick: High-Strength Powder Metallurgy Aluminium Alloys, ed. by M. J. Koczak and G. J. Hildeman(TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1982) pp. 317–328.

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  • 2. Metal-Matrix-Composites,(2002),Nov-15-1115 http:// machinedesign.com/article/metal- matrix-composites

  • 3. H. Warren, Hunt, Darrell R. Herling (2004), Text book, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites, Advanced Materials and Processes. http://www.science.org.au/nova/059/059key.htm

  • 4. W. D. Callister, Jr.(2008), Materials Science and Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, page 400-736.

  • 5. V. I. Elagin (2007), Ways of developing high-strength and high – temperature structural aluminium alloys in the 21st century, Meterial Science and Heat Treatment, Vol. 49, pp. 9 – 10.

  • 6. H. Warren, Hunt, Darrell R. Herling (2004), Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites, Advanced Materials and Processes.

  • 7. R. Gitter, (2008), Design of Aluminium structures: Selection of Structural Alloys- Paper presented at the workshop in Brussels: EUROCODES - Background and Applications.

  • 8. J.Jenix Rino, D.Chandramohan, K.S.Sucitharan, (2012), An Overview on Development of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites with Hybrid Reinforcement, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 1 Issue 3, pp.196-203

  • 9. K.M. Shorowordi, T. Laoui, A.S.M.A. Haseeb, J.P. Celis, L. Froyen,(2003) Microstructure and interface characteristics of B4C, SiC and Al2O3 reinforced Al matrix composites: a comparative study, J. Mater. Proc. Tech. vol-142, pp, 738–743.