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< Bitmap

Bitmap/Bresenham's line algorithm


You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any
language you may know.
Task
Using the data storage type defined on this page for raster graphics images, draw a
line given two points with the Bresenham's line algorithm.

Contents
[hide]

 1 Ada
 2 ALGOL 68
 3 Assembly
 4 AutoHotkey
 5 AutoIt
 6 BASIC
 7 BBC BASIC
 8 Batch File
 9C
 10 C#
 11 C++
 12 Clojure
 13 CoffeeScript
 14 Common Lisp
 15 D
 16 Delphi
 17 Elm
 18 E
 19 Erlang
 20 ERRE
 21 Euphoria
 22 F#
 23 FBSL
 24 Factor
 25 Forth
 26 Fortran
 27 FreeBASIC
 28 Go
 29 Haskell
 30 J
 31 Java
 32 JavaScript
 33 Julia
 34 Korn Shell
 35 Kotlin
 36 Maple
 37 Mathematica / Wolfram Language
 38 MATLAB
 39 MAXScript
 40 Metal
 41 Nim
 42 OCaml
 43 Pascal
 44 Perl
 45 Perl 6
 46 Phix
 47 PicoLisp
 48 PL/I
o 48.1 version 1
o 48.2 version 2
 49 Prolog
 50 PureBasic
 51 Python
o 51.1 Not relying on floats
 52 Racket
 53 RapidQ
 54 REXX
o 54.1 version 1
o 54.2 version 2
 55 Ring
 56 Ruby
 57 Scala
 58 Sidef
 59 Tcl
 60 TI-89 BASIC
 61 Vedit macro language
 62 Wart
 63 XPL0
 64 zkl

Ada [edit]

procedure Line (Picture : in out Image; Start, Stop : Point; Colo


r : Pixel) is
DX : constant Float := abs Float (Stop.X - Start.X);
DY : constant Float := abs Float (Stop.Y - Start.Y);
Err : Float;
X : Positive := Start.X;
Y : Positive := Start.Y;
Step_X : Integer := 1;
Step_Y : Integer := 1;
begin
if Start.X > Stop.X then
Step_X := -1;
end if;
if Start.Y > Stop.Y then
Step_Y := -1;
end if;
if DX > DY then
Err := DX / 2.0;
while X /= Stop.X loop
Picture (X, Y) := Color;
Err := Err - DY;
if Err < 0.0 then
Y := Y + Step_Y;
Err := Err + DX;
end if;
X := X + Step_X;
end loop;
else
Err := DY / 2.0;
while Y /= Stop.Y loop
Picture (X, Y) := Color;
Err := Err - DX;
if Err < 0.0 then
X := X + Step_X;
Err := Err + DY;
end if;
Y := Y + Step_Y;
end loop;
end if;
Picture (X, Y) := Color; -- Ensure dots to be drawn
end Line;

The test program's

X : Image (1..16, 1..16);


begin
Fill (X, White);
Line (X, ( 1, 8), ( 8,16), Black);
Line (X, ( 8,16), (16, 8), Black);
Line (X, (16, 8), ( 8, 1), Black);
Line (X, ( 8, 1), ( 1, 8), Black);
Print (X);

sample output

H
H H
H H
H HH
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H H
H

ALGOL 68 [edit]

Translation of: Ada


Works with: ALGOL 68 version Revision 1 - one minor extension to language used -
PRAGMA READ, similar to C's #include directive.
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release algol68g-2.6.
File: prelude/Bitmap/Bresenhams_line_algorithm.a68

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- #

line OF class image := (REF IMAGE picture, POINT start, stop, PIXEL
color)VOID:
BEGIN
REAL dx = ABS (x OF stop - x OF start),
dy = ABS (y OF stop - y OF start);
REAL err;
POINT here := start,
step := (1, 1);
IF x OF start > x OF stop THEN
x OF step := -1
FI;
IF y OF start > y OF stop THEN
y OF step := -1
FI;
IF dx > dy THEN
err := dx / 2;
WHILE x OF here /= x OF stop DO
picture[x OF here, y OF here] := color;
err -:= dy;
IF err < 0 THEN
y OF here +:= y OF step;
err +:= dx
FI;
x OF here +:= x OF step
OD
ELSE
err := dy / 2;
WHILE y OF here /= y OF stop DO
picture[x OF here, y OF here] := color;
err -:= dx;
IF err < 0 THEN
x OF here +:= x OF step;
err +:= dy
FI;
y OF here +:= y OF step
OD
FI;
picture[x OF here, y OF here] := color # ensure dots to be drawn
#
END # line #;

SKIP
File: test/Bitmap/Bresenhams_line_algorithm.a68

#!/usr/bin/a68g --script #
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- #

PR READ "prelude/Bitmap.a68" PR; # c.f. [[rc:Bitmap]] #


PR READ "prelude/Bitmap/Bresenhams_line_algorithm.a68" PR;

### The test program: ###


test:(
REF IMAGE x = INIT LOC[1:16, 1:16]PIXEL;
(fill OF class image)(x, white OF class image);
(line OF class image)(x, ( 1, 8), ( 8,16), black OF class image)
;
(line OF class image)(x, ( 8,16), (16, 8), black OF class image)
;
(line OF class image)(x, (16, 8), ( 8, 1), black OF class image)
;
(line OF class image)(x, ( 8, 1), ( 1, 8), black OF class image)
;
(print OF class image)(x)
)

Output:

ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000fffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffff000000fffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffffffffffffffff000000fffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0000000
00000ffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffff000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffff000000ffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffff000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffff000000ffffffffffff
ffffff000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffff000000ffffff
000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffff000000
ffffff000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffff000000ffffff
ffffffffffff000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffff000000ffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffff000000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffff000000ffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0
00000ffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffffffffffffffff000000fffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000ffffff000000fffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff000000fffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff

Assembly [edit]

16 bit Intel 8086\80486 Assembly for dos, see x86 assembly language. To run this
code you will need to use Dos emulator.

.486
IDEAL
;---------------------------------------------
; case: DeltaY is bigger than DeltaX
; input: p1X p1Y,
; p2X p2Y,
; Color -> variable
; output: line on the screen
;---------------------------------------------
Macro DrawLine2DDY p1X, p1Y, p2X, p2Y
local l1, lp, nxt
mov dx, 1
mov ax, [p1X]
cmp ax, [p2X]
jbe l1
neg dx ; turn delta to -1
l1:
mov ax, [p2Y]
shr ax, 1 ; div by 2
mov [TempW], ax
mov ax, [p1X]
mov [pointX], ax
mov ax, [p1Y]
mov [pointY], ax
mov bx, [p2Y]
sub bx, [p1Y]
absolute bx
mov cx, [p2X]
sub cx, [p1X]
absolute cx
mov ax, [p2Y]
lp:
pusha
call PIXEL
popa
inc [pointY]
cmp [TempW], 0
jge nxt
add [TempW], bx ; bx = (p2Y - p1Y) = deltay
add [pointX], dx ; dx = delta
nxt:
sub [TempW], cx ; cx = abs(p2X - p1X) = daltax
cmp [pointY], ax ; ax = p2Y
jne lp
call PIXEL
ENDM DrawLine2DDY
;---------------------------------------------
; case: DeltaX is bigger than DeltaY
; input: p1X p1Y,
; p2X p2Y,
; Color -> variable
; output: line on the screen
;---------------------------------------------
Macro DrawLine2DDX p1X, p1Y, p2X, p2Y
local l1, lp, nxt
mov dx, 1
mov ax, [p1Y]
cmp ax, [p2Y]
jbe l1
neg dx ; turn delta to -1
l1:
mov ax, [p2X]
shr ax, 1 ; div by 2
mov [TempW], ax
mov ax, [p1X]
mov [pointX], ax
mov ax, [p1Y]
mov [pointY], ax
mov bx, [p2X]
sub bx, [p1X]
absolute bx
mov cx, [p2Y]
sub cx, [p1Y]
absolute cx
mov ax, [p2X]
lp:
pusha
call PIXEL
popa
inc [pointX]
cmp [TempW], 0
jge nxt
add [TempW], bx ; bx = abs(p2X - p1X) = deltax
add [pointY], dx ; dx = delta
nxt:
sub [TempW], cx ; cx = abs(p2Y - p1Y) = deltay
cmp [pointX], ax ; ax = p2X
jne lp
call PIXEL
ENDM DrawLine2DDX
Macro absolute a
local l1
cmp a, 0
jge l1
neg a
l1:
Endm
MODEL small
STACK 256
DATASEG
TempW dw ?
pointX dw ?
pointY dw ?
point1X dw ?
point1Y dw ?
point2X dw ?
point2Y dw ?
Color db ?
CODESEG
start:
mov ax, @data
mov ds, ax

mov ax, 13h


int 10h ; set graphic mode

mov [Color], 61
mov [point1X], 300
mov [point2X], 6
mov [point1Y], 122
mov [point2Y], 88
call DrawLine2D

mov ah, 00h


int 16h
exit:
mov ax,03h
int 10h ; set text mode

mov ax, 4C00h


int 21h
; procedures
;---------------------------------------------
; input: point1X point1Y,
; point2X point2Y,
; Color
; output: line on the screen
;---------------------------------------------
PROC DrawLine2D
mov cx, [point1X]
sub cx, [point2X]
absolute cx
mov bx, [point1Y]
sub bx, [point2Y]
absolute bx
cmp cx, bx
jae DrawLine2Dp1 ; deltaX > deltaY
mov ax, [point1X]
mov bx, [point2X]
mov cx, [point1Y]
mov dx, [point2Y]
cmp cx, dx
jbe DrawLine2DpNxt1 ; point1Y <= point2Y
xchg ax, bx
xchg cx, dx
DrawLine2DpNxt1:
mov [point1X], ax
mov [point2X], bx
mov [point1Y], cx
mov [point2Y], dx
DrawLine2DDY point1X, point1Y, point2X, point2Y
ret
DrawLine2Dp1:
mov ax, [point1X]
mov bx, [point2X]
mov cx, [point1Y]
mov dx, [point2Y]
cmp ax, bx
jbe DrawLine2DpNxt2 ; point1X <= point2X
xchg ax, bx
xchg cx, dx
DrawLine2DpNxt2:
mov [point1X], ax
mov [point2X], bx
mov [point1Y], cx
mov [point2Y], dx
DrawLine2DDX point1X, point1Y, point2X, point2Y
ret
ENDP DrawLine2D
;-----------------------------------------------
; input: pointX pointY,
; Color
; output: point on the screen
;-----------------------------------------------
PROC PIXEL
mov bh,0h
mov cx,[pointX]
mov dx,[pointY]
mov al,[Color]
mov ah,0Ch
int 10h
ret
ENDP PIXEL
END start

AutoHotkey [edit]

Blue := Color(0,0,255)
White := Color(255,255,255)
Bitmap := Bitmap(100,100,Blue) ;create a 100*100 blue bitmap
Line(Bitmap,White,5,10,60,80) ;draw a white line from (5,10) to (60
,80)
Bitmap.Write("Line.ppm") ;write the bitmap to file

Line(ByRef Bitmap,ByRef Color,PosX1,PosY1,PosX2,PosY2)


{
DeltaX := Abs(PosX2 - PosX1), DeltaY := -Abs(PosY2 - PosY1) ;calcu
late deltas
StepX := ((PosX1 < PosX2) ? 1 : -1), StepY := ((PosY1 < PosY2) ?
1 : -1) ;calculate steps
ErrorValue := DeltaX + DeltaY ;calculate error value
Loop ;loop over the pixel values
{
Bitmap[PosX1,PosX2] := Color
If (PosX1 = PosX2 && PosY1 = PosY2)
Break
Temp1 := ErrorValue << 1, ((Temp1 > DeltaY) ? (ErrorValue += Delt
aY, PosX1 += StepX) : ""), ((Temp1 < DeltaX) ? (ErrorValue += Delta
X, PosY1 += StepY) : "") ;move forward
}
}

AutoIt [edit]

Local $var = drawBresenhamLine(2, 3, 2, 6)

Func drawBresenhamLine($iX0, $iY0, $iX1, $iY1)


Local $iDx = Abs($iX1 - $iX0)
Local $iSx = $iX0 < $iX1 ? 1 : -1
Local $iDy = Abs($iY1 - $iY0)
Local $iSy = $iY0 < $iY1 ? 1 : -1
Local $iErr = ($iDx > $iDy ? $iDx : -$iDy) / 2, $e2

While $iX0 <= $iX1


ConsoleWrite("plot( $x=" & $iX0 & ", $y=" & $iY0 & " )"
& @LF)
If ($iX0 = $iX1) And ($iY0 = $iY1) Then Return
$e2 = $iErr
If ($e2 > -$iDx) Then
$iErr -= $iDy
$iX0 += $iSx
EndIf
If ($e2 < $iDy) Then
$iErr += $iDx
$iY0 += $iSy
EndIf
WEnd
EndFunc ;==>drawBresenhamLine

BASIC [edit]

1500 REM === DRAW a LINE. Ported from C version


1510 REM Inputs are X1, Y1, X2, Y2: Destroys value of X1, Y1
1520 DX = ABS(X2 - X1):SX = -1:IF X1 < X2 THEN SX = 1
1530 DY = ABS(Y2 - Y1):SY = -1:IF Y1 < Y2 THEN SY = 1
1540 ER = -DY:IF DX > DY THEN ER = DX
1550 ER = INT(ER / 2)
1560 PLOT X1,Y1:REM This command may differ depending ON BASIC dia
lect
1570 IF X1 = X2 AND Y1 = Y2 THEN RETURN
1580 E2 = ER
1590 IF E2 > -DX THEN ER = ER - DY:X1 = X1 + SX
1600 IF E2 < DY THEN ER = ER + DX:Y1 = Y1 + SY
1610 GOTO 1560

BBC BASIC [edit]

Works with: BBC BASIC for Windows

Width% = 200
Height% = 200

REM Set window size:


VDU 23,22,Width%;Height%;8,16,16,128

REM Draw lines:


PROCbresenham(50,100,100,190,0,0,0)
PROCbresenham(100,190,150,100,0,0,0)
PROCbresenham(150,100,100,10,0,0,0)
PROCbresenham(100,10,50,100,0,0,0)
END

DEF PROCbresenham(x1%,y1%,x2%,y2%,r%,g%,b%)
LOCAL dx%, dy%, sx%, sy%, e
dx% = ABS(x2% - x1%) : sx% = SGN(x2% - x1%)
dy% = ABS(y2% - y1%) : sy% = SGN(y2% - y1%)
IF dx% > dy% e = dx% / 2 ELSE e = dy% / 2
REPEAT
PROCsetpixel(x1%,y1%,r%,g%,b%)
IF x1% = x2% IF y1% = y2% EXIT REPEAT
IF dx% > dy% THEN
x1% += sx% : e -= dy% : IF e < 0 e += dx% : y1% += sy%
ELSE
y1% += sy% : e -= dx% : IF e < 0 e += dy% : x1% += sx%
ENDIF
UNTIL FALSE
ENDPROC

DEF PROCsetpixel(x%,y%,r%,g%,b%)
COLOUR 1,r%,g%,b%
GCOL 1
LINE x%*2,y%*2,x%*2,y%*2
ENDPROC
Batch File [edit]

@echo off
setlocal enabledelayedexpansion

set width=87
set height=51

mode %width%,%height%

set "grid="
set /a resolution=height*width
for /l %%i in (1,1,%resolution%) do (
set "grid=!grid! "
)
call :line 1 1 5 5
call :line 9 30 60 7
call :line 9 30 60 50
call :line 52 50 32 1
echo:%grid%
pause>nul
exit

:line
set x1=%1
set y1=%2
set x2=%3
set y2=%4

set /a dx=x2-x1
set /a dy=y2-y1

::Clipping done to avoid overflow

if %dx% neq 0 set /a o=y1 - ( x1 * dy / dx )


if %x1% leq %x2% (
if %x1% geq %width% goto :eof
if %x2% lss 0 goto :eof

if %x1% lss 0 (
if %dx% neq 0 set y1=%o%
set x1=0
)
if %x2% geq %width% (
set /a x2= width - 1
if %dx% neq 0 set /a "y2= x2 * dy / dx + o"
)
) else (
if %x2% geq %width% goto :eof
if %x1% lss 0 goto :eof

if %x2% lss 0 (
if %dx% neq 0 set y2=%o%
set x2=0
)
if %x1% geq %width% (
set /a x1=width - 1
if %dx% neq 0 set /a "y1= x1 * dy / dx + o"
)
)
if %y1% leq %y2% (
if %y1% geq %height% goto :eof
if %y2% lss 0 goto :eof

if %y1% lss 0 (
set y1=0
if %dx% neq 0 set /a x1= - o * dx /dy
)
if %y2% geq %height% (
set /a y2=height-1
if %dx% neq 0 set /a "x2= (y2 - o) * dx /dy"
)
) else (
if %y2% geq %height% goto :eof
if %y1% lss 0 goto :eof

if %y2% lss 0 (
set y2=0
if %dx% neq 0 set /a "x2= - o * dx /dy"
)
if %y1% geq %height% (
set /a y1=height-1
if %dx% neq 0 set /a "x1= (y1 - o) * dx /dy"
)
)

:: Start of Bresenham's algorithm

set stepy=1
set stepx=1

set /a dx=x2-x1
set /a dy=y2-y1

if %dy% lss 0 set /a "dy=-dy","stepy=-1"


if %dx% lss 0 set /a "dx=-dx","stepx=-1"

set /a "dy <<= 1"


set /a "dx <<= 1"

if %dx% gtr %dy% (


set /a "fraction=dy-(dx>>1)"
set /a "cursor=y1*width + x1"
for /l %%x in (%x1%,%stepx%,%x2%) do (
set /a cursorP=cursor+1
for /f "tokens=1-2" %%g in ("!cursor! !cursorP!
") do set "grid=!grid:~0,%%g!Û!grid:~%%h!"
if !fraction! geq 0 (
set /a y1+=stepy
set /a cursor+=stepy*width
set /a fraction-=dx
)
set /a fraction+=dy
set /a cursor+=stepx
)
) else (
set /a "fraction=dx-(dy>>1)"
set /a "cursor=y1*width + x1"
for /l %%y in (%y1%,%stepy%,%y2%) do (
set /a cursorP=cursor+1
for /f "tokens=1-2" %%g in ("!cursor! !cursorP!
") do set "grid=!grid:~0,%%g!Û!grid:~%%h!"
if !fraction! geq 0 (
set /a x1+=stepx
set /a cursor+=stepx
set /a fraction-=dy
)
set /a fraction+=dx
set /a cursor+=width*stepy
)
)
goto :eof

C [edit]

Instead of swaps in the initialisation use error calculation for both directions x and y
simultaneously:

void line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1) {

int dx = abs(x1-x0), sx = x0<x1 ? 1 : -1;


int dy = abs(y1-y0), sy = y0<y1 ? 1 : -1;
int err = (dx>dy ? dx : -dy)/2, e2;

for(;;){
setPixel(x0,y0);
if (x0==x1 && y0==y1) break;
e2 = err;
if (e2 >-dx) { err -= dy; x0 += sx; }
if (e2 < dy) { err += dx; y0 += sy; }
}
}

C# [edit]

Port of the C version.

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Drawing.Imaging;
static class Program
{
static void Main()
{
new Bitmap(200, 200)
.DrawLine(0, 0, 199, 199, Color.Black).DrawLine(199,0,0
,199,Color.Black)
.DrawLine(50, 75, 150, 125, Color.Blue).DrawLine(150, 7
5, 50, 125, Color.Blue)
.Save("line.png", ImageFormat.Png);
}
static Bitmap DrawLine(this Bitmap bitmap, int x0, int y0, int
x1, int y1, Color color)
{
int dx = Math.Abs(x1 - x0), sx = x0 < x1 ? 1 : -1;
int dy = Math.Abs(y1 - y0), sy = y0 < y1 ? 1 : -1;
int err = (dx > dy ? dx : -dy) / 2, e2;
for(;;) {
bitmap.SetPixel(x0, y0, color);
if (x0 == x1 && y0 == y1) break;
e2 = err;
if (e2 > -dx) { err -= dy; x0 += sx; }
if (e2 < dy) { err += dx; y0 += sy; }
}
return bitmap;
}
}

C++ [edit]

void Line( const float x1, const float y1, const float x2, const fl
oat y2, const Color& color )
{
// Bresenham's line algorithm
const bool steep = (fabs(y2 - y1) > fabs(x2 - x1));
if(steep)
{
std::swap(x1, y1);
std::swap(x2, y2);
}

if(x1 > x2)


{
std::swap(x1, x2);
std::swap(y1, y2);
}

const float dx = x2 - x1;


const float dy = fabs(y2 - y1);

float error = dx / 2.0f;


const int ystep = (y1 < y2) ? 1 : -1;
int y = (int)y1;

const int maxX = (int)x2;

for(int x=(int)x1; x<maxX; x++)


{
if(steep)
{
SetPixel(y,x, color);
}
else
{
SetPixel(x,y, color);
}

error -= dy;
if(error < 0)
{
y += ystep;
error += dx;
}
}
}

Clojure [edit]

(defn draw-line
"Draw a line from x1,y1 to x2,y2 using Bresenham's, to a java Buf
feredImage in the colour of pixel."
[buffer x1 y1 x2 y2 pixel]
(let [dist-x (Math/abs (- x1 x2))
dist-y (Math/abs (- y1 y2))
steep (> dist-y dist-x)]
(let [[x1 y1 x2 y2] (if steep [y1 x1 y2 x2] [x1 y1 x2 y2])]
(let [[x1 y1 x2 y2] (if (> x1 x2) [x2 y2 x1 y1] [x1 y1 x2 y2]
)]
(let [delta-x (- x2 x1)
delta-y (Math/abs (- y1 y2))
y-step (if (< y1 y2) 1 -1)]

(let [plot (if steep


#(.setRGB buffer (int %1) (int %2) pixel)
#(.setRGB buffer (int %2) (int %1) pixel))]

(loop [x x1 y y1 error (Math/floor (/ delta-x 2)) ]


(plot x y)
(if (< x x2)
; Rather then rebind error, test that it is less than delta-y r
ather than zero
(if (< error delta-y)
(recur (inc x) (+ y y-step) (+ error (- delta-x delta-y)))
(recur (inc x) y (- error delta-y)))))))))))

CoffeeScript [edit]

drawBresenhamLine = (x0, y0, x1, y1) ->


dx = Math.abs(x1 - x0)
sx = if x0 < x1 then 1 else -1
dy = Math.abs(y1 - y0)
sy = if y0 < y1 then 1 else -1
err = (if dx>dy then dx else -dy) / 2

loop
setPixel(x0, y0)
break if x0 == x1 && y0 == y1
e2 = err
if e2 > -dx
err -= dy
x0 += sx
if e2 < dy
err += dx
y0 += sy
null

Common Lisp [edit]

(defun draw-line (buffer x1 y1 x2 y2 pixel)


(declare (type rgb-pixel-buffer buffer))
(declare (type integer x1 y1 x2 y2))
(declare (type rgb-pixel pixel))
(let* ((dist-x (abs (- x1 x2)))
(dist-y (abs (- y1 y2)))
(steep (> dist-y dist-x)))
(when steep
(psetf x1 y1 y1 x1
x2 y2 y2 x2))
(when (> x1 x2)
(psetf x1 x2 x2 x1
y1 y2 y2 y1))
(let* ((delta-x (- x2 x1))
(delta-y (abs (- y1 y2)))
(error (floor delta-x 2))
(y-step (if (< y1 y2) 1 -1))
(y y1))
(loop
:for x :upfrom x1 :to x2
:do (if steep
(setf (rgb-pixel buffer x y) pixel)
(setf (rgb-pixel buffer y x) pixel))
(setf error (- error delta-y))
(when (< error 0)
(incf y y-step)
(incf error delta-x))))
buffer))

D [edit]

This code uses the Image defined in Bitmap Task.

module bitmap_bresenhams_line_algorithm;

import std.algorithm, std.math, bitmap;

void drawLine(Color)(Image!Color img,


size_t x1, size_t y1,
in size_t x2, in size_t y2,
in Color color)
pure nothrow @nogc {
immutable int dx = x2 - x1;
immutable int ix = (dx > 0) - (dx < 0);
immutable size_t dx2 = abs(dx) * 2;
int dy = y2 - y1;
immutable int iy = (dy > 0) - (dy < 0);
immutable size_t dy2 = abs(dy) * 2;
img[x1, y1] = color;

if (dx2 >= dy2) {


int error = dy2 - (dx2 / 2);
while (x1 != x2) {
if (error >= 0 && (error || (ix > 0))) {
error -= dx2;
y1 += iy;
}

error += dy2;
x1 += ix;
img[x1, y1] = color;
}
} else {
int error = dx2 - (dy2 / 2);
while (y1 != y2) {
if (error >= 0 && (error || (iy > 0))) {
error -= dy2;
x1 += ix;
}

error += dx2;
y1 += iy;
img[x1, y1] = color;
}
}
}

version (bitmap_bresenhams_line_algorithm_main) {
void main() {
auto img = new Image!RGB(25, 22);
img.drawLine(5, 5, 15, 20, RGB.white);
img.drawLine(3, 20, 10, 12, RGB.white);
img.textualShow();
}
}

To run the demo code compile with -


version=bitmap_bresenhams_line_algorithm_main .

Output:

#########################
#########################
#########################
#########################
#########################
#####.###################
######.##################
######.##################
#######.#################
########.################
########.################
#########.###############
##########.##############
#########..##############
########.##.#############
#######.####.############
######.#####.############
######.######.###########
#####.########.##########
####.#########.##########
###.###########.#########
#########################

Delphi [edit]

procedure drawLine (bitmap : TBitmap; xStart, yStart, xEnd, yEnd :


integer; color : TAlphaColor);
// Bresenham's Line Algorithm. Byte, March 1988, pp. 249-253.
// Modified from http://www.efg2.com/Lab/Library/Delphi/Graphics/Br
esenham.txt and tested.
var
a, b : integer; // displacements in x and y
d : integer; // decision variable
diag_inc : integer; // d's increment for diagonal steps
dx_diag : integer; // diagonal x step for next pixel
dx_nondiag : integer; // nondiagonal x step for next pixel
dy_diag : integer; // diagonal y step for next pixel
dy_nondiag : integer; // nondiagonal y step for next pixel
i : integer; // loop index
nondiag_inc: integer; // d's increment for nondiagonal step
s
swap : integer; // temporary variable for swap
x,y : integer; // current x and y coordinates
begin
x := xStart; // line starting point}
y := yStart;
// Determine drawing direction and step to the next pixel.
a := xEnd - xStart; // difference in x dimension
b := yEnd - yStart; // difference in y dimension
// Determine whether end point lies to right or left of start p
oint.
if a < 0 then // drawing towards smaller x values?
begin
a := -a; // make 'a' positive
dx_diag := -1
end
else
dx_diag := 1;

// Determine whether end point lies above or below start point.


if b < 0 then // drawing towards smaller x values?
begin
b := -b; // make 'a' positive
dy_diag := -1
end
else
dy_diag := 1;
// Identify octant containing end point.
if a < b then
begin
swap := a;
a := b;
b := swap;
dx_nondiag := 0;
dy_nondiag := dy_diag
end
else
begin
dx_nondiag := dx_diag;
dy_nondiag := 0
end;
d := b + b - a; // initial value for d is 2*b - a
nondiag_inc := b + b; // set initial d increment values
diag_inc := b + b - a - a;
for i := 0 to a do
begin /// draw the a+1 pixels
drawPixel (bitmap, x, y, color);
if d < 0 then // is midpoint above the line?
begin // step nondiagonally
x := x + dx_nondiag;
y := y + dy_nondiag;
d := d + nondiag_inc // update decision variable
end
else
begin // midpoint is above the line; ste
p diagonally}
x := x + dx_diag;
y := y + dy_diag;
d := d + diag_inc
end;
end;
end;

Elm [edit]
-- Brensenham Line Algorithm

type alias Position =


{x: Int, y: Int}

type alias BresenhamStatics =


{ finish : Position
, sx : Int
, sy : Int
, dx : Float
, dy : Float
}

line : Position -> Position -> List Position


line p q =
let
dx = (toFloat << abs) (q.x - p.x)
dy = (toFloat << abs) (q.y - p.y)

sx = if p.x < q.x then 1 else -1


sy = if p.y < q.y then 1 else -1

error =
(if dx > dy then dx else -dy) / 2

statics =
BresenhamStatics q sx sy dx dy
in
bresenhamLineLoop statics error p []

bresenhamLineLoop : BresenhamStatics -> Float -> Position -> List P


osition -> List Position
bresenhamLineLoop statics error p positions =
let
positions_ = p :: positions
{sx, sy, dx, dy, finish} = statics
in
if (p.x == finish.x) && (p.y == finish.y) then
positions_
else
let
(dErrX, x) =
if error > -dx then (-dy, sx + p.x)
else (0, p.x)

(dErrY, y) =
if error < dy then (dx, sy + p.y)
else (0, p.y)

error_ = error + dErrX + dErrY


in
bresenhamLineLoop statics error_ (Position x y) positions_

E [edit]
Translation of: C

def swap(&left, &right) { # From [[Generic swap]]


def t := left
left := right
right := t
}

def drawLine(image, var x0, var y0, var x1, var y1, color) {
def steep := (y1 - y0).abs() > (x1 - x0).abs()
if (steep) {
swap(&x0, &y0)
swap(&x1, &y1)
}
if (x0 > x1) {
swap(&x0, &x1)
swap(&y0, &y1)
}
def deltax := x1 - x0
def deltay := (y1 - y0).abs()
def ystep := if (y0 < y1) { 1 } else { -1 }
var error := deltax // 2
var y := y0
for x in x0..x1 {
if (steep) { image[y, x] := color } else { image[x, y] := c
olor }
error -= deltay
if (error < 0) {
y += ystep
error += deltax
}
}
}
def i := makeImage(5, 20)
drawLine(i, 1, 1, 3, 18, makeColor.fromFloat(0,1,1))
i.writePPM(<import:java.io.makeFileOutputStream>(<file:~/Desktop/Br
esenham.ppm>))

Erlang [edit]

build_path({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}) ->


if
Tx < Sx -> StepX = -1;
true -> StepX = 1
end,
if
Ty < Sy -> StepY = -1;
true -> StepY = 1
end,

Dx = abs((Tx-Sx)*2),
Dy = abs((Ty-Sy)*2),

if
Dy > Dx -> Path = through_y({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY},
{Dx, Dy}, Dx*2-Dy, []);
true -> Path = through_x({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {D
x, Dy}, Dy*2-Dx, [])
end,

lists:reverse(Path).

through_x({Tx, _}, {Tx, _}, _, _, _, P) -> P;


through_x({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F0, P) when
F0 >= 0 ->
Ny = Sy + StepY,
F1 = F0 - Dx,
Nx = Sx + StepX,
F2 = F1 + Dy,
through_x({Nx, Ny}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F2, [{Nx,
Ny}|P]);
through_x({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F0, P) when
F0 < 0 ->
Ny = Sy,
Nx = Sx + StepX,
F2 = F0 + Dy,
through_x({Nx, Ny}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F2, [{Nx,
Ny}|P]).

through_y({_, Ty}, {_, Ty}, _, _, _, P) -> P;


through_y({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F0, P) when
F0 >= 0 ->
Nx = Sx + StepX,
F1 = F0 - Dy,
Ny = Sy + StepY,
F2 = F1 + Dx,
through_y({Nx, Ny}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F2, [{Nx,
Ny}|P]);
through_y({Sx, Sy}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F0, P) when
F0 < 0 ->
Nx = Sx,
Ny = Sy + StepY,
F2 = F0 + Dx,
through_y({Nx, Ny}, {Tx, Ty}, {StepX, StepY}, {Dx, Dy}, F2, [{Nx,
Ny}|P]).

OR

line({X0, Y0}, {X1, Y1}) ->


SX = step(X0, X1),
SY = step(Y0, Y1),
DX = abs(X1 - X0),
DY = abs(Y1 - Y0),
Err = DX - DY,
line({X0, Y0}, {X1, Y1}, {SX, SY}, {DX, DY}, Err, []).

line({X1, Y1}, {X1, Y1}, _, _, _, Acc) ->


lists:reverse([{X1, Y1} | Acc]);
line({X, Y}, {X1, Y1}, {SX, SY}, {DX, DY}, Err, Acc) ->
DE = 2 * Err,
{X0, Err0} = next_x(X, SX, DY, Err, DE),
{Y0, Err1} = next_y(Y, SY, DX, Err0, DE),
line({X0, Y0}, {X1, Y1}, {SX, SY}, {DX, DY}, Err1, [{X, Y} | Acc]
).

step(P0, P1) when P0 < P1 ->


1;
step(_, _) ->
-1.

next_x(X, SX, DY, E, DE) when DE > -DY ->


{X + SX, E - DY};
next_x(X, _SX, _DY, E, _DE) ->
{X, E}.

next_y(Y, SY, DX, E, DE) when DE < DX ->


{Y + SY, E + DX};
next_y(Y, _SY, _DX, E, _DE) ->
{Y, E}.

ERRE [edit]

PROGRAM BRESENHAM

!$INCLUDE="PC.LIB"

PROCEDURE BRESENHAM
! === Draw a line using graphic coordinates
! Inputs are X1, Y1, X2, Y2: Destroys value of X1, Y1
dx=ABS(x2-x1) sx=-1
IF x1<x2 THEN sx=1
dy=ABS(y2-y1) sy=-1
IF y1<y2 THEN sy=1
er=-dy
IF dx>dy THEN er=dx
er=INT(er/2)
LOOP
PSET(x1,y1,1)
EXIT IF x1=x2 AND y1=y2
e2=er
IF e2>-dx THEN er=er-dy x1=x1+sx
IF e2<dy THEN er=er+dx y1=y1+sy
END LOOP
END PROCEDURE

BEGIN
SCREEN(2)
INPUT(x1,y1,x2,y2)
BRESENHAM
GET(A$)
SCREEN(0)
END PROGRAM
Euphoria [edit]

Translation of: C

include std/console.e
include std/graphics.e
include std/math.e

-- the new_image function and related code in the 25 or so


-- lines below are from http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Basic_bitmap_st
orage#Euphoria
-- as of friday, march 2, 2012

-- Some color constants:


constant
black = #000000,
white = #FFFFFF,
red = #FF0000,
green = #00FF00,
blue = #0000FF

-- Create new image filled with some color


function new_image(integer width, integer height, atom fill_color)
return repeat(repeat(fill_color,height),width)
end function

--grid used for drawing lines in this program


sequence screenData = new_image(16,16,black)

--the line algorithm


function bresLine(sequence screenData, integer x0, integer y0, inte
ger x1, integer y1, integer color)

integer deltaX = abs(x1 - x0), deltaY = abs(y1 - y0)


integer stepX, stepY, lineError, error2

if x0 < x1 then
stepX = 1
else
stepX = -1
end if

if y0 < y1 then
stepY = 1
else
stepY = -1
end if

if deltaX > deltaY then


lineError = deltaX
else
lineError = -deltaY
end if

lineError = round(lineError / 2, 1)

while 1 do

screenData[x0][y0] = color
if (x0 = x1 and y0 = y1) then
exit
end if

error2 = lineError

if error2 > -deltaX then


lineError -= deltaY
x0 += stepX
end if
if error2 < deltaY then
lineError += deltaX
y0 += stepY
end if
end while
return screenData -- return modified version of the screenData
sequence
end function

--prevents console output wrapping to next line if it is too big fo


r the screen
wrap(0)
--outer diamond
screenData = bresLine(screenData,8,1,16,8,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,16,8,8,16,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,8,16,1,8,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,1,8,8,1,white)
--inner diamond
screenData = bresLine(screenData,8,4,12,8,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,12,8,8,12,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,8,12,4,8,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,4,8,8,4,white)
-- center lines drawing from left to right, and the next from right
to left.
screenData = bresLine(screenData,7,7,9,7,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,9,9,7,9,white)
--center dot
screenData = bresLine(screenData,8,8,8,8,white)

--print to the standard console output


for i = 1 to 16 do
puts(1,"\n")
for j = 1 to 16 do
if screenData[j][i] = black then
printf(1, "%s", ".")
else
printf(1, "%s", "#")
end if
end for
end for

puts(1,"\n\n")
any_key()

--/*
--output was edited to replace the color's hex digits for clearer o
utput graphics.
--to output all the hex digits, use printf(1,"%06x", screenData[j][
i])
--to output 'shortened' hex digits, use :
--printf(1, "%x", ( abs( ( (screenData[j][i] / #FFFFF) - 1 ) ) - 1
) )
--and
--printf(1,"%x", abs( ( (screenData[j][i] / #FFFFF) - 1 ) ) )
--
--,respectively in the last if check.
--*/

Output:

.......#........
......#.#.......
.....#...#......
....#..#..##....
...#..#.#...#...
..#..#...#...#..
.#..#.###.#...#.
#..#...#...#...#
.#..#.###.#...#.
..#..#...#...#..
...#..#.#...#...
....#..#...#....
....#.....#.....
.....#...#......
......#.#.......
.......#........

Press Any Key to continue...

F# [edit]

let inline bresenham fill (x0, y0) (x1, y1) =


let steep = abs(y1 - y0) > abs(x1 - x0)
let x0, y0, x1, y1 =
if steep then y0, x0, y1, x1 else x0, y0, x1, y1
let x0, y0, x1, y1 =
if x0 > x1 then x1, y1, x0, y0 else x0, y0, x1, y1
let dx, dy = x1 - x0, abs(y1 - y0)
let s = if y0 < y1 then 1 else -1
let rec loop e x y =
if x <= x1 then
if steep then fill y x else fill x y
if e < dy then
loop (e-dy+dx) (x+1) (y+s)
else
loop (e-dy) (x+1) y
loop (dx/2) x0 y0

The following program tests the above bresenham function by drawing 100 lines into
an image and visualizing the result using
Library: Windows Presentation Foundation
:

open System.Windows
open System.Windows.Media.Imaging

[<System.STAThread>]
do
let rand = System.Random()
let n = 256
let pixel = Array.create (n*n) 0uy
let rand = System.Random().Next
for _ in 1..100 do
bresenham (fun x y -> pixel.[x+y*n] <- 255uy) (rand n, rand n)
(rand n, rand n)
let image = Controls.Image(Stretch=Media.Stretch.Uniform)
let format = Media.PixelFormats.Gray8
image.Source <-
BitmapSource.Create(n, n, 1.0, 1.0, format, null, pixel, n)
Window(Content=image, Title="Bresenham's line algorithm")
|> (Application()).Run |> ignore

FBSL [edit]

1. In FBSL, successive calls to one and the same subprocedure may be concatenated
to a series of argument sets as in Sub Rhombus() below.
2. In FBSL, BASIC-style logical AND and OR operators are "inclusive", i.e. they always
evaluate the both of their conditions. C-style logical ANDALSO and ORELSE operators
are "exclusive". ANDALSO evaluates the second condition if, and only if, its first
condition is TRUE as in Sub Bresenham() below. ORELSE evaluates its second
condition if, and only if, its first condition is FALSE.
Using pure FBSL's built-in graphics functions:

#DEFINE WM_LBUTTONDOWN 513


#DEFINE WM_CLOSE 16

FBSLSETTEXT(ME, "Bresenham") ' Set form caption


FBSLSETFORMCOLOR(ME, RGB(0, 255, 255)) ' Cyan: set persistent backg
round color
DRAWWIDTH(5) ' Adjust point size
FBSL.GETDC(ME) ' Use volatile FBSL.GETDC below to avoid extra assig
nments

RESIZE(ME, 0, 0, 200, 235)


CENTER(ME)
SHOW(ME)
BEGIN EVENTS
SELECT CASE CBMSG
CASE WM_LBUTTONDOWN: Rhombus() ' Draw
CASE WM_CLOSE: FBSL.RELEASEDC(ME, FBSL.GETDC) ' Clean up
END SELECT
END EVENTS

SUB Rhombus()
Bresenham(50, 100, 100, 190)(100, 190, 150, 100)(150, 100, 100, 1
0)(100, 10, 50, 100)

SUB Bresenham(x0, y0, x1, y1)


DIM dx = ABS(x0 - x1), sx = SGN(x0 - x1)
DIM dy = ABS(y0 - y1), sy = SGN(y0 - y1)
DIM tmp, er = IIF(dx > dy, dx, -dy) / 2

WHILE NOT (x0 = x1 ANDALSO y0 = y1)


PSET(FBSL.GETDC, x0, y0, &HFF) ' Red: Windows stores colors i
n BGR order
tmp = er
IF tmp > -dx THEN: er = er - dy: x0 = x0 + sx: END IF
IF tmp < +dy THEN: er = er + dx: y0 = y0 + sy: END IF
WEND
END SUB
END SUB

Output:

Factor [edit]

A very ugly imperative implementation similar to the wikipedia pseudocode..

USING: accessors arrays kernel locals math math.functions


math.ranges math.vectors rosettacode.raster.display
rosettacode.raster.storage sequences ui.gadgets ;
IN: rosettacode.raster.line

:: line-points ( pt1 pt2 -- points )


pt1 first2 :> y0! :> x0!
pt2 first2 :> y1! :> x1!
y1 y0 - abs x1 x0 - abs > :> steep
steep [
y0 x0 y0! x0!
y1 x1 y1! x1!
] when
x0 x1 > [
x0 x1 x0! x1!
y0 y1 y0! y1!
] when
x1 x0 - :> deltax
y1 y0 - abs :> deltay
0 :> current-error!
deltay deltax / abs :> deltaerr
0 :> ystep!
y0 :> y!
y0 y1 < [ 1 ystep! ] [ -1 ystep! ] if
x0 x1 1 <range> [
y steep [ swap ] when 2array
current-error deltaerr + current-error!
current-error 0.5 >= [
ystep y + y!
current-error 1 - current-error!
] when
] { } map-as ;

! Needs rosettacode.raster.storage for the set-pixel function and t


o create the image
: draw-line ( {R,G,B} pt1 pt2 image -- )
[ line-points ] dip
[ set-pixel ] curry with each ;

Forth [edit]

defer steep \ noop or swap


defer ystep \ 1+ or 1-

: line ( x0 y0 x1 y1 color bmp -- )


{ color bmp }
rot swap
( x0 x1 y0 y1 )
2dup - abs >r
2over - abs r> <
if ['] swap \ swap use of x and y
else 2swap ['] noop
then is steep
( y0 y1 x0 x1 )
2dup >
if swap 2swap swap \ ensure x1 > x0
else 2swap
then
( x0 x1 y0 y1 )
2dup >
if ['] 1-
else ['] 1+
then is ystep
over - abs { y deltay }
swap 2dup - dup { deltax }
2/ rot 1+ rot
( error x1+1 x0 )
do color i y steep bmp b!
deltay -
dup 0<
if y ystep to y
deltax +
then
loop
drop ;

5 5 bitmap value test


0 test bfill
1 0 4 1 red test line
4 1 3 4 red test line
3 4 0 3 red test line
0 3 1 0 red test line
test bshow cr
**
* **
* *
** *
**
ok

Fortran [edit]

Works with: Fortran version 90 and later


Translation of: C

module RCImagePrimitive
use RCImageBasic

implicit none

type point
integer :: x, y
end type point

private :: swapcoord

contains

subroutine swapcoord(p1, p2)


integer, intent(inout) :: p1, p2
integer :: t

t = p2
p2 = p1
p1 = t
end subroutine swapcoord

subroutine draw_line(img, from, to, color)


type(rgbimage), intent(inout) :: img
type(point), intent(in) :: from, to
type(rgb), intent(in) :: color

type(point) :: rfrom, rto


integer :: dx, dy, error, ystep, x, y
logical :: steep

rfrom = from
rto = to
steep = (abs(rto%y - rfrom%y) > abs(rto%x - rfrom%x))
if ( steep ) then
call swapcoord(rfrom%x, rfrom%y)
call swapcoord(rto%x, rto%y)
end if
if ( rfrom%x > rto%x ) then
call swapcoord(rfrom%x, rto%x)
call swapcoord(rfrom%y, rto%y)
end if

dx = rto%x - rfrom%x
dy = abs(rto%y - rfrom%y)
error = dx / 2
y = rfrom%y

if ( rfrom%y < rto%y ) then


ystep = 1
else
ystep = -1
end if

do x = rfrom%x, rto%x
if ( steep ) then
call put_pixel(img, y, x, color)
else
call put_pixel(img, x, y, color)
end if
error = error - dy
if ( error < 0 ) then
y = y + ystep
error = error + dx
end if
end do

end subroutine draw_line

end module RCImagePrimitive

Usage example:

program BasicImageTests
use RCImageBasic
use RCImageIO
use RCImagePrimitive

implicit none

type(rgbimage) :: animage
integer :: x, y

call alloc_img(animage, 200, 200)


call fill_img(animage, rgb(255,255,255))

call draw_line(animage, point(0,0), point(199,199), rgb(0,0,0))


do y=0,219,20
call draw_line(animage, point(0,0), point(199, y), &
rgb(0,0,0))
end do

open(unit=10, file='outputimage.ppm', status='new')


call output_ppm(10, animage)
close(10)

call free_img(animage)

end program BasicImageTests

FreeBASIC [edit]

' version 16-09-2015


' compile with: fbc -s console
' OR compile with: fbc -s gui

' Ported from the C version


Sub Br_line(x0 As Integer, y0 As Integer, x1 As Integer, y1 As Inte
ger, Col As Integer = &HFFFFFF)

Dim As Integer dx = Abs(x1 - x0), dy = Abs(y1 - y0)


Dim As Integer sx = IIf(x0 < x1, 1, -1)
Dim As Integer sy = IIf(y0 < y1, 1, -1)
Dim As Integer er = IIf(dx > dy, dx, -dy) \ 2, e2

Do
PSet(x0, y0), col
If (x0 = x1) And (y0 = y1) Then Exit Do
e2 = er
If e2 > -dx Then Er -= dy : x0 += sx
If e2 < dy Then Er += dx : y0 += sy
Loop

End Sub

' ------=< MAIN >=------

Dim As Double x0, y0, x1, y1

ScreenRes 400, 400, 32


WindowTitle" Press key to end demo"
Randomize Timer

Do
Cls
For a As Integer = 1 To 20
Br_line(Rnd*380+10, Rnd*380+10, Rnd*380+10, Rnd*380+10, Rnd
*&hFFFFFF)
Next
Sleep 2000
Loop Until InKey <> "" ' loop until a key is pressed

End
Go [edit]

package raster

// Line draws line by Bresenham's algorithm.


func (b *Bitmap) Line(x0, y0, x1, y1 int, p Pixel) {
// implemented straight from WP pseudocode
dx := x1 - x0
if dx < 0 {
dx = -dx
}
dy := y1 - y0
if dy < 0 {
dy = -dy
}
var sx, sy int
if x0 < x1 {
sx = 1
} else {
sx = -1
}
if y0 < y1 {
sy = 1
} else {
sy = -1
}
err := dx - dy

for {
b.SetPx(x0, y0, p)
if x0 == x1 && y0 == y1 {
break
}
e2 := 2 * err
if e2 > -dy {
err -= dy
x0 += sx
}
if e2 < dx {
err += dx
y0 += sy
}
}
}

func (b *Bitmap) LineRgb(x0, y0, x1, y1 int, c Rgb) {


b.Line(x0, y0, x1, y1, c.Pixel())
}

A demonstration program:

package main

// Files required to build supporting package raster are found in:


// * This task (immediately above)
// * Bitmap
// * Write a PPM file

import (
"raster"
"fmt"
)

func main() {
b := raster.NewBitmap(400, 300)
b.FillRgb(0xdfefff)
blue := raster.Rgb(0x8fcfff)
b.LineRgb(7, 12, 307, 122, blue)
b.LineRgb(177, 12, 127, 222, blue)
err := b.WritePpmFile("bresenham.ppm")
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
}
}

Haskell [edit]

module Bitmap.Line(line) where

import Bitmap
import Control.Monad
import Control.Monad.ST
import qualified Data.STRef

var = Data.STRef.newSTRef
get = Data.STRef.readSTRef
mutate = Data.STRef.modifySTRef

line :: Color c => Image s c -> Pixel -> Pixel -> c -> ST s ()
line i (Pixel (xa, ya)) (Pixel (xb, yb)) c = do
yV <- var y1
errorV <- var $ deltax `div` 2
forM_ [x1 .. x2] (\x -> do
y <- get yV
setPix i (Pixel $ if steep then (y, x) else (x, y)) c
mutate errorV $ subtract deltay
error <- get errorV
when (error < 0) (do
mutate yV (+ ystep)
mutate errorV (+ deltax)))
where steep = abs (yb - ya) > abs (xb - xa)
(xa', ya', xb', yb') = if steep
then (ya, xa, yb, xb)
else (xa, ya, xb, yb)
(x1, y1, x2, y2) = if xa' > xb'
then (xb', yb', xa', ya')
else (xa', ya', xb', yb')
deltax = x2 - x1
deltay = abs $ y2 - y1
ystep = if y1 < y2 then 1 else -1
J[edit]

Solution:
Using definitions from Basic bitmap storage.

thru=: <./ + -~ i.@+ _1 ^ > NB. integers from x through y

NB.*getBresenhamLine v Returns points for a line given start and en


d points
NB. y is: y0 x0 ,: y1 x1
getBresenhamLine=: monad define
steep=. ([: </ |@-~/) y
points=. |."1^:steep y
slope=. %~/ -~/ points
ypts=. thru/ {."1 points
xpts=. ({: + 0.5 <.@:+ slope * ypts - {.) {.points
|."1^:steep ypts,.xpts
)

NB.*drawLines v Draws lines (x) on image (y)


NB. x is: 2-item list (start and end points) ; (color)
drawLines=: (1&{:: ;~ [: ; [: <@getBresenhamLine"2 (0&{::))@[ setPi
xels ]

Example Usage:

myimg=: 0 255 0 makeRGB 20 32 NB. 32 by 20


green image
myimg=: ((1 1 ,: 5 11) ; 255 0 0 ) drawLines myimg NB. draw red
line from xy point 1 1 to 11 5

NB. Works for lists of 2 by 2 arrays each defining a line's start a


nd end point.
Diamond=: _2]\ _2]\ 9 5 5 15 , 5 15 9 25 , 9 25 13 15 , 13 15 9
5
Square =: _2]\ _2]\ 5 5 5 25 , 5 25 13 25 , 13 25 13 5 , 13 5 5
5
viewRGB myimg=: (Diamond;255 0 0) drawLines myimg NB. draw 4 r
ed lines to form a diamond
viewRGB myimg=: (Square;0 0 255) drawLines myimg NB. draw 4 b
lue lines to form a square
viewRGB (Diamond;255 0 0) drawLines (Square;0 0 255) drawLines m
yimg

Java [edit]

import java.awt.*;
import javax.swing.*;

public class Bresenham extends JFrame {

public static void main(String[] args) {


SwingUtilities.invokeLater(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
JFrame f = new Bresenham();
f.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
f.setVisible(true);
f.add(new BresenhamPanel(), BorderLayout.CENTER);
f.setTitle("Bresenham");
f.setResizable(false);
f.pack();
f.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
}
});
}
}

class BresenhamPanel extends JPanel {


final int centerX, centerY;

public BresenhamPanel() {
int w = 600;
int h = 500;
centerX = w / 2;
centerY = h / 2;
setPreferredSize(new Dimension(w, h));
setBackground(Color.white);
}

@Override
public void paintComponent(Graphics g) {
super.paintComponent(g);

drawLine(g, 0, 0, 8, 19); // NNE


drawLine(g, 0, 0, 19, 8); // ENE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, 19, -8); // ESE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, 8, -19); // SSE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -8, -19); // SSW
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -19, -8); // WSW
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -19, 8); // WNW
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -8, 19); // NNW
}

private void plot(Graphics g, int x, int y) {


g.setColor(Color.black);
g.drawOval(centerX + (x * 10), centerY + (-y * 10), 10, 10)
;
}

private void drawLine(Graphics g, int x1, int y1, int x2, int y
2) {
// delta of exact value and rounded value of the dependant
variable
int d = 0;

int dy = Math.abs(y2 - y1);


int dx = Math.abs(x2 - x1);

int dy2 = (dy << 1); // slope scaling factors to avoid floa
ting
int dx2 = (dx << 1); // point
int ix = x1 < x2 ? 1 : -1; // increment direction
int iy = y1 < y2 ? 1 : -1;

if (dy <= dx) {


for (;;) {
plot(g, x1, y1);
if (x1 == x2)
break;
x1 += ix;
d += dy2;
if (d > dx) {
y1 += iy;
d -= dx2;
}
}
} else {
for (;;) {
plot(g, x1, y1);
if (y1 == y2)
break;
y1 += iy;
d += dx2;
if (d > dy) {
x1 += ix;
d -= dy2;
}
}
}
}
}

JavaScript [edit]

Instead of swaps in the initialisation use error calculation for both directions x and y
simultaneously:

function bline(x0, y0, x1, y1) {

var dx = Math.abs(x1 - x0), sx = x0 < x1 ? 1 : -1;


var dy = Math.abs(y1 - y0), sy = y0 < y1 ? 1 : -1;
var err = (dx>dy ? dx : -dy)/2;

while (true) {
setPixel(x0,y0);
if (x0 === x1 && y0 === y1) break;
var e2 = err;
if (e2 > -dx) { err -= dy; x0 += sx; }
if (e2 < dy) { err += dx; y0 += sy; }
}
}

Julia [edit]
function line(img, x0::Int, y0::Int, x1::Int, y1::Int, col)
dx = int(abs(x1-x0))
dy = int(abs(y1-y0))

sx = x0<x1 ? 1 : -1
sy = y0<y1 ? 1 : -1;

err = (dx>dy ? dx : -dy)/2

while true
@inbounds img[x0,y0]=col
if (x0==x1 && y0==y1); break; end
e2 = err;
if e2 > -dx
err -= dy
x0 += sx
end
if e2 < dy
err += dx
y0 += sy
end
end
end

Korn Shell [edit]

function line {
x0=$1; y0=$2 x1=$3; y1=$4

if (( x0 > x1 ))
then
((dx = x0 - x1)); ((sx = -1))
else
((dx = x1 - x0)); ((sx = 1))
fi

if (( y0 > y1 ))
then
((dy = y0 - y1)); ((sy = -1))
else
((dy = y1 - y0)); ((sy = 1))
fi

if (( dx > dy ))
then
((err = dx))
else
((err = -dy))
fi
((err /= 2)); ((e2 = 0))

while /bin/true
do
echo $x0 $y0
(( x0 == x1 && y0 == y1 )) && return
((e2 = err))
(( e2 > -dx)) && { ((err -= dy )); (( x0 += sx )) }
(( e2 < dy)) && { ((err += dx )); (( y0 += sy )) }

done
}

Output from the statement:-

line 0 0 3 4

(which could be piped to another program)

0 0
1 1
1 2
2 3
3 4

Kotlin [edit]

Translation of: Java

// version 1.1.1

import java.awt.*
import javax.swing.*

class Bresenham(w: Int, h: Int) : JPanel() {


private val centerX = w / 2
private val centerY = h / 2

init {
preferredSize = Dimension(w, h)
background = Color.blue
}

override fun paintComponent(g: Graphics) {


super.paintComponent(g)
drawLine(g, 0, 0, 8, 19) // NNE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, 19, 8) // ENE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, 19, -8) // ESE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, 8, -19) // SSE
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -8, -19) // SSW
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -19, -8) // WSW
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -19, 8) // WNW
drawLine(g, 0, 0, -8, 19) // NNW
}

private fun plot(g: Graphics, x: Int, y: Int) {


g.color = Color.white
g.drawOval(centerX + x * 10, centerY -y * 10, 10, 10)
}

private fun drawLine(g: Graphics, x1: Int, y1: Int, x2: Int, y2
: Int) {
var d = 0
val dy = Math.abs(y2 - y1)
val dx = Math.abs(x2 - x1)
val dy2 = dy shl 1
val dx2 = dx shl 1
val ix = if (x1 < x2) 1 else -1
val iy = if (y1 < y2) 1 else -1
var xx = x1
var yy = y1

if (dy <= dx) {


while (true) {
plot(g, xx, yy)
if (xx == x2) break
xx += ix
d += dy2
if (d > dx) {
yy += iy
d -= dx2
}
}
}
else {
while (true) {
plot(g, xx, yy)
if (yy == y2) break
yy += iy
d += dx2
if (d > dy) {
xx += ix
d -= dy2
}
}
}
}
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {


SwingUtilities.invokeLater {
val f = JFrame()
f.defaultCloseOperation = JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE
f.isVisible = true
f.add(Bresenham(600, 500), BorderLayout.CENTER)
f.title = "Bresenham"
f.isResizable = false
f.pack()
f.setLocationRelativeTo(null)
}
}

Maple [edit]
SegmentBresenham := proc (img, x0, y0, x1, y1)
local deltax, deltay, x, y, ystep, steep, err, img2, x02, y02,
x12, y12;
x02, x12, y02, y12 := y0, y1, x0, x1;
steep := abs(x12 - x02) < abs(y12 - y02);
img2 := copy(img);
if steep then
x02, y02 := y02, x02;
x12, y12 := y12, x12;
end if;
if x12 < x02 then
x02, x12 := x12, x02;
y02, y12 := y12, y02;
end if;
deltax := x12 - x02;
deltay := abs(y12 - y02);
err := deltax / 2;
y := y02;
if y02 < y12 then
ystep := 1
else
ystep := -1
end if;
for x from x02 to x12 do
if steep then
img2[y, x] := 0
else
img2[x, y] := 0
end if;
err := err - deltay;
if err < 0 then
y := y + ystep;
err := err + deltax
end if;
end do;
return img2;
end proc:

Mathematica / Wolfram Language [edit]

Rasterize[ Style[Graphics[Line[{{0, 0}, {20, 10}}]], Antialiasing -


> False]]

MATLAB [edit]

Note: Store this function in a file named "bresenhamLine.m" in the @Bitmap folder for
the Bitmap class defined here.
MATLAB sample usage output.

%screen = Bitmap object


%startPoint = [x0,y0]
%endPoint = [x1,y1]
%color = [red,green,blue]

function bresenhamLine(screen,startPoint,endPoint,color)

if( any(color > 255) )


error 'RGB colors must be between 0 and 255';
end

%Check for vertical line, x0 == x1


if( startPoint(1) == endPoint(1) )
%Draw vertical line
for i = (startPoint(2):endPoint(2))
setPixel(screen,[startPoint(1) i],color);
end
end

%Simplified Bresenham algorithm


dx = abs(endPoint(1) - startPoint(1));
dy = abs(endPoint(2) - startPoint(2));

if(startPoint(1) < endPoint(1))


sx = 1;
else
sx = -1;
end

if(startPoint(2) < endPoint(2))


sy = 1;
else
sy = -1;
end

err = dx - dy;
pixel = startPoint;

while(true)

screen.setPixel(pixel,color); %setPixel(x0,y0)
if( pixel == endPoint )
break;
end

e2 = 2*err;

if( e2 > -dy )


err = err - dy;
pixel(1) = pixel(1) + sx;
end

if( e2 < dx )
err = err + dx;
pixel(2) = pixel(2) + sy;
end
end

assignin('caller',inputname(1),screen); %saves the changes to the


object
end

Sample Usage:

>> img = Bitmap(800,600);


>> img.bresenhamLine([400 550],[200 400],[255 255 255]);
>> img.bresenhamLine([400 550],[600 400],[255 255 255]);
>> img.bresenhamLine([200 400],[350 150],[255 255 255]);
>> img.bresenhamLine([600 400],[450 150],[255 255 255]);
>> img.bresenhamLine([350 150],[450 150],[255 255 255]);
>> img.bresenhamLine([400 550],[400 150],[255 255 255]);
>> disp(img)

MAXScript [edit]

fn plot img coord steep col =


(
if steep then
(
swap coord[1] coord[2]
)
setPixels img coord col
)

fn drawLine img start end col =


(
local steep = (abs (end.y - start.y)) > (abs (end.x - start.x))

if steep then
(
swap start.x start.y
swap end.x end.y
)

if start.x > end.x then


(
swap start.x end.x
swap start.y end.y
)

local deltaX = end.x - start.x


local deltaY = abs (end.y - start.y)
local error = deltaX / 2.0
local yStep = -1
local y = start.y

if start.y < end.y then


(
yStep = 1
)

for x in start.x to end.x do


(
plot img [x, y] steep col
error -= deltaY
if error < 0 then
(
y += yStep
error += deltaX
)
)
img
)

myBitmap = bitmap 512 512 color:(color 0 0 0)


myBitmap = drawLine myBitmap [0, 511] [511, 0] #((color 255 255 255
))
display myBitmap

Metal [edit]

For drawing lines between points in an Apple Metal compute shader.

void drawLine(texture2d<float, access::write> targetTexture, uint2


start, uint2 end);

void drawLine(texture2d<float, access::write> targetTexture, uint2


start, uint2 end)
{
int x = int(start.x);
int y = int(start.y);

int dx = abs(x - int(end.x));


int dy = abs(y - int(end.y));

int sx = start.x < end.x ? 1 : -1;


int sy = start.y < end.y ? 1 : -1;

int err = (dx > dy ? dx : -dy) / 2;


while (true)
{
targetTexture.write(float4(1.0), uint2(x, y));

if (x == int(end.x) && y == int(end.y))


{
break;
}

int e2 = err;

if (e2 > -dx)


{
err -= dy;
x += sx;
}

if (e2 < dy)


{
err += dx;
y += sy;
}
}
}

Nim [edit]

import math

proc line(img: var Image, p, q: Point) =


let
dx = abs(q.x - p.x)
sx = if p.x < q.x: 1 else: -1
dy = abs(q.y - p.y)
sy = if p.y < q.y: 1 else: -1

var
p = p
q = q
err = (if dx > dy: dx else: -dy) div 2
e2 = 0

while true:
img[p] = Black
if p == q:
break
e2 = err
if e2 > -dx:
err -= dy
p.x += sx
if e2 < dy:
err += dx
p.y += sy
OCaml [edit]

let draw_line ~img ~color ~p0:(x0,y0) ~p1:(x1,y1) =

let steep = abs(y1 - y0) > abs(x1 - x0) in

let plot =
if steep
then (fun x y -> put_pixel img color y x)
else (fun x y -> put_pixel img color x y)
in

let x0, y0, x1, y1 =


if steep
then y0, x0, y1, x1
else x0, y0, x1, y1
in
let x0, x1, y0, y1 =
if x0 > x1
then x1, x0, y1, y0
else x0, x1, y0, y1
in

let delta_x = x1 - x0
and delta_y = abs(y1 - y0) in
let error = -delta_x / 2
and y_step =
if y0 < y1 then 1 else -1
in
let rec loop x y error =
plot x y;
if x <= x1 then
let error = error + delta_y in
let y, error =
if error > 0
then (y + y_step), (error - delta_x)
else y, error
in
loop (succ x) y error
in
loop x0 y0 error
;;

Pascal [edit]

Delphi

Perl [edit]

Library: Imlib2

#! /usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use Image::Imlib2;
sub my_draw_line
{
my ( $img, $x0, $y0, $x1, $y1) = @_;

my $steep = (abs($y1 - $y0) > abs($x1 - $x0));


if ( $steep ) {
( $y0, $x0 ) = ( $x0, $y0);
( $y1, $x1 ) = ( $x1, $y1 );
}
if ( $x0 > $x1 ) {
( $x1, $x0 ) = ( $x0, $x1 );
( $y1, $y0 ) = ( $y0, $y1 );
}
my $deltax = $x1 - $x0;
my $deltay = abs($y1 - $y0);
my $error = $deltax / 2;
my $ystep;
my $y = $y0;
my $x;
$ystep = ( $y0 < $y1 ) ? 1 : -1;
for( $x = $x0; $x <= $x1; $x += 1 ) {
if ( $steep ) {
$img->draw_point($y, $x);
} else {
$img->draw_point($x, $y);
}
$error -= $deltay;
if ( $error < 0 ) {
$y += $ystep;
$error += $deltax;
}
}
}

# test
my $img = Image::Imlib2->new(160, 160);
$img->set_color(255, 255, 255, 255); # white
$img->fill_rectangle(0,0,160,160);

$img->set_color(0,0,0,255); # black
my_draw_line($img, 10, 80, 80, 160);
my_draw_line($img, 80, 160, 160, 80);
my_draw_line($img, 160, 80, 80, 10);
my_draw_line($img, 80, 10, 10, 80);

$img->save("test0.png");

# let's try the same using its internal algo


$img->set_color(255, 255, 255, 255); # white
$img->fill_rectangle(0,0,160,160);
$img->set_color(0,0,0,255); # black
$img->draw_line(10, 80, 80, 160);
$img->draw_line(80, 160, 160, 80);
$img->draw_line(160, 80, 80, 10);
$img->draw_line(80, 10, 10, 80);

$img->save("test1.png");

exit 0;
Images test0.png and test1.png look different since Imlib2 draw lines with
antialiasing.

Perl 6 [edit]

Works with: Rakudo version 2011.06

sub line(Bitmap $bitmap, $x0 is copy, $x1 is copy, $y0 is copy, $y1
is copy) {
my $steep = abs($y1 - $y0) > abs($x1 - $x0);
if $steep {
($x0, $y0) = ($y0, $x0);
($x1, $y1) = ($y1, $x1);
}
if $x0 > $x1 {
($x0, $x1) = ($x1, $x0);
($y0, $y1) = ($y1, $y0);
}
my $Δx = $x1 - $x0;
my $Δy = abs($y1 - $y0);
my $error = 0;
my $Δerror = $Δy / $Δx;
my $y-step = $y0 < $y1 ?? 1 !! -1;
my $y = $y0;
for $x0 .. $x1 -> $x {
my $pix = Pixel.new(R => 100, G => 200, B => 0);
if $steep {
$bitmap.set-pixel($y, $x, $pix);
} else {
$bitmap.set-pixel($x, $y, $pix);
}
$error += $Δerror;
if $error >= 0.5 {
$y += $y-step;
$error -= 1.0;
}
}
}

Phix [edit]

Modified copy of Euphoria, with a bigger bitmap and a simpler pattern. Requires
new_image() from Bitmap, write_ppm() from Write_a_PPM_file. Included as
demo\rosetta\Bresenham_line.exw, results may be verified with
demo\rosetta\viewppm.exw

function bresLine(sequence screenData, integer x0, integer y0, inte


ger x1, integer y1, integer colour)
-- The line algorithm
integer deltaX = abs(x1-x0),
deltaY = abs(y1-y0),
stepX = iff(x0<x1,1,-1),
stepY = iff(y0<y1,1,-1),
lineError = iff(deltaX>deltaY,deltaX,-deltaY),
prevle
lineError = round(lineError/2,1)
while 1 do
if x0>=1 and x0<=length(screenData)
and y0>=1 and y0<=length(screenData[x0]) then
screenData[x0][y0] = colour
end if
if x0=x1 and y0=y1 then exit end if
prevle = lineError
if prevle>-deltaX then
lineError -= deltaY
x0 += stepX
end if
if prevle<deltaY then
lineError += deltaX
y0 += stepY
end if
end while
return screenData
end function

sequence screenData = new_image(400,300,black)


screenData = bresLine(screenData,100,1,50,300,red)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,1,180,400,240,green)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,200,1,400,150,white)
screenData = bresLine(screenData,195,1,205,300,blue)
write_ppm("bresenham.ppm",screenData)

PicoLisp [edit]

(de brez (Img X Y DX DY)


(let SX
(cond
((=0 DX) 0)
((gt0 DX) 1)
(T (setq DX (- DX)) -1) )
(let SY
(cond
((=0 DY) 0)
((gt0 DY) 1)
(T (setq DY (- DY)) -1) )
(if (>= DX DY)
(let E (- (* 2 DY) DX)
(do DX
(set (nth Img Y X) 1)
(when (ge0 E)
(inc 'Y SY)
(dec 'E (* 2 DX)) )
(inc 'X SX)
(inc 'E (* 2 DY)) ) )
(let E (- (* 2 DX) DY)
(do DY
(set (nth Img Y X) 1)
(when (ge0 E)
(inc 'X SX)
(dec 'E (* 2 DY)) )
(inc 'Y SY)
(inc 'E (* 2 DX)) ) ) ) ) ) )

(let Img (make (do 90 (link (need 120 0)))) # Create image 1
20 x 90
(brez Img 10 10 100 30) # Draw five line
s
(brez Img 10 10 100 50)
(brez Img 10 10 100 70)
(brez Img 10 10 60 70)
(brez Img 10 10 20 70)
(out "img.pbm" # Write to bitma
p file
(prinl "P1")
(prinl 120 " " 90)
(mapc prinl Img) ) )

PL/I [edit]

version 1[edit]
This example is incorrect. Please fix the code and remove this message.

Details: The sample output does not start at -1/-3!?! Pls show the complete program producing th

/* Draw a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1). 13 May 2010 */


/* Based on Rosetta code proforma. */

/* Declarations for image and selected color, for 4-bit colors.


*/
declare image(40,40) bit (4), color bit (4) static initial ('100
0'b);

draw_line: procedure (xi, yi, xf, yf );


declare (xi, yi, xf, yf) fixed binary (31) nonassignable;
declare (x0, y0, x1, y1) fixed binary (31);
declare (deltax, deltay, x, y, ystep) fixed binary;
declare (error initial (0), delta_error) float;
declare steep bit (1);

x0 = xi; y = YI; y0 = yi; x1 = xf; y1 = yf;


steep = abs(y1 - y0) > abs (x1 - x0);
if steep then
do; call swap (x0, y0); call swap (x1, y1); end;
if x0 > x1 then
do; call swap (x0, x1); call swap (y0, y1); end;
deltax = x1 - x0; deltay = abs(y1 - y0);
delta_error = deltay/deltax;
if y0 < y1 then ystep = 1; else ystep = -1;
do x = x0 to x1;
if steep then image(y, x) = color; else image(x, y) = color;
if steep then put skip list (y, x); else put skip list (x, y
);
error = error + delta_error;
if error >= 0.5 then do; y = y + ystep; error = error - 1; e
nd;
end;

swap: procedure (a, b);


declare (a, b) fixed binary (31);
declare t fixed binary (31);
t = a; a = b; b = t;
end swap;

end draw_line;

Output from the statement:-

call draw_line(-1, -3, 6, 10);

for a -10:10 x -10:10 grid:

..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|.........*
..........|.......**.
..........|.....**...
..........|...**.....
----------+-**-------
..........**.........
........**|..........
.......*..|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........
..........|..........

version 2[edit]
*process source xref or(!);
brbn:Proc Options(main);
/*****************************************************************
****
* 21.05.2014 Walter Pachl
* Implementing the pseudo code of
* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bresenham%27s_line_algorithm
* under 'Simplification' (see also REXX version 2)
******************************************************************
***/
grid.=
dcl image(-2:7,-4:11) char(1);
image='.';
image(*,0)='-';
image(0,*)='|';
image(0,0)='+';
call draw_line(-1,-3,6,10);
Dcl (i,j) Bin Fixed(31);
Do j=11 To -4 By -1;
Put Edit(j,' ')(Skip,f(2),a);
Do i=-2 To 7;
Put Edit(image(i,j))(a);
End;
End;
Put Edit(' 2101234567')(Skip,a);

draw_line: procedure (x0,y0,x1,y1);


dcl (x0,y0,x1,y1) fixed binary(31);
dcl (dx,dy,sx,sy,err,e2) fixed binary(31);

dx = abs(x1-x0);
dy = abs(y1-y0);
if x0 < x1 then sx = 1;
else sx = -1;
if y0 < y1 then sy = 1;
else sy = -1;
err = dx-dy;

Do Until(x0=x1&y0=y1);
image(x0,y0)='X';
e2=err*2;
if e2>-dy then do;
err=err-dy;
x0=x0+sx;
End;
if e2<dx then do;
err=err+dx;
y0=y0+sy;
End;
End;
image(x0,y0)='X';
end;
end;

output

11 ..|.......
10 ..|.....X.
9 ..|....X..
8 ..|....X..
7 ..|...X...
6 ..|...X...
5 ..|..X....
4 ..|..X....
3 ..|.X.....
2 ..|.X.....
1 ..|X......
0 --+X------
-1 ..X.......
-2 ..X.......
-3 .X|.......
-4 ..|.......
2101234567

Prolog [edit]

Works with SWI-prolog.

use_module(library(pce)).
lindraw(X1,Y1,X2,Y2):-
new(Win,window("Line")),
new(Pix,pixmap(@nil,black,white,X2+30,Y2+30)),
send(Win,size,size(400,400)),
draw_line(Pix,X1,Y1,X2,Y2),
new(Bmp,bitmap(Pix)),
send(Win,display,Bmp,point(0,0)),
send(Win,open).

draw_recursive_line(_Pict,X,X,_DX,_DY,Y,Y,_D,_Sx,_Sy).%Don't iterat
e if X and X2 are the same number
draw_recursive_line(Pict,X,X2,DX,DY,Y,Y2,C,Sx,Sy):-
( C>0->%If the difference is greater than one, add Y one to Y
.
Y1 is Y+Sy,
send(Pict,pixel(X,Y1,colour(black))),
C2 is C+(2*DY-2*DX);
Y1 is Y,
send(Pict,pixel(X,Y,colour(black))),
C2 is C+(2*DY)),
X0 is X+Sx,%The next iteration
draw_recursive_line(Pict,X0,X2,DX,DY,Y1,Y2,C2,Sx,Sy).
isneg(X,O):-
( X<0->

O is -1;
( X\==0->
O is 1;
O is 0)).

draw_line(Pict,X1,Y1,X2,Y2):-
DY is abs(Y2-Y1),
DX is abs(X2-X1),
isneg(DX,Sx),
isneg(DY,Sy),
D = 2*DY-DX,%The slope of the line
draw_recursive_line(Pict,X1,X2,DX,DY,Y1,Y2,D,Sx,Sy).

PureBasic [edit]

Procedure BresenhamLine(x0 ,y0 ,x1 ,y1)


If Abs(y1 - y0) > Abs(x1 - x0);
steep =#True
Swap x0, y0
Swap x1, y1
EndIf
If x0 > x1
Swap x0, x1
Swap y0, y1
EndIf
deltax = x1 - x0
deltay = Abs(y1 - y0)
error = deltax / 2
y = y0
If y0 < y1
ystep = 1
Else
ystep = -1
EndIf
For x = x0 To x1
If steep
Plot(y,x)
Else
Plot(x,y)
EndIf
error - deltay
If error < 0
y + ystep
error + deltax
EndIf
Next
EndProcedure

#Window1 = 0
#Image1 = 0
#ImgGadget = 0
#width = 300
#height = 300

Define.i Event
Define.f Angle

If OpenWindow(#Window1, 0, 0, #width, #height, "Bresenham's Line Pu


reBasic Example", #PB_Window_SystemMenu|#PB_Window_ScreenCentered)
If CreateImage(#Image1, #width, #height)
ImageGadget(#ImgGadget, 0, 0, #width, #height, ImageID(#Image
1))
StartDrawing(ImageOutput(#Image1))
FillArea(0,0,-1,$FFFFFF) :FrontColor(0)
While Angle < 2*#PI
BresenhamLine(150,150,150+Cos(Angle)*120,150+Sin(Angle)*120
)
Angle + #PI/60
Wend

StopDrawing()
SetGadgetState(#ImgGadget, ImageID(#Image1))
Repeat
Event = WaitWindowEvent()
Until Event = #PB_Event_CloseWindow
EndIf
EndIf

Python [edit]

Works with: Python version 3.1


Extending the example given here and using the algorithm from the Ada solution:

def line(self, x0, y0, x1, y1):


"Bresenham's line algorithm"
dx = abs(x1 - x0)
dy = abs(y1 - y0)
x, y = x0, y0
sx = -1 if x0 > x1 else 1
sy = -1 if y0 > y1 else 1
if dx > dy:
err = dx / 2.0
while x != x1:
self.set(x, y)
err -= dy
if err < 0:
y += sy
err += dx
x += sx
else:
err = dy / 2.0
while y != y1:
self.set(x, y)
err -= dx
if err < 0:
x += sx
err += dy
y += sy
self.set(x, y)
Bitmap.line = line

bitmap = Bitmap(17,17)
for points in ((1,8,8,16),(8,16,16,8),(16,8,8,1),(8,1,1,8)):
bitmap.line(*points)
bitmap.chardisplay()

'''
The origin, 0,0; is the lower left, with x increasing to the right,
and Y increasing upwards.

The chardisplay above produces the following output :


+-----------------+
| @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @|
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @@ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ @ |
| @ |
| |
+-----------------+
'''

Not relying on floats[edit]


Extending the example given here.

from fractions import Fraction

def line(self, x0, y0, x1, y1):


rev = reversed
if abs(y1 - y0) <= abs(x1 - x0):
x0, y0, x1, y1 = y0, x0, y1, x1
rev = lambda x: x
if x1 < x0:
x0, y0, x1, y1 = x1, y1, x0, y0
leny = abs(y1 - y0)
for i in range(leny + 1):
self.set(*rev((round(Fraction(i, leny) * (x1 - x0)) + x0, (
1 if y1 > y0 else -1) * i + y0)))

Bitmap.line = line

# see test code above

Racket [edit]

Port of the Python version.

#lang racket
(require racket/draw)

(define (draw-line dc x0 y0 x1 y1)


(define dx (abs (- x1 x0)))
(define dy (abs (- y1 y0)))
(define sx (if (> x0 x1) -1 1))
(define sy (if (> y0 y1) -1 1))
(cond
[(> dx dy)
(let loop ([x x0] [y y0] [err (/ dx 2.0)])
(unless (= x x1)
(send dc draw-point x y)
(define newerr (- err dy))
(if (< newerr 0)
(loop (+ x sx) (+ y sy) (+ newerr dx))
(loop (+ x sx) y newerr))))]
[else
(let loop ([x x0] [y y0] [err (/ dy 2.0)])
(unless (= y y1)
(send dc draw-point x y)
(define newerr (- err dy))
(if (< newerr 0)
(loop (+ x sx) (+ y sy) newerr)
(loop x (+ y sy) (+ newerr dy)))))]))

(define bm (make-object bitmap% 17 17))


(define dc (new bitmap-dc% [bitmap bm]))
(send dc set-smoothing 'unsmoothed)
(send dc set-pen "red" 1 'solid)
(for ([points '((1 8 8 16) (8 16 16 8) (16 8 8 1) (8 1 1 8))])
(apply draw-line (cons dc points)))
bm

RapidQ [edit]

Use this routine together with the code from Basic bitmap storage to create a full
application.

SUB draw_line(x1, y1, x2, y2, colour)


x_dist = abs(x2-x1)
y_dist = abs(y2-y1)
IF y2-y1 < -x_dist OR x2-x1 <= -y_dist THEN
SWAP x1, x2 ' Swap start and end points
SWAP y1, y2
END IF
IF x1 < x2 THEN x_step = 1 ELSE x_step = -1
IF y1 < y2 THEN y_step = 1 ELSE y_step = -1

IF y_dist > x_dist THEN ' steep angle, step by y


error = y_dist/2
x = x1
FOR y = y1 TO y2
canvas.Pset(x, y, colour)
error = error - x_dist
IF error < 0 THEN
x = x + x_step
error = error + y_dist
END IF
NEXT y
ELSE ' not steep, step by x
error = x_dist/2
y = y1
FOR x = x1 TO x2
canvas.Pset(x, y, colour)
error = error - y_dist
IF error < 0 THEN
y = y + y_step
error = error + x_dist
END IF
NEXT y
END IF

END SUB

Example usage:

SUB PaintCanvas
draw_line 200, 10, 100, 200, &H00ff00
draw_line 100, 200, 200, 400, &H00ff00
draw_line 200, 400, 300, 200, &H00ff00
draw_line 300, 200, 200, 10, &H00ff00
END SUB

REXX [edit]

version 1[edit]
This REXX version has automatic scaling (for displaying the plot), includes a
border, accepts lines segments from the
command line, and it also handles multiple line segments.

/*REXX program plots/draws line segments using the Bresenham's l


ine (2D) algorithm. */
parse arg data /*obtain optional
arguments from the CL*/
if data='' then data= "(1,8) (8,16) (16,8) (8,1) (1,8)"
/* ◄──── a rhombus.*/
data=translate(data, , '()[]{}/,:;') /*elide chaff from
the data points. */
@.='·' /*fill the array w
ith middle─dots chars*/
do points=1 while data\='' /*put the data poi
nts into an array (!)*/
parse var data x y data; !.points=x y /*extract the line
segments. */
if points==1 then do; minX=x; maxX=x; minY=y; maxY=y
; end /*1st case.*/
minX=min(minX,x); maxX=max(maxX,x); minY=min(minY,y); m
axY=max(maxY,y)
end /*points*/ /* [↑] data point
s pairs in array !. */
border=2 /*border: is extr
a space around plot. */
minX=minX-border*2; maxX=maxX+border*2 /*min and max X
for the plot display.*/
minY=minY-border ; maxY=maxY+border /* " " " Y
" " " " */
do x=minX to maxX; @.x.0='─'; end /*draw a dash from
left ───► right.*/
do y=minY to maxY; @.0.y='│'; end /*draw a pipe from
lowest ───► highest*/
@.0.0='┼' /*define the plot'
s origin axis point. */
do seg=2 to points-1; _=seg-1 /*obtain the X an
d Y line coördinates*/
call draw_line !._, !.seg /*draw (plot) a li
ne segment. */
end /*seg*/ /* [↑] drawing th
e line segments. */
/* [↓] display th
e plot to terminal. */
do y=maxY to minY by -1; _= /*display the plot
one line at a time. */
do x=minX to maxX; _=_ || @.x.y /*construct/build
a line of the plot. */
end /*x*/ /* (a line is
a "row" of points.) */
say _ /*display a line o
f the plot──►terminal*/
end /*y*/ /* [↑] all done p
lotting the points. */
exit /*stick a fork in
it, we're all done. */
/*─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
─────────────────────*/
draw_line: procedure expose @.; parse arg x y,xf yf;
plotChar='Θ'
dx=abs(xf-x); if x<xf then sx= +1 /*obtain X range
, determine the slope*/
else sx= -1 /*
negative slope. */
dy=abs(yf-y); if y<yf then sy= +1 /*obtain Y range
, determine the slope*/
else sy= -1 /*
negative slope. */
err=dx-dy /*calculate error
between adjustments. */
do forever; @.x.y=plotChar /*plot the points
until it's complete. */
if x=xf & y=yf then return /*are the plot poi
nts at the finish? */
err2=err+err /*addition is fast
er than: err*2. */
if err2 > -dy then do; err=err-dy; x=x+sx; end
if err2 < dx then do; err=err+dx; y=y+sy; end
end /*forever*/

output when using the default input:

···│····················
···│····················
···│·······Θ············
···│······Θ·Θ···········
···│·····Θ···Θ··········
···│····Θ·····Θ·········
···│···Θ·······Θ········
···│···Θ········Θ·······
···│··Θ··········Θ······
···│·Θ············Θ·····
···│Θ··············Θ····
···│·Θ············Θ·····
···│··Θ··········Θ······
···│···Θ·······ΘΘ·······
···│····Θ·····Θ·········
···│·····Θ···Θ··········
···│······Θ·Θ···········
···│·······Θ············
───┼────────────────────
···│····················

version 2[edit]
/* REXX ***********************************************************
****
* 21.05.2014 Walter Pachl
* Implementing the pseudo code of
* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bresenham%27s_line_algorithm
* under 'Simplification'
*******************************************************************
***/
grid.='.'
Do i=-2 To 7; grid.i.0='-'; End
Do j=-4 To 11; grid.0.j='|'; End
grid.0.0='+'
Call line -1,-3,6,10
Do j=11 To -4 By -1
ol=format(j,2)' '
Do i=-2 To 7
ol=ol||grid.i.j
End
Say ol
End
Say ' 2101234567'
Exit
line: Procedure Expose grid.
Parse Arg x0, y0, x1, y1
dx = abs(x1-x0)
dy = abs(y1-y0)
if x0 < x1 then sx = 1
else sx = -1
if y0 < y1 then sy = 1
else sy = -1
err = dx-dy

Do Forever
grid.x0.y0='X'
if x0 = x1 & y0 = y1 Then Leave
e2 = 2*err
if e2 > -dy then do
err = err - dy
x0 = x0 + sx
end
if e2 < dx then do
err = err + dx
y0 = y0 + sy
end
end
Return

output

11 ..|.......
10 ..|.....X.
9 ..|....X..
8 ..|....X..
7 ..|...X...
6 ..|...X...
5 ..|..X....
4 ..|..X....
3 ..|.X.....
2 ..|.X.....
1 ..|X......
0 --+X------
-1 ..X.......
-2 ..X.......
-3 .X|.......
-4 ..|.......
2101234567

Ring [edit]

load "guilib.ring"
load "stdlib.ring"

new qapp
{
win1 = new qwidget() {
setwindowtitle("drawing using qpainter")
setwinicon(self,"c:\ring\bin\image\browser.png")
setgeometry(100,100,500,600)
label1 = new qlabel(win1) {
setgeometry(10,10,400,400)
settext("")
}
new qpushbutton(win1) {
setgeometry(200,400,100,30)
settext("draw")
setclickevent("draw()")
}
show()
}
exec()
}

func draw
p1 = new qpicture()
color = new qcolor() {
setrgb(0,0,255,255)
}
pen = new qpen() {
setcolor(color)
setwidth(1)
}
new qpainter() {
begin(p1)
setpen(pen)

line = [[50,100,100,190], [100,190,150,100], [150,100,100,1


0], [100,10,50,100]]

for n = 1 to 4
x1=line[n][1] y1=line[n][2] x2=line[n][3] y2=line[n][4]
dx = fabs(x2 - x1) sx = sign(x2 - x1)
dy = fabs(y2 - y1) sy = sign(y2 - y1)
if dx < dy e = dx / 2 else e = dy / 2 ok
while true
drawline (x1*2,y1*2,x2*2,y2*2)
if x1 = x2 if y1 = y2 exit ok ok
if dx > dy
x1 += sx e -= dy if e < 0 e += dx y1 += sy o
k
else
y1 += sy e -= dx if e < 0 e += dy x1 += sx ok
ok
end
next

endpaint()
}
label1 { setpicture(p1) show() }
Output : Bitmap/Bresenham's algorithm

Ruby [edit]

Pixel = Struct.new(:x, :y)

class Pixmap

def draw_line(p1, p2, colour)


validate_pixel(p1.x, p2.y)
validate_pixel(p2.x, p2.y)

x1, y1 = p1.x, p1.y


x2, y2 = p2.x, p2.y

steep = (y2 - y1).abs > (x2 - x1).abs

if steep
x1, y1 = y1, x1
x2, y2 = y2, x2
end

if x1 > x2
x1, x2 = x2, x1
y1, y2 = y2, y1
end

deltax = x2 - x1
deltay = (y2 - y1).abs
error = deltax / 2
ystep = y1 < y2 ? 1 : -1

y = y1
x1.upto(x2) do |x|
pixel = steep ? [y,x] : [x,y]
self[*pixel] = colour
error -= deltay
if error < 0
y += ystep
error += deltax
end
end
end
end

bitmap = Pixmap.new(500, 500)


bitmap.fill(RGBColour::BLUE)
10.step(430, 60) do |a|
bitmap.draw_line(Pixel[10, 10], Pixel[490,a], RGBColour::YELLOW)
bitmap.draw_line(Pixel[10, 10], Pixel[a,490], RGBColour::YELLOW)
end
bitmap.draw_line(Pixel[10, 10], Pixel[490,490], RGBColour::YELLOW)

Scala [edit]

Uses the Scala Basic Bitmap Storage class.


object BitmapOps {
def bresenham(bm:RgbBitmap, x0:Int, y0:Int, x1:Int, y1:Int, c:Co
lor)={
val dx=math.abs(x1-x0)
val sx=if (x0<x1) 1 else -1
val dy=math.abs(y1-y0)
val sy=if (y0<y1) 1 else -1

def it=new Iterator[Tuple2[Int,Int]]{


var x=x0; var y=y0
var err=(if (dx>dy) dx else -dy)/2
def next={
val res=(x,y)
val e2=err;
if (e2 > -dx) {err-=dy; x+=sx}
if (e2<dy) {err+=dx; y+=sy}
res;
}
def hasNext = (sx*x <= sx*x1 && sy*y <= sy*y1)
}

for((x,y) <- it)


bm.setPixel(x, y, c)
}
}

Sidef [edit]

Translation of: Perl

func my_draw_line(img, x0, y0, x1, y1) {

var steep = (abs(y1 - y0) > abs(x1 - x0))

if (steep) {
(y0, x0) = (x0, y0)
(y1, x1) = (x1, y1)
}
if (x0 > x1) {
(x1, x0) = (x0, x1)
(y1, y0) = (y0, y1)
}

var deltax = (x1 - x0)


var deltay = abs(y1 - y0)
var error = (deltax / 2)
var y = y0
var ystep = (y0 < y1 ? 1 : -1)

x0.to(x1).each { |x|
img.draw_point(steep ? ((y, x)) : ((x, y)))
error -= deltay
if (error < 0) {
y += ystep
error += deltax
}
}
}

require('Image::Imlib2')

var img = %s'Image::Imlib2'.new(160, 160)


img.set_color(255, 255, 255, 255) # white
img.fill_rectangle(0,0,160,160)

img.set_color(0,0,0,255) # black
my_draw_line(img, 10, 80, 80, 160)
my_draw_line(img, 80, 160, 160, 80)
my_draw_line(img, 160, 80, 80, 10)
my_draw_line(img, 80, 10, 10, 80)

img.save("test0.png");

# let's try the same using its internal algo


img.set_color(255, 255, 255, 255) # white
img.fill_rectangle(0,0,160,160)
img.set_color(0,0,0,255) # black
img.draw_line(10, 80, 80, 160)
img.draw_line(80, 160, 160, 80)
img.draw_line(160, 80, 80, 10)
img.draw_line(80, 10, 10, 80)

img.save("test1.png")

Tcl [edit]

Library: Tk
ref Basic bitmap storage#Tcl

package require Tcl 8.5


package require Tk

proc drawLine {image colour point0 point1} {


lassign $point0 x0 y0
lassign $point1 x1 y1

set steep [expr {abs($y1 - $y0) > abs($x1 - $x0)}]


if {$steep} {
lassign [list $x0 $y0] y0 x0
lassign [list $x1 $y1] y1 x1
}
if {$x0 > $x1} {
lassign [list $x0 $x1] x1 x0
lassign [list $y0 $y1] y1 y0
}
set deltax [expr {$x1 - $x0}]
set deltay [expr {abs($y1 - $y0)}]
set error [expr {$deltax / 2}]
set ystep [expr {$y0 < $y1 ? 1 : -1}]

for {set x $x0; set y $y0} {$x <= $x1} {incr x} {


setPixel $image $colour [expr {$steep ? [list $y $x] : [lis
t $x $y]}]
incr error -$deltay
if {$error < 0} {
incr y $ystep
incr error $deltax
}
}
}

# create the image and display it


set img [newImage 200 100]
label .l -image $img
pack .l

fill $img black


drawLine $img yellow {20 20} {180 80}
drawLine $img yellow {180 20} {20 80}

TI-89 BASIC [edit]

Note: This example does not use a user-defined image type, since that would be
particularly impractical, but rather draws on the calculator's graph screen, which has
essentially the same operations as an implementation of Basic bitmap storage would,
except for being black-and-white.

Translation of: E

(lx0, ly0, lx1, ly1)


Prgm
Local steep, x, y, dx, dy, ystep, error, tmp
abs(ly1 - ly0) > abs(lx1 - lx0) → steep
If steep Then
lx0 → tmp
ly0 → lx0
tmp → ly0
lx1 → tmp
ly1 → lx1
tmp → ly1
EndIf
If lx0 > lx1 Then
lx0 → tmp
lx1 → lx0
tmp → lx1
ly0 → tmp
ly1 → ly0
tmp → ly1
EndIf
lx1 - lx0 → dx
abs(ly1 - ly0) → dy
when(ly0 < ly1, 1, –1) → ystep
intDiv(dx, 2) → error
ly0 → y
For x,lx0,lx1
If steep Then: PxlChg x, y :Else: PxlChg y, x :EndIf
error - dy → error
If error < 0 Then
y + ystep → y
error + dx → error
EndIf
EndFor
EndPrgm

Vedit macro language [edit]

// Daw a line using Bresenham's line algorithm.


// #1=x1, #2=y1; #3=x2, #4=y2

:DRAW_LINE:
Num_Push(31,35)
#31 = abs(#3-#1) // x distance
#32 = abs(#4-#2) // y distance
if (#4-#2 < -#31 || #3-#1 <= -#32) {
#99=#1; #1=#3; #3=#99 // swap start and end points
#99=#2; #2=#4; #4=#99
}
if (#1 < #3) { #34=1 } else { #34=-1 } // x step
if (#2 < #4) { #35=1 } else { #35=-1 } // y step

if (#32 > #31) { // steep angle, step by Y


#33 = #32 / 2 // error distance
while (#2 <= #4) {
Call("DRAW_PIXEL")
#33 -= #31
if (#33 < 0) {
#1 += #34 // move right
#33 += #32
}
#2++ // move up
}
} else { // not steep, step by X
#33 = #31 / 2
while (#1 <= #3) {
Call("DRAW_PIXEL")
#33 -= #32
if (#33 < 0) {
#2 += #35 // move up
#33 += #31
}
#1++ // move right
}
}
Num_Pop(31,35)
return

Wart [edit]

# doesn't handle vertical lines


def (line x0 y0 x1 y1)
let steep ((> abs) y1-y0 x1-x0)
when steep
swap! x0 y0
swap! x1 y1
when (x0 > x1)
swap! x0 x1
swap! y0 y1
withs (deltax x1-x0
deltay (abs y1-y0)
error deltax/2
ystep (if (y0 < y1) 1 -1)
y y0)
for x x0 (x <= x1) ++x
if steep
plot y x
plot x y
error -= deltay
when (error < 0)
y += ystep
error += deltax

XPL0 [edit]

Bresenham line draw is built-in.

include c:\cxpl\codes; \intrinsic 'code' declarations


[SetVid($112); \set 640x480 graphics in 24-bit color
Move(10, 20); \set start of line segment
Line(600, 400, $123456);\draw line segment, red=$12, green=$34, blu
e=$56
if ChIn(1) then []; \wait for keystroke while viewing graphic s
creen
SetVid(3); \restore normal text mode
]

zkl [edit]

Algorithm from Wikipedia plus other functions so I can reference this code in other
examples.

ppm:=PPM(200,200,0xFF|FF|FF);
ppm.line(50,100, 100,190, 0);
ppm.line(100,190, 150,100, 0);
ppm.line(150,100, 100,10, 0);
ppm.line(100,10, 50,100, 0);

ppm.writeJPGFile("line.jpg");
class PPM{ // (0,0) is logically bottom left
fcn init(width,height,rgb=0){
sz:=width*height;
var [const]
data=Data(sz*3).fill(rgb.toBigEndian(3).toData()), // ini
tialize to 24bit Black (RGB=000)
w=width, h=height;
}
fcn fill(rgb){ data.fill(rgb.toBigEndian(3).toData()) }
fcn __sGet(x,y) { data.toBigEndian(3*y*w + 3*x,3); }
//ppm[x,y]
fcn __sSet(rgb,x,y){ data[3*y*w + x*3,3]=rgb.toBigEndian(3);
rgb } //ppm[x,y]=rgb
fcn write(out,raw=False){ // write bottom to top to move (0,0)
from top left to bottom left
out.write("P6\n#rosettacode PPM\n%d %d\n255\n".fmt(w,h));
if(raw) out.write(data);
else [h-1..0, -1].pump(out,'wrap(h){ data.seek(3*h*w); data.r
ead(3*w) });
}
fcn writeJPGFile(fname){ // Linux, using imagemagick
System.popen(0'|convert ppm:- jpg:"%s"|.fmt(fname),"w") :
write(_,vm.pasteArgs(1));
}
fcn readJPGFile(fileName){ // Linux, using imagemagick
p:=System.popen("convert \"%s\" ppm:-".fmt(fileName),"r");
img:=PPM.readPPM(p);
p.close();
img
}
fcn readPPMFile(fileName){
f:=File(fileName,"rb"); ppm:=readPPM(f); f.close();
ppm
}
fcn readPPM(image){ // image is a PPM byte stream
// header is "P6\n[#comment\n]<w> <h>\nmaxPixelValue\n
image.readln(); // "P6"
while("#"==(text:=image.readln().strip())[0]){}
w,h:=text.split().apply("toInt");
image.readln(); // max pixel value
ppm,sz,buffer:=PPM(w,h), 3*w, Data(sz);
ppm.data.clear(); // gonna write file image data
// image is stored upside down in my data structure
do(h){ ppm.data.insert(0, image.read(sz,buffer)) }
ppm
}
fcn circle(x0,y0,r,rgb){
x:=r; y:=0; radiusError:=1-x;
while(x >= y){
__sSet(rgb, x + x0, y + y0);
__sSet(rgb, y + x0, x + y0);
__sSet(rgb,-x + x0, y + y0);
__sSet(rgb,-y + x0, x + y0);
self[-x + x0, -y + y0]=rgb; // or do it this way, __sSet get
s called as above
self[-y + x0, -x + y0]=rgb;
self[ x + x0, -y + y0]=rgb;
self[ y + x0, -x + y0]=rgb;
y+=1;
if (radiusError<0) radiusError+=2*y + 1;
else{ x-=1; radiusError+=2*(y - x + 1); }
}
}
fcn cross(x,y,rgb=0xff|00,len=10){
a:=len/2; b:=len-a;
line(x-a,y, x+b,y,rgb); line(x,y-a, x,y+b,rgb);
}
fcn line(x0,y0, x1,y1, rgb){
dx:=(x1-x0).abs();
dy:=(y1-y0).abs();
if(x0 < x1) sx:=1 else sx:=-1;
if(y0 < y1) sy:=1 else sy:=-1;
err:=dx - dy;
while(1){
__sSet(rgb,x0,y0);
if(x0==x1 and y0==y1) break;
e2:=2*err;
if(e2 > -dy){ err=err - dy; x0=x0 + sx; }
if(e2 < dx) { err=err + dx; y0=y0 + sy; }
}
}
fcn flood(x,y, repl){ // slow!
targ:=self[x,y];
(stack:=List.createLong(10000)).append(T(x,y));
while(stack){
x,y:=stack.pop();
if((0<=y<h) and (0<=x<w)){
p:=self[x,y];
if(p==targ){
self[x,y]=repl;
stack.append( T(x-1,y), T(x+1,y), T(x, y-1), T(x, y+1) )
;
}
}
}
}
}