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doc

"Scalar properties"

Definitions

Weight: wi

Volume: vi

Volume fractions: Vf Vm Vvoid ... or Vi

Weight fraction: Wi

Density of composite: r c

Burnout

n

r c =�r iVi

i =1

1

rc = n

�W / r i i

i =1

wi =r i / r cVi

rc

Vi = wi

ri

Note: There are lots of ways to express these relationships. (For example, two forms

are given for r c .

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

Continuous fiber composites

behavior from the properties of the

constituents. (i.e. to determine the

"effective" or "homogenized"

properties) Typical requirement:

periodicity of the material structure.

(unit cell) Examples

Consider the following comparisons

Simulated experiment of composite vs. equivalent material

Volume averaged stress vs. volume averaged strain of composite vs. that for

equivalent material

Strain energy of composite vs. equivalent material

Result = effective engineering properties

Result varies: effective engineering properties, ABD matrices

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

for the fiber-direction

effective modulus?

error for the effective

modulus perpendicular to

the fiber direction?

What variations of stresses are assumed?

…Ditto for strains

Approximate analyses for determining effective properties violate reality in one or more

ways:

Distribution of constituents

Shape of constituents

Compatibility of displacements

Equilibrium

Dimensionality (e.g. 1D or 2D analysis)

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

* Same axial strain

* Determine average stress

* Same axial stress

* Determine average strain

* Same axial strain

* Determine v12 from net contraction

Because the constitutive matrix is symmetric,

v12 v E

21 v 21 22 v12

E11 E 22 E11

* Same shear stress

* Determine average strain

* In each case we assume either constant or . Also, within a single constituent both

the stress and strain are constant.

superscript “c” composite value … either same for all constituents or is the

“effective” value

subscript f fiber value

subscript m matrix value

Vf, Vm = volume fractions of fiber and matrix, respectively

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C

Effective Longitudinal Modulus, E11

c

f m

f m

b

P

E f af

Em am

P f da bi ba bg

f m m

f Ef c

m E m c

P

c

da b a bi

f m

c c

E11

c

c

Result: E V f E f Vm E m

General: E Vi E i

c

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C

Effective Transverse Modulus, E 22

f m

f m c

E f a f

E m a m

b

d i

c a f am f a f mam

c c

Also, f , m

Ef Em

c

Ec

c

Result

1

Ec

1 1

Vf Vm

Ef Em

General

1

Ec

V

Ei

i

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C

Effective Shear Modulus, G12

x2

P b g b g

12 f 12 m

a G

x1 b g b g

12 f 12 m

C

f f

a m G m

b

x3

L

C

12 d

a f a m 12 i b ga b gaf f 12 m m

12

u1 F

Gu IJ

Hx K

2

0

x 2 1

b g G

12 f

C

b g G

12 m

C

C

GC C

12

Result:

1

GC

1 1

Vf Vm

Gf Gm

not considered very accurate

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C

v12

X2

f af X1

m am

Load in x1 direction

22c

v12C -

11c

11 f 11m 11

22 f - v12f 11

22 m - v12m 11

Du2 22 f a f 22 m am

22

C

a f am a f am

22 f V f 22 mVm

22

C

- v12f 11V f - v12m 11Vm

- C22

C

v12 v12f V f v12

m

Vm rule of mixtures

11

C

C E 22

and v 21 C

v12 consequence of symmetry of constitutive matrix

E11

C

Challenge: Calculate v21 directly using SOM.

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

Transport Properties

p.105

heat conduction

electrical conduction

moisture diffusion

transport of electrical and magnetic fields

Estimate

Longitudinal: k L V f k f Vm k m (i.e. rule of mixtures)

Transverse: Use Halpin-Tsai equations

kf

-1

k T 1 V f km

;n

km 1 - V f kf

km

a

and log 3 log

b

natural log?

p.106

Fickian … like heat conduction

Non-Fickian

Text gives solution for 1-D Fickian (I think).

Some “useful” equations for estimating moisture content of plate vs. time (how long

for saturation)

We will return to this if time permits.

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

Thermal Expansion

p. 101 Schapery

L

1

EL

d i

f E f V f m E mVm (3.67)

d i

T 1 f f Vf b

1 g

V m m m (3.68)

- L LT

For V f 25%

b g

T f V f 1 m mVm

How would you calculate thermal expansion coefficients using finite elements?

/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

p. 104

Usually assume L 0 (since fibers prevent expansion)

T

C

m

b g

1m m

densities

Compare with thermal expansion equation

b g

T f V f 1 m mVm

assume f 0

b g

T 1 m mVm

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