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(c) The image is smaller, upright, virtual, and on the same side of the lens.

Applying Inquiry Skills


7. (a)

(b) By measuring the image height for various image distances (adjusted by sliding the tubes together or apart) a
relationship can be determined.

10.3 MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS FOR THIN LENSES

Investigation 10.3.1 Predicting the Location of Images Produced


by a Converging Lens
(Pages 367–369)

Purpose
The purpose of this investigation is to determine the relationship between the focal length, the image distance, and the object
distance of a converging lens.

Question
What is the relationship between the focal length, the image distance, and the object distance of a converging lens?

Hypothesis/Prediction
(a) It was expected that the relationship between the focal length, the image distance, and the object distance of a converging
lens would conform to the ray diagrams for images produced by a converging lens developed previously. As the object
was placed increasingly closer to the converging lens, it was predicted that the image would be found increasing further
from the lens. Secondly, as the object drew closer to the lens, the image would become larger. It was expected that no
image would be located when the object was placed at the principal focus of the lens and when the object was placed
between the lens and the principal focus, a real image would not be projected on a screen. Instead, a virtual image, larger
than the object itself, would be seen on the same side of the lens as the object. This virtual image would be seen by
looking through the lens from the side opposite that of the object.

Design
An optical bench was used with a light bulb acting as an object. By placing the light bulb at various positions in front of the
converging lens of known focal length, an image was sought in each case. Distances to the object and image were measured
and the characteristics of the image noted.

250 Unit 4 Light and Geometric Optics Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning
Materials
• converging lens (f = 10 cm → 25 cm)
• small light source (miniature light bulb)
• translucent screen (white paper)
• optical bench

Procedure
Part 1: Real Image
1. With the converging lens positioned at the midpoint of the optical bench, the focal length of the lens was determined by
locating the image of a distant object on the screen. The distance from the lens to the screen was measured and recorded
as the focal length of the lens.
2. The optical bench was turned end for end and the focal length determined again, this time with the light entering the lens
from the other side. The average of the two values for the focal length was calculated.
3. Using this value for the focal length (f), the object distances for 2.5f, 2.0f, 1.5f, 1.0f, and 0.5f were calculated and recorded
in Table 1.
4. The light bulb, serving as the object, was placed on the optical bench at 2.5f. A screen was moved back and forth along
the principal axis until a clearly focused image was observed. Its position and image characteristics were measured and
noted in Table 1.
5. Step 4 was repeated for other object distances that resulted in real images, namely 2.0f and 1.5f.
1  1 1 1 
6. Columns in Table 1 for   ,   , and  +  were completed and the value of the reciprocal of the focal length
do  di   d o di 
was determined.
7. The magnification for the observations were calculated and recorded.
Part 2: Virtual Image
1. The light bulb was placed at 0.5f and a pencil was held above the image as seen by looking through the lens from the side
opposite the object. The position of the pencil was adjusted until there was no relative movement of the pencil and image
when the observer’s head was moved from side to side.
2. The distance to the pencil from the lens was measured and recorded in Table 1 as the image distance for this observation.
The characteristics of the image were recorded.

Observations
The focal length of the lens was determined to be 10.0 cm in both attempts to measure it.
In Part 1 of this investigation it was noted that as the object got closer to the screen, the image got further away. The
image also got increasingly larger as the object drew nearer to the lens. In all cases, the image was found to be inverted when
compared with the orientation of the object.
When the object was placed at 1.0f, the focal point, no image could be found. Instead, a bright circular patch of light could
be seen on the screen, but no clearly focused image. This patch of light was evident at all locations as the screen was moved
back and forth along the principal axis.
When the object was placed at 0.5f, no image could be found on the screen at any location.
In Part 2 of this investigation, the image was located on the same side of the lens as the object. It could be seen clearly by
looking through the lens from the side opposite the object. The image was larger and upright when compared to the object.
The image distance in this case was assigned a negative value.

Table 1 Image Locations and Characteristics for Various Object Placements


Observation Object Image Characteristics 1 1 1 1 Magnification
distance distance + (M)
do di do d i
(do) (di) –1 –1 –1
(cm) (cm) size attitude type (cm ) (cm ) (cm )

1 2.5f = 25.0 16.7 smaller inverted real 0.0400 0.0599 0.0999 –0.668
2 2.0f = 20.0 20.0 same inverted real 0.0500 0.0500 0.1000 –1.00
3 1.5f = 15.0 30.0 larger inverted real 0.0667 0.0333 0.1000 –2.00
4 1.0f = 10.0 — no image found — — — —
5 0.5f = 5.0 –10.0 larger upright virtual 0.200 –0.100 0.100 2.00

Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning Chapter 10 Lenses and the Eye 251
Analysis
(b) The method for determining the focal length as described in the procedure works because the rays of light arriving at the
lens from a distant object are travelling nearly parallel to each other and to the principal axis. As such, they will all be
refracted through the principal focus of the lens, producing the image at this position. The more distant the object is, the
more precisely the focal length of the lens can be determined.
(c) The focal lengths of the lens as measured from both sides were found to be identical.
(d) As the object moved closer to the lens, the image got farther from the lens and grew in size. The attitude of the image
remained inverted. These observations held true for all object positions beyond the principal focus.
(e) It was not possible to locate a clearly focused image when the lens was placed at the principal focus.
(f) Provided the object was positioned beyond the principal focus, a real image was always produced. When the object was
placed between the principal focus and the lens, a virtual image resulted.
1
(g) The value of was determined as follows:
f
1 1
= cm
f 10.0
= 0.100 cm–1
 1 1
When this value is compared with the value of  +  for the cases involving real images, the values are found to be
 d o di 
the same.
1
(h) If the distance to the virtual image is assigned a negative value as indicated in Table 1, then the values of and
f
 1 1
 +  are also equal.
 d o di 
(i) The relationship between the focal length, image distance, and object distance for a converging lens can be expressed as a
mathematical equation involving those three variables. Provided that object distances are always positive quantities,
distances to real images are positive quantities, and distances to virtual images are always negative quantities, the
following expression holds true:
1  1 1
= +
f  d o di 

Evaluation
(j) The predictions made in this investigation were confirmed by the experimental results. The positions and characteristics
of images for various object locations using a converging lens were found to be in agreement with those predicted by the
ray diagrams completed previously. In addition to those qualitative results, this investigation provided a mathematical
formula that defines the relationship between the focal length, image distance, and object distance for a converging lens.
(k) The main source of experimental error in this investigation is the difficulty the observer has in deciding exactly where the
image is most clearly focused. The screen was moved back and forth along the principal axis until the image was judged
to be clearest. All measurements were made in terms of the focal length of the lens which, itself, was experimentally
determined. If the focal length was inaccurate, all other results would be as well. The focal length was determined by
focusing the image of a distant object on a screen. To improve on the precision of this value, the object should be as far
away as possible. Having completed this investigation, it is apparent that when the object was located at 2.0f, the image
was found to be exactly the same distance from the lens on the opposite side. This result would provide an alternative
method of determining the focal length of the lens.

252 Unit 4 Light and Geometric Optics Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning
PRACTICE
(Page 371)

Understanding Concepts
1.
Variable Situation when positive Situation when negative
f for a converging lens for a diverging lens
do always never
di real image virtual image
ho object is above PA object is below PA
hi image is above PA image is below PA
M image is upright image is inverted

2. Page 362, question 3


(a) f = 32 mm 1 1 1
= +
do = 64 mm f di do
di = ? 1 1 1
ho = 15 mm = +
32 d i 64
d i = 64 mm
d
M =− i
do
64
=−
64
M = −1.0
(b) f = 32 mm 1 1 1
= +
do = 52 mm f di do
di = ? 1 1 1
ho = 15 mm = +
32 d i 52
d i = 83 mm
d
M =− i
do
83
=−
52
M = −1.6
(c) f = 32 mm 1 1 1
= +
di = ? f di do
do = 16 mm 1 1 1
ho = 15 mm = +
32 d i 16
d i = − 32 mm
di
M =−
do
−32
=−
16
M = 2.0

Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning Chapter 10 Lenses and the Eye 253
2. Page 362, question 3
(a) f = –32 mm 1 1 1
= +
do = 64 mm f d i do
di = ? 1 1 1
ho = 12 mm = +
−32 d i 64
d i = −21 mm
di
M =−
do
−21
=−
64
M = 0.33
(b) f = –32 mm 1 1 1
= +
di = ? f d i do
do = 32 mm 1 1 1
ho = 12 mm = +
−32 d i 32
d i = −16 mm
di
M =−
do
−16
=−
32
M = 0.50

Section 10.3 Questions


(Page 371)

Understanding Concepts
1. (a) By measurement, the height of the inverted image is 14 cm.

(b) f = 25.0 cm 1 1 1
= +
do = 80.0 cm f di do
di = ? 1 1 1
ho = 30.0 cm = +
25.0 di 80.0
d i = 36.4 cm
hi d
=− i
ho do
hi 36.4
=−
30.0 80.0
hi = −13.7 cm
The inverted image is 13.7 cm below the PA at a distance of 36.4 cm from the lens.

254 Unit 4 Light and Geometric Optics Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning
2. (a) By measurement, the height of the image is 5.0 cm.

(b) f = –20.0 cm 1 1 1
= +
do = 60.0 cm f d i do
di = ? 1 1 1
ho = 20.0 cm = +
−20.0 d i 60.0
di = −15.0 cm
hi d
=− i
ho do
hi −15.0
=−
20.0 60.0
hi = 5.00 cm
The object has a height of 5.00 cm and is located 15 cm from the lens on the same side as the image.
3. (a) f = 10.0 cm 1 1 1
do = 10.2 cm = +
f di do
di = ?
1 1 1
= +
10.0 di 10.2
d i = 510 cm
The screen must be placed 5.10 cm away for a clear image.
(b) ho = 12.5 mm hi d
=− i
do = 10.2 cm ho do
di = 510 cm hi 510
hi = ? =−
12.5 mm 10.2
h i = 625 mm
The height of the dog on the screen is 62.5 cm.
4. f = 10.0 cm hi d
=− i
ho = 4.0 cm ho do
hi = 4.0 ÷ 2 = –2.0 cm (negative because it is inverted) −2.0 d
di = ? =− i
do = ? 4.0 do
do = 2.0 d i
1 1 1
= +
f di d o
1 1 1
= +
10.0 di 2.0di
3.0
0.100 =
2.0d i
d i = 15 cm
d o = 30 cm
For a real image (di is positive), the image and object are on opposite sides of the lens.
The total distance between the object and the image is 15 cm + 30 cm = 45 cm.

Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning Chapter 10 Lenses and the Eye 255
Applying Inquiry Skills
5. No, you could not use a diverging lens because a diverging lens can only produce a virtual image that cannot be captured
on a screen.

10.4 THE HUMAN EYE AND VISION


PRACTICE
(Page 373)

Understanding Concepts
1.
Eye part Function
iris changes size to regulate the amount of light
pupil hole through which light enters the eye
cornea first part of eye where most of the refraction takes place
aqueous humour colourless, watery fluid to help maintain the shape of the eye
vitreous humour colourless, jelly-like fluid to help maintain the shape of the eye
lens a flexible lens that can accommodate to change the focus
retina “carpet” of light sensitive cells
ciliary muscles muscles used to change the shape of the lens to focus

2. Light that passes through the pupil is absorbed by the retina. Since very little light comes back out, it appears black.
3. Our eyes can adapt more quickly passing into bright light than going into a dark room. The constriction of the pupils is an
active muscular action, while the dilation requires relaxing of the muscles.

Making Connections
4. If only one eye is functioning, we do not get two separate images of an object and are unable to determine the exact
location of one object relative to another because we cannot see if it “blocks out” parts of other objects.

Section 10.4 Questions


(Page 374)

Understanding Concepts
1. Most of the refraction of light takes place at the cornea. This boundary has the largest difference in indices of refraction.
2. We have two eyes that provide two slightly different images of any scene to our brain. The brain can analyze these images
to figure out which objects are distant and which are close. The angle, size, and double images allow us to know how far
we are from objects.
3. (a)

256 Unit 4 Light and Geometric Optics Copyright © 2002 Nelson Thomson Learning