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Pile foundations

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us ca v K s tan a

For sandy soils ca = 0 and hence the above equation is simplified to

us v K s tan a

However, accurately determining the lateral earth pressure coefficient Ks is difficult task. Therefore,

based on the research studies, various methods were developed to estimate the coefficient of lateral earth

pressure closer to pile. One of the commonly used method is β-method proposed by Burland (1972).

β-method

1) Due to remoulding adjacent to the pile, the effective stress cohesion intercept reduced to zero

2) The horizontal stress acting on the pile after dissipation of pore pressure is at least equal to the

horizontal stress prior to the installation of the pile (Ko condition)

3) The major shear distortion during pile loading is confined to a very relative thin zone around the pile

shaft and drainage of this thin pile zone either occurs rapidly during loading or ha already occurred

in the delay between driving and loading

Ko – Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest and for normally consolidated soils it is equal to

(1 sin )

Generally, β varies from 0.27 to 0.3 in the practical (for range of 25 to 300). This method is more of then

used with driven piles in cohesion less soil.

Based on the results of the research, it is concluded that the effective vertical overburden pressure closer

to the pile is not similar to the vertical effective over burden pressure under in-situ undisturbed

conditions. The presence of the pile tends to change the stress conditions close to the pile. The pile

provides some aching action and tends to reduce the overburden pressure beyond certain critical depths.

The skin friction developed on piles in sand varies with the depth and the total resistance should be

estimated considering such variations.

1

3

For driven piles 10 10

4

For bored piles 10 3

For 28 36.5

0 0

Z c / d 5 0.24( 28)

For 36.5 42

0 0

Z c / d 7 2.35( 36.5)

Example-1: Site investigation showed that sandy soil layer exists up to 10 m from the top surface and

the water table level is 2 m below the top surface. The internal friction angle of soil is 33 0 and

cohesion c = 0. It is required to install a driven 500 mm square pile. Determine the skin friction

distribution along the pile and estimate the total ultimate skin frictional resistance on the pile?

The unit weight of soil below water table is 18 kN/m3 and 15 kN/m3 above the water table.

Example-2: Site investigation showed that the thicknesses of medium, dense and weathered rock layers

are 11, 7 and 6 meters as show in below Figure. The water table is 3 m below the top surface. The

internal friction angles and unit weights of each layer is indicated in below Figure. If 900 mm diameter

long pile is installed, determine the skin friction along the pile and estimate the total ultimate skin

frictional resistance on the pile?

2

wet 15kN / m3

W.T

wet 18 kN / m 3

30 0

35 0

40 0

900 mm diameter long pile

Example 3: Subsurface exploration showed that soil is made of four layers such as loose silt sand, stiff

clay, weathered rock and fractured rock and their shear strength properties are shown in the below

Figure. Determine ultimate skin friction of the pile?

wet 15kN / m3

W.T

2.0 m

Loose silty sand wet 16kN / m 3

30 0

6.0 m

Stiff clay

wet 16.5kN / m 3

cu 50kPa

11.0 m

Completely weathered

rock (Coarse sand) wet 18kN / m 3

38 0

16.0 m

Fractured rock

3

Determination of the end bearing capacity

The pile bottom is pressed against the soil beneath the pile toe and the bearing capacity failure of the

soil can occur. The pile top is at a greater depth below the ground surface, the failure mode is normally

the local shear failure and the failure pattern is shown below.

The failure pattern is different from shallow foundation failure pattern. The same bearing equation

used in the shallow foundation design may be used with modified bearing capacity factors.

1

qend cN c qN q BN

2

where

Nc, Nq and N - Bearing capacity factors

q – Effective overburden pressure at the toe of the foundation

- Unit weight of the material below the pile toe.

Generally, the third term of the bearing equation is small compared to the other two terms. Therefore,

the third term of the equation can be neglected. Therefore, the above equation can be written as below.

qend cN c qN q

Skempton (1951) suggests the Nc values in clay as shown in the below chart.

4

Figure: Bearing capacity factors for foundations in clay ( 0 )

Different research studies proposed number of charts as shown below to determine the bearing capacity

factor Nq. Comparison of observed base resistance of piles by Nordlund (1963) and Vesic (1964)

showed that Nq values established by Berezantsev et al. (1961) which take into account the depth to

width ratio of the pile most nearly conform to practical criteria failure. Berenzantsev’s values of Nq as

adopted.

Example: Estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of the driven 500 mm square pile with the length of

10 m into a clay layer having undrained cohesion of 40 kPa.

The value of soil should be modified as below before using with Berenzantsev’s chart which is

shown below.

1 40

For driven piles:

2

For bored piles: 1 3

Example: Subsurface investigation revealed that cohesionless soil with internal friction angle 32 0

extend up to 10 m from the top surface of the soil. The water table is 2 m below the top surface. The

saturated unit weight of soil is 18 kN/m3 whereas the unit weight of soil above the water table is 15

kN/m3. Estimate the ultimate end bearing capacity of 500 mm × 500 mm driven pile if that is installed

in the soil layer?

5

Figure: Bearing capacity factors for circular deep foundations

Reference: Pile Foundation Analysis and Design by H.G. Poulos and E.H. Davis

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