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BSSOPT

2G Radio Network Optimization Principles (RG30)

Assessment

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Objectives

At the end of the this chapter participants will be able to:

• define network assessment


• understand why network assessment is needed
• know how to collect data for assessment
• know which data to collect from OSS
• know which tools can be used for assessment

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Contents of BSSOPT

• Introduction to Optimization
– What is network optimization?
– What should be taken into account when starting network optimization?
• Assessment
– Current network situation
• KPIs and Measurements
– Measurement tables and KPIs
• Finding optimization solutions and verification
– Maximum gain in limited time and investments
– Optimization tasks, implementations, solutions
• Optimization features
– NSN recommended optimization features

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Assessment – Table of Contents

• Configuration Assessment
– Introduction / dependency table example
– Area assessment
– Network assessment
• Parameter Assessment
– Parameter values
– Default and specific values
– Parameter checks (default and specific parameters)
– Consistency checks & delta values
– Frequencies (planning tool vs. real network values)
– Parameter discrepancies
– Feature assessment
• Performance Assessment
– Benchmarking KPIs used
– Performance Data analysis
– Multi vendor KPIs
– Field Tests
– Alarms
• Tools to be used

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Configuration assessment
Are Criteria’s
No Parameter assessment
Monitoring /
Analysis Solutions
Performance assessment
Fulfilled
Data collection

Yes Project
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Project
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Configuration assessment

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Configuration Assessment – Introduction


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Why is configuration assessment needed?


• It supports optimization decisions
– Provides information on which features can be implemented
 If limitations exist, e.g. dependency tables, these should be known
 Example: AMR project on Talk Family BTSs
– Provides information on how much capacity can be increased
 Understand limitations: can the same BTS cabinet be used if
additional TRXs need to be added?
 Are TRXs supporting EDGE?
 Can HR be used?
• It specifies optimization targets and inputs
– Provides information regarding resources and knowledge required
in the optimization project

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Dependency table example


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Feature: Energy Optimized TCH Allocation (New in RG20)


Feature ID: BSS21222

DX200 BTS BTS BTS Talk BTS Flexi


BSS BSC
Platform UltraSite MetroSite Family EDGE

Release RG20 S15 Not


No dependency Supported Supported Supported
supported

BTS Flexi BTS


NetAct SGSN MSC RAN MS
MultiRadio BTSplus

Supported No No No No No
Supported dependency dependency dependency
dependency dependency

Dependency Table for Feature BSS21222.


Licensing
The table is used to relate the BSS features
License Key to required system components.
Control

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Feature to Feature Dependency table example


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Some examples of feature to feature dependencies


• DTM
– GPRS,EDGE must be implemented before DTM can be used
– BSC2i or BSC3i / PCU2
• HMC
– 3GPP release 4 or earlier MSs are limited to combined DL/UL TSL sum
of 5
• DFCA
– DFCA requires BSS synchronization assuming that a Location
Measurement Unit (LMU) unit is installed in every BTS site with DFCA.
• Energy Optimised TCH Allocation (RG20 Feature)
– Should not be deployed simultaneously with the feature BSS08037
Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping in the same cell.

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Configuration Assessment – Area assessment


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• Location
• Area size
• Routes, types of roads etc

• Presence in Area (volume of network elements)


• Number of sites, cells, sectors, antennas

• Network Element types and software:


• BTS / BSC types & SW versions
• PCU types
• Antenna types

• Connectivity
• Number and locations of BSCs
• Average DAP size / BCF, SS7 link sizes etc…

• The following information regarding MSs used in the Network


must also be collected:
• Ratio of AMR capable terminals
• Ratio of R97, R98, R99, R4 capable terminals

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Configuration Assessment – Network Element


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Assessment
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• Sites / cells (from Network Configuration database)


• Site and cell IDs
• BTS configurations
• Antenna types, azimuths, heights, feeder lengths
• Location, coordinates and addresses
• MSC, BSC, LAC, RAC parameters, TX powers
• E1/T1s

• BTS HW Assessments
• Identify HW versions that are installed in sites

• BSC Assessment
• BSC name and type
• BSC max capacity

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Parameter assessment

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Parameter assessment – Parameter values (1)


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Generic process of parameter collection

Upload BSC Take BSC Define Run Generate


Actual XML Audit Audit XML
Configuration Dump Template Script Output

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Following parameters should be collected to get full


parameter assessment

ACP BTS LMUA RTSL


ADJC/ADCE DAP MA/MAL SG
ANE GPC NS_VC SMLC
BA/BAL HOC NSE TRK_TBL/TRKT
BCF IO_TEXT/TID PCU TRX
BSC LAC to SPC POC UADJC/ADJW
BTS LCSE RA

SS7 signalling network parameters


Parameters of X.25
Parameters of CLNS
PAFILE
PRFILE and FIFILE

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Parameter assessment – Default and specific


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parameter values
report

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Default Parameter Values:


• Almost all parameters are set to
default values
• Default values are defined based
on studies

Specific Parameter Values:


• Special solutions for specific areas
• Poor performance with default values
• Changes carry risk as they may have a
critical impact on the network.
• Testing changes before implementation
is necessary
• It is not recommended to fix side-
effects of the special values by setting
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Default Parameter Values Check


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Default parameter values check

• Export Actual Default Parameters from the OSS in .xml file format
• Use latest default values (based on latest studies)
• Import .xml files into a Database using for e.g. CM Plan Editor.
• Compare Planned Default Sets with Actual Default Values in the network.
• Mark exceptions for each default parameter
• Show differences
• Select changes to be performed
• Create .dat file or .xml file for correction

Note! Before any optimization task is initiated it is necessary to check if any


changes to the default values have been performed as this may result in
undesired and unexpected impact on the network.

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Specific Parameter Values Check


Specific
Parameter area

Specific
Parameter area
Specific Specific
Parameter area Parameter area

Specific
Parameter area

How do I handle all


these specific
relationships?

What kind of problems can be caused in


the network when specific parameter
values are used?

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Consistency check (1)


report

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OSS Master configuration Consistency


Parameter database check
file

actual specific
actual default Consistency
CM Database check
default

Parameter
planned
file

import Consistency
check
Parameter
file
Mapinfo export
NetAct Planner

ODBC Planning
database

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Consistency check (2)


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• Delta values, planning tool values, network values (next slide)


– All values should be as planned
– Values must be consistent between different tools
– e.g. ARFCNs, BSICs, neighbors …
•Delta and network values vs. default/recommended values
– Parameter values should be set to default
– BSC, BTS, GPRS, POC, HOC …
• Discrepancies
– Neighbor parameters
• Non symmetrical neighbors (see next slide)
– BTS parameters vs. adjacent BTS parameters

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Frequency Planning: Tool vs. Network values

Planning tool values Network values

100,99 100,99
96,92 96,92

112,88 115,88
78,72 78,72
75,115 75,115
Same channel (115)
1 TRX should be
 causes interference!!
added
81,110 81,110
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Example: Non symmetrical adjacencies


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Find all non symmetrical adjacencies:


• Cell B is a neighbor of Cell A
• Cell A is not a neighbor of Cell B

Cell A Cell B

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N-BCCH in ADCE table against FREQ in TRX table

TRX

BSC id BTS id TRX id FREQ


fA

N-Neighbour

ADCE
fAB BSC id BTS id N-LAC N-Cell id N-BCCH

Cell A Cell B fAB


fA

Similarly for all other cell parameters.

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BSS Feature Assessment


report

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The following features must be checked and any interworking issues between them
must be emphasized:

– OSC
– Idle mode settings and Directed Retry
– BB and RF Hopping
– MultiBCF and Common BCCH
– Umbrella
– FR / HR / DR / AMR / OSC HR with SAIC MS (RG20)
– Energy optimised TCH allocation (RG20)
– Merged P- & E-GSM900 (RG20)
– DL DC Territory Procedures (RG20)
– CSDAP (RG20)
– HSCSD
– Extended Cell
– Intelligent Underlay Overlay
– Priority based QoS
– NMO1
– NCCR
– CS1-4
– NACC
– DFCA
– DTM
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Performance Assessment

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Introduction
report

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• Why is Performance Assessment needed?


• Performance assessment is needed to get a clear picture
on the network’s functionality and locate the areas for
possible increase in performance.

• Challenges
• Missing data
– e.g. if hourly data is missing; it is difficult to spot without hourly
analysis
– All database tables are not activated
– All database tables can not be found in OSS

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KPIs
report

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• Benchmarking KPIs
– Recommended for reporting
– Release specific
• Customer KPIs
– All operators use operator specific KPIs
– Very important KPIs because after all optimization is performed for
the customer
• Limitations
– SW Release limitation
 Using KPIs from the wrong software release can result in serious errors
– Feature limitations
 Every feature has its own specific KPIS
 Using incorrect feature KPIs can result in serious errors
 e.g. HR KPIs must not be used when HR is not deployed in the network

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Performance Data Analysis


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Performance data measurements and analysis are usually


separated to:
• OSS Performance data
• Statistics
• Benchmarking KPIs
• Multi Vendor KPIs
• Alarms
• Customer complaints
• Drive Test Analysis
• Planning tools
• Executive Summary & Overview

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Statistics
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Strong points +
• Allow centralized data collection
• A cost efficient way to monitor network quality
• Pro-active resolution of problems
• Selective performance monitoring (e.g. after new feature activation)
• Permanent information flow
• Useful to monitor trends
• Can locate problems on different levels (sector, BTS, BSC level etc.)

Weak points -
• Need statistically relevant traffic volume to provide reliable results
• Identifying problems can be limited to geographical location
• Can be difficult to understand the meaning and usage of counters
• Problems in the data retrieval process will affect ability to monitor performance

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Benchmarking KPIs - CS
report

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OSS counter and CS KPI analysis provides accurate understanding of


network performance. CS KPIs can be divided in the following categories:

• Accessibility
– SDCCH access KPIs RG20 EDGE, GPRS, and
GSM Voice KPIs can be
– TCH, SDCCH Blocking KPIs found here:
– HO failure due to blocking
• Retainability
– TCH, SDCCH drop KPIs
– Total HO failure, HO drops
• Quality
– UL/DL Quality KPIs
• Traffic share
– TCH, SDCCH Traffic sum
– AMR traffic share
– OSC traffic share (if OSC used)
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Benchmarking KPIs – PS (1)


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OSS counter and PS KPI analysis provides accurate understanding of


network performance. PS KPIs can be divided in the following categories:

• Network Usage
– UL / DL PS Traffic
– UL / DL Payloads
• PDTCH Congestion
– DL hard / soft blocking
• Abis/PCU Congestion
– Inadequate EDAP resources in DL
– DL MCS selection limited by PCU
• PDTCH Quality
– UL / DL (E)GPRS RLC throughput
– TBD Success ratio
• Mobility
– Downlink flush per minute
• Availability
– Data service availability ratio

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Benchmarking KPIs – PS (2)


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• User Experience
– LLC Throughput
• QoS
– TBF establishment / success ratio
• Connectivity capacity
– DL MCS selection KPIs
• Mobility
– DL Flush
• E2E data rate
– LLC Throughput
– Volume weighted LLC throughput

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Customer Complaints
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Strong points +
• Helps identifying unknown problems
• Helps to confirm known problems
• Might pinpoint exact geographical location of a problem
• Reports indoor coverage problems
• May trigger fast decision from management in case VIP users are involved
• Helps identifying problems with specific mobiles
• Helps identifying mobile configuration problems

Weak points -
• Reacting to customer complaints is reacting too late
• Not efficient for optimizing a whole network
• Difficult to distinguish between MSS and BSS problems
• Difficult to distinguish between Radio and Transport problems

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Multi Vendor KPIs


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Multi Vendor KPI comparison is like comparing


apples and kiwis
Strong points +
• Performance can be compared by using statistics

Weak points -
• Counter trigger points might be different
• Calculation methods might be different
– Are we calculating failures or [all attempts - successful attempts]

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Field Tests
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Drive Test Software

Pre-defined route GPS Indoor antenna

Outdoor antenna

Network

Another way of measuring the target network performance.


Necessary in different steps of optimization.
Drive Test process consists on:
1. Performing the test and collecting logs
2. Post-processing of logs
3. Analysis of Drive Test
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Field Tests (1)


Ends

Strong points +
• Helps to adjust propagation models
• Troubleshooting
• Detects problems that can be masked by statistics
• Graphical map reports that allow fast identification of problematic areas
• Monitoring and validation of new functionalities or changes performed in the network
• Identify coverage problems. Used in antenna tilting optimization.
• Identifying interference (difficult to measure) and low quality problems.
• Detecting adjacency problems:
– Missing neighbours
– Unnecessary or unwanted neighbours
– Incorrectly defined adjacencies
• Finding hardware problems:
– Crossed sectors
– Mixed antenna lines
– Faulty units (TRXs, BBUs, etc).
– Imbalance problems (e.g. due to ROE in cables or jumpers).

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Field Tests (2)


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Weak points -
• Very resource and time consuming, making it expensive to monitor wide
areas or the whole network thus restricting it to specific areas
• QoS monitoring from a moving subscriber’s point of view. Gives a feeling of
customer view, although slow moving, indoor, high floor MSs are not taken
into consideration
• Provides (in most cases) only downlink information
• Snap-shot in time
• Statistics can be influenced by the velocity of the test vehicle

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Field Tests examples


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• CS
– Coverage
– Quality - Interference
– HO measurements
– CSSR with short call duration
– Traffic handling measurements
• PS
– PSW accessibility analysis
• GPRS attach / PDP content activation / TBF establishment
– Throughput analysis – Stationary
• Average throughput (RLC / MAC and Application) Layer)
• MCS distribution
• BLER,C/I ratio
– Throughput analysis – Mobility (intra/inter PCU and RAU cell-reselection)
• LLC, RLC/MAC
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• Retransmission
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Optimizer
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Cell problems based on interference matrix from Optimizer

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Executive Summary and Overview


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In performance assessment, report following items should be


mentioned.
• Executive summary
– Strengths
– Weaknesses
• Overview
– All KPIs with values should be listed
– Network level & BSC level
– Main causes for problems should be mentioned

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Alarms
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In the assessment report all main active alarms must be


mentioned:
* Low Priority
** Med Priority
*** High Priority

Note! Always check for blocked or filtered out alarms.

In the presence of many active alarms, collected data is not


valid
• Performance data will not be reliable
• Optimization targets will be based on wrong inputs
Optimization can be started when the majority of critical
active alarms has been resolved
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Tools to be used

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Examples of tools to be used in the assessment phase


• Configuration data
– NetAct tools (Plan Editor, CM Plan Manager etc)
– Planning tools (NetAct Planner, Asset, etc)
• Performance data
– Statistics (Reporting Suite, Metrica, Report Builder etc)
– Drive test (NEMO Outdoor, TEMS, Actix etc)
• Parameter assessment
– NetAct tools (Plan Editor, Reporting Suite etc)
– Planning tools (NetAct Planner, Asset, etc)

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