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Experiment Instructions

WL 110-SERIES Heat Exchanger with


Service Unit
E N E R GY & E N V I R O N M E NT

WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

WL 110.04
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WL 110

WL 110.01 WL 110.02 WL 110.03

Experiment Instructions
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Klaus Schröder

This manual must be kept by the unit.

Before operating the unit:


- Read this manual.
- All participants must be instructed on
handling of the unit and, where appropriate,
on the necessary safety precautions.

Version 1.5 Subject to technical alterations

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Modular design of WL 110 series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Objectives of unit, target group and learning content . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Information for the teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 Intended use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
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2.2 Structure of safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


2.3 Safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Unit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1 Introduction to the WL 110 series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 WL 110 Heat Exchanger with Supply Unit process schematic . . . . . 11
3.3 WL 110 Service Unit with Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 Unit function and components, WL 110
Service Unit with Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.1 Unit description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.2 Control and display panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5 Data acquisition program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5.1 Installing the program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5.2 Operating the program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.6 WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger unit description . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.6.1 Layout and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.6.2 Connection to the service unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.6.3 General information for tubular heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . 27

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3.7 WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger unit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


3.7.1 Layout and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.7.2 Connection to the service unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.7.3 General information for plate heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.8 WL 110.03 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger unit description . . . . . . . . 32
3.8.1 Layout and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.8.2 Connection to the service unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.8.3 General information for shell and tube heat exchanger . . . . 34
3.9 WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and Coil unit description . . 35
3.9.1 Layout and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.9.2 Connection to the service unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.9.3 General information for jacketed heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . 39
3.10 Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.11 Hot water pump does not start? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.12 Drainage pipe for heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.13 Shutting down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4 Fundamental principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.1 Heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2 Indirect heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.2.1 Heat transfer from fluid-partition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.2.2 Thermal Conduction in the Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.2.3 Heat Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.2.4 Analogy to fluid dynamics and electrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.3 Heat flow through the heat exchanger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4 Temperature curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

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5 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.1 Experiments with WL 110.01, WL 110.02 and WL 110.03 . . . . . . . . 59
5.1.1 Experiment aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.1.2 Experiment series, general conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.1.3 Experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.1.4 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.1.5 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.1.6 Analysis, comments and evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.2 Experiments with WL 110.04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
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5.2.1 Experiment aim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75


5.2.2 General conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.2.3 Experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.2.4 Performing the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.2.5 Measured values, time response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.2.6 Analysis, comments and evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

6 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.1 Technical data for WL 110, Heat Exchanger Service Unit . . . . . . . . 81
6.2 Technical data for accessories (heat exchangers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.2.1 WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.2.2 WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.2.3 WL 110.03 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.2.4 WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and Coil . . . . . . . . . 86
6.3 List of abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.4 List of key symbols and units used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.5 List of symbols for process schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

7 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

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1 Introduction

Heat transfer is a fundamental method in thermal


process engineering.

1.1 Modular design of WL 110 series

The WL 110 Heat Exchanger Service Unit


series has a modular design.
The heat exchangers are supplied with the
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required flow rates of cold water and hot water by


the WL 110 Service Unit.
The service unit can be combined with the fol-
lowing heat exchangers:
• WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.03 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and
Coil
Together, the service unit and a connected heat
exchanger make up a complete experimental
setup.
In the heat exchanger, thermal energy is
transferred from the hot water to the cold water.
This thermal energy is added in the service unit
by heating the hot water.
These experiment instructions provide a detailed
description of the service unit and the four heat
exchangers mentioned above.
The WL 110 series is supplemented by the
WL 110.20 Water Chiller.

1 Introduction 1
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The WL 110.20 allows operation at high ambient


and water temperatures.
A separate operating manual is available for the
WL 110.20 Water Chiller.

1.2 Objectives of unit, target group and learning content

The WL 110 series is used to investigate and com-


pare different types of heat exchanger.
The water connection between a heat exchanger
and the service unit is based on couplings.
Reversing two couplings changes the direction of
flow, allowing both parallel flow and counter flow
operation.
The various measured values are displayed digi-
tally. At the same time, the measured values can
be transferred directly to a PC via USB (PC is not
included).
The data acquisition program supplied is used to
record, evaluate and plot the current measured
values. A system diagram, the time response of
the measured values and the current temperature
progression along the heat exchanger are availa-
ble.

The WL 110 series can be used both for training


specialist staff and for engineering training in an
academic setting.

2 1 Introduction
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The learning objectives are:


• Plotting temperature curves
– in parallel flow mode
– in counter flow mode
• Calculating mean coefficients of heat transfer
• Function and behaviour when operating differ-
ent heat exchanger types
• Comparing different heat exchanger types
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• Specifically for the WL 110.04 Jacketed Ves-


sel with Stirrer and Coil:
– Plotting temperature curves for heating with
jacket and with tube coil modes.
– Influence of stirrer

1 Introduction 3
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

1.3 Information for the teacher

To operate the WL 110 series a suitable labora-


tory environment is required. Operation requires
prior experience of experiments.
Applications of the WL 110 series include:
• Practical experiments
Small groups of two to three students can per-
form experiments independently. The esti-
mated time required to perform an experiment
is around one hour.
• Project work
The WL 110 series is well suited for carrying
out project work. Series of experiments can be
used to determine the influence of changes on
heat transfer.
An individual experienced student can operate
the equipment in this situation.

This teaching material is designed to assist you in


preparing your lessons. You can put together sec-
tions of the material as information for your stu-
dents and use them in their lessons.
To support your teaching, we also provide these
experimental instructions in PDF format on a CD.

4 1 Introduction
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

2 Safety

2.1 Intended use

The unit is to be used only for teaching purposes.

2.2 Structure of safety instructions

The signal words DANGER, WARNING or


CAUTION indicate the probability and potential
severity of injury.
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An additional symbol indicates the nature of the


hazard or a required action.

Signal word Explanation

Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, will result in


DANGER death or serious injury.

Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in


WARNING death or serious injury.

Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in


CAUTION minor or moderately serious injury.

Indicates a situation which may result in damage to


NOTICE equipment, or provides instructions on operation of
the equipment.

2 Safety 5
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Symbol Explanation

Electrical voltage

Hot surfaces

Hand injuries

Notice

Wear gloves

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

2.3 Safety instructions

WARNING
Electrical connections are exposed when the
rear panel is open.
Risk of electric shock.
• Before opening the rear panel, disconnect the
mains plug.
• Work should only be performed by qualified
electricians.
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• Protect electrical installations from moisture.

WARNING
The hot water circuit can be operated at tem-
peratures up to 70°C.
Contact with hot water can cause scalding.
• Avoid contact with hot water.

WARNING
The hot water circuit can be operated at tem-
peratures up to 70°C.
Touching hot surfaces can cause burns.
• Do not touch hot surfaces.
• Put on appropriate protective gloves before
touching hot couplings for hot water.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

WARNING
Reaching into the rotating stirrer on the
WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and
Coil can cause injury.
• Do not reach into the rotating stirrer.
• Before removing the cover, stop the stirrer and
disconnect the plug from the connection
socket.

NOTICE
Frost damage is possible when storing the service
unit and the heat exchangers.
• Only store in a frost-free environment.
• If there is a risk of frost or the unit will not be
used for a long period, completely drain the
water.

NOTICE
The hot water pump is destroyed if operated with-
out water.
• Never operate the hot water pump without
water.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3 Unit description

3.1 Introduction to the WL 110 series

The WL 110 Heat Exchanger with Service Unit series has a modular
design. Fig. 3.1 shows the main modules of the WL 110 series.
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WL 110

WL 110.01
WL 110.03

WL 110.04

WL 110.02

Fig. 3.1 The WL 110 series

3 Unit description 9
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The heat exchangers are supplied with the


required flow rates of cold water and hot water by
the WL 110 Service Unit (referred to below as
the service unit for short).
The service unit can be combined with the
following heat exchangers:
• WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.03 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and
Coil
Together, the service unit and a connected heat
exchanger make up a complete experimental
setup.
These experiment instructions provide a detailed
description of the service unit and the four heat
exchangers mentioned above.

The WL 110 series also includes the WL 110.20,


the Water Chiller for WL 110.
The service unit normally uses cold water from
the local mains water supply with no additional
cooling.
However, depending on the laboratory the availa-
ble cold water may be too warm to provide useful
experimental conditions (for recommended
maximum cold water temperature, see
Fig. 3.2 WL 110.20, Water Chiller for
WL 110 Chapter 6.1, Page 81).
In such cases, it is useful to supplement the
service unit with the WL 110.20.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

A separate operating manual is available for the


WL 110.20 Water Chiller for WL 110.

3.2 WL 110 Heat Exchanger with Supply Unit process schematic

The process schematic for the WL 110 series is


located on the service unit.
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This process schematic shows both the sche-


matic structure of the service unit and the basic
flow through the individual heat exchangers.
These experiment instructions deal with each of
these areas of the process schematic in turn.

Fig. 3.3, Page 12 shows the area of the process


schematic that relates to the WL 110 service
unit.
The symbols used are explained in Chapter 6.5,
Page 90.
Further information about the design and function
of the unit follows in Chapter 3.3, Page 13 and
Chapter 3.4, Page 14 onwards.

3 Unit description 11
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

FI TI TI
1 1 6

V1
Hot water circuit Cold water circuit

P
W
LSL TI TI
1 2 5
B
H
FI
TIC TI 2
7
V3 V2
TI TI
3 4

Main components Measurement and control engineering


B Hot water tank FI1 Hot water flow
H Hot water heater FI2 Cold water flow
P Hot water pump LSL1 Level switch
W Interchangeable heat exchanger TI1 Hot water feed temperature
(Accessories) TI2 Hot water temperature, centre
V1 Regulator valve for hot water TI3 Hot water return temperature
V2 Regulator valve for cold water TI4 Cold water feed temperature
V3 Ball valve TI5 Cold water temperature, centre
TI6 Cold water return temperature
TI7 Hot water temperature
TIC Temperature controller

Fig. 3.3 WL 110, process schematic

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.3 WL 110 Service Unit with Heat Exchanger

5 4

6
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8 9 10 1

11

1 Base plate 7 Couplings


2 Connecting block 8 Bolts
3 Right housing half 9 Regulator valve for hot water (V1)
4 Tank cover 10 Regulator valve for cold water (V2)
5 Left housing section 11 USB connecting socket
6 Control and display panel

Fig. 3.4 WL 110, general view

3 Unit description 13
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.4 Unit function and components, WL 110


Service Unit with Heat Exchanger

3.4.1 Unit description and function

The key function of the service unit is to provide


the required cold and hot water flow rates for the
connected heat exchanger.
In the heat exchanger, thermal energy is trans-
ferred from the hot water to the cold water. The
thermal energy transferred to the cold water is
added in the service unit by heating the cooled
hot water.
In addition, the service unit displays the meas-
ured values and transfers them to a PC.

The selected heat exchanger is connected to the


service unit using the four self-locking plug-in
couplings for cold water and hot water (referred to
below as couplings (7) for short).
Fig. 3.5 shows both versions of the couplings. The
couplings are different for cold water and hot
water to make it easier to connect the heat
exchangers. The cable emerging from the cou-
pling provides the connection between the inte-
grated temperature sensor and the service
unit.

The service unit consists of two housing sec-


tions (3, 5), which are mounted on the base
plate (1).

Fig. 3.5 Couplings (7)

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The front of the left housing section is used as


TI7 LSL1 the control and display panel (6). Further infor-
mation can be found in Chapter 3.4.2, Page 18
onwards.
The left housing section contains the electrical
installation with the hardware for the measure-
ment and control engineering.
The right housing section contains the hot
water tank (B). The tank has a cover (4). Opening
the cover allows water to be added. Sealing the
cover can prevent leaks with strongly heated hot
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water.
Fig. 3.6 shows the top view of the open hot water
tank (B), with the electric hot water heater (H),
the level switch (LSL1) and the immersion
H sleeve for the temperature sensor (TI7).
Fig. 3.6 Hot water tank (B)

4
Fig. 3.7 shows a rear view of the right housing
section (rear panel removed). The hot water
tank (B), the hot water pump (P) and other com-
ponents of the hot and cold water circuit can be
seen, with the pipework and internal hoses.

The regulating valves V1 (9) and V2 (10) enable


the required hot water and cold water flow rates to
be set.

P B
Fig. 3.7 Right housing section (3),
rear panel removed

3 Unit description 15
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The service unit is connected to the water sup-


Hot water
drainage ply using hose couplings to the connection
block (2). Details are shown in Fig. 3.8 and sup-
plement the markings next to the connection
Cold water block.
feed
Fig. 3.9 shows the connection block (2) with cou-
pled water connections.
Cold water Opening the ball valve V3 drains the hot water
return
tank (B).

The two supplied hoses for the cold water feed


Fig. 3.8 Connection block (2)
and return are required regularly. If a third hose is
V3 not available for the hot water drainage, then con-
nect one of the supplied hoses to the hot water
drainage, if required.

Fig. 3.9 Connection block (2),


with hoses

16 3 Unit description
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT


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Fig. 3.10 Service unit with WL 110.01 connected

Fig. 3.10 shows the service unit with the


WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger connected.
Details on connecting the different heat exchang-
ers follow in Chapter 3.6, Page 25 to Chapter 3.9.

3 Unit description 17
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.4.2 Control and display panel

The control and display panel (item 6 in Fig. 3.4,


Page 13) is divided into various areas. The follow-
ing illustration indicates these areas.

Heater
controls Displays for
hot water
circuit

Stirrer
controls Displays for
cold water
circuit
Pump
controls

Connecting sockets for stirrer and


temperature sensor

Fig. 3.11 WL 110, Areas of control and display panel (6)

Details of the switching and control functions


follow in Fig. 3.12, Page 19.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

28 27 26 25 24

29
23

30

31

32
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22
33
21
34

35

36 37 38

21 Cold water return temperature display (TI6) 31 Cold water feed temperature display (TI4)
22 Cold water temperature display, centre (TI5) 32 Adjusting knob for stirrer speed
23 Cold water flow rate display (FI2) 33 Switch for Pump (P)
24 Hot water flow rate display (FI1) 34 Switch for stirrer
25 Hot water temperature display, centre (TI2) 35 Master switch with emergency stop function
26 Hot water return temperature display (TI3) 36 Connecting socket for stirrer
27 Hot water feed temperature display (TI1) 37 Connecting socket for hot water temperature, centre
28 Controller TIC7 for temperature TI7 38 Connecting socket for cold water temperature, centre
29 Low water warning lamp (LSL1)
30 Switch for heater (H)

Fig. 3.12 WL 110, Details of control and display panel (6)

3 Unit description 19
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The hot water pump (P) is turned on and off using


the switch (33).
For experiments with the WL 110.04 Jacketed
Vessel with Stirrer and Coil the electrical con-
nection for the stirrer is provided by the connect-
ing socket (36). The stirrer can be turned on and
off using the switch (34). The speed of the stirrer
is set using the adjusting knob (32) in the range
0...100%.
The connecting sockets (37) and (38) are used to
connect additional temperature sensors for the
heat exchangers to the service unit.

The digital displays show the following


measured variables (example of hot water circuit):
• Hot water feed temperature T1 (27).
• Hot water return temperature T3 (26).
• Hot water temperature, centre T2 (25).
·
• Hot water flow rate V 1 (24).

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Controllers, operation and function:


A hardware controller with display (28) is installed
Actual value
for the temperature control loop.
Fig. 3.13 shows this controller TIC7 (28).
It displays the actual value and setpoint. The
desired setpoint can be set using the two arrow
buttons.
The controller is enabled using the switch (30).
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

The controller TIC7 (28) regulates the hot water


temperature T7. It operates as a step controller.
If the hot water temperature is too low, the heater
(H) is activated. When the setpoint for T7 is
reached, the heater is deactivated.

Arrow buttons Setpoint

Fig. 3.13 Controller TIC7 (28) The parameters for the TIC7 controller are preset
during production (for values see Chapter 6.1,
Page 81).

The warning lamp (29) indicates low water in the


hot water tank (after tripping of the level switch
LSL1).
If the water is low, operation of the heater is inter-
rupted. The aim is to prevent overheating and
unacceptably high loads on the heater.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.5 Data acquisition program

The data acquisition program supplied is used


to record and evaluate the current measured
values.
The data acquisition program provides the follow-
ing options for displaying the current measured
values and calculated values:
• System diagram
• Time response for measured values
• Current temperature curve, with display of cal-
culated values
• The available measured and calculated values
are recorded at definable intervals in meas-
ured value files. These measured value files
can be imported into spreadsheet programs
(such as MS Excel®) and processed.

3.5.1 Installing the program

The following are required for installation:


• A fully operational PC with USB port (for
minimum requirements see Chapter 6.1,
Page 81 onwards).
• G.U.N.T. CD-ROM.
All components necessary to install and run the
program are included on the CD-ROM supplied
by G.U.N.T.

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Installation routine

NOTICE
The trainer must not be connected to the USB port
on the PC during installation of the program. The
trainer may only be connected after the software
has been installed successfully.

• Start the PC.


• Insert the G.U.N.T. CD-ROM.
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

• Start the installation software "Start.bat".


• Follow the installation procedure on-screen.
• After starting, the installation runs automati-
cally. The following program components are
installed on the PC:
– Program for PC-based measurement data
acquisition.
– LabVIEW - Runtime program and driver
routines.
– G.U.N.T. libraries.
• Reboot the PC after the installation is finished.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.5.2 Operating the program

• Select and launch the program under:


Start / All Programs / G.U.N.T. / WL 110.
• The language can be changed at any time in
the "Language" menu.
• The program has a modular structure.
• Various pull-down menus are provided for
additional functions.
• Detailed instructions for operation of the indi-
vidual program modules can be found in the
corresponding help function. You can access
the Help function using the „?“ button.

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3.6 WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger unit description

3.6.1 Layout and function

The adjacent photo shows the WL 110.01 Tubu-


lar Heat Exchanger with base plate in an older,
not yet partially insulated version.
The tubular heat exchanger consists of two
double tubes. In the double tubes, the transpar-
ent outer tube allows the stainless steel inner
tube to be seen. Two separate areas are created,
Fig. 3.14 WL 110.01, with base plate
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the tube area (inside the inner tube) and the shell
(between the inner tube and the outer tube).

Parallel flow Both the tube areas and the shells of the two dou-
ble tubes are connected in series.
The split into two double tubes reduces the overall
length and enables temperature measurement for
Counter flow
cold and hot water in the centre of the overall heat
exchanger.
Fig. 3.15 illustrates the flow. As determined by the
two different coupling designs (7), hot water (red)
Fig. 3.15 WL 110.01, schematic flows through the tube area and cold water
(shown in blue) through the shell.
Cold and hot water flow along the inner tubes
either in the same direction (parallel flow) or in
opposite directions (counter flow).

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.6.2 Connection to the service unit

Fig. 3.16 explains the individual steps required to


TI2 TI5
connect the WL 110.01 to the service unit:
1. Secure the base plate of the tubular heat
exchanger on the base plate (1) of the service
unit using the star grip bolts.
2. Connect the plug for the hot water temperature,
centre (TI2) measuring lead to the appropriate
socket (item 37 in Fig. 3.12, Page 19).
3. Connect the plug for the cold water tempera-
ture, centre (TI5) measuring lead to the appro-
priate socket (item 38 in Fig. 3.12, Page 19).
4. Plug the couplings (7) for hot water into the cor-
responding connections on the tubular heat
exchanger.
5. Plug the couplings (7) for cold water into the
Fig. 3.16 Connection for WL 110.01
corresponding connections on the tubular
heat exchanger. Ensure that the required flow
is produced (parallel flow or counter flow).

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3.6.3 General information for tubular heat exchanger

Advantages of tubular heat exchangers:


• Simple construction.
• Connecting together several double tubes
enables the heat transfer area to be varied by
changing the number of double tubes.
• Because it is possible to have large flow cross-
sections, the unit is also suitable for high vis-
cosity fluids and for products containing solid
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

pieces or fibres.
• There is a hygienic advantage as the tube area
is free of flow dead zones (important in the food
industry, for example).

Tubular heat exchangers are used for applica-


tions including the food industry, with an example
shown in the adjacent photo.
It shows a module consisting of a large number of
tubular heat exchangers connected in series.
Here, the individual double tubes are arranged in
several rows in a frame.
The individual double tubes are connected using
double tube bends.

Fig. 3.17 Module with several tubular


heat exchangers

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3.7 WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger unit description

3.7.1 Layout and function

The adjacent photos show the WL 110.02 Plate


Heat Exchanger.
Fig. 3.18 shows the plate heat exchanger with
the base plate. Fig. 3.19 shows an enlarged view
of the plate heat exchanger screwed onto the
Fig. 3.18 WL 110.02, with base plate base plate.
This plate heat exchanger is essentially made up
of six plates soldered together, which form two
separate flow channels. The solder points seal
the plates against one another.
Fig. 3.20 illustrates the principle (illustrated with
four plates). Cold (blue) and hot spaces (red)
alternate in the arrangement.
Fig. 3.19 WL 110.02, enlarged
Openings in the plates allow the media to flow.
The surface of the plates is not smooth but has a
characteristic profile (embossing). This causes
narrow flow cross-sections to be established in
the spaces, in which significant turbulences
occur. The turbulent flow facilitates efficient heat
transfer and also has a self-cleaning effect. The
wall thicknesses of the heat transfer areas are
generally smaller than in tubular heat exchangers.

Fig. 3.20 WL 110.02, schematic

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3.7.2 Connection to the service unit

Fig. 3.21 explains the individual steps required to


connect the WL 110.02 to the service unit:
1. Secure the base plate of the plate heat
exchanger on the base plate (1) of the service
unit using the star grip bolts (8).
2. Plug the couplings (7) for hot water into the cor-
responding connections on the plate heat
exchanger to give a flow in the direction of the
arrow (see Fig. 3.22).
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

3. Plug the couplings (7) for cold water into the


corresponding connections on the plate heat
exchanger. Ensure that the required flow is
produced (parallel flow or counter flow).

Fig. 3.21 Connection for WL 110.02

Fig. 3.22 WL 110.02,


direction of flow

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.7.3 General information for plate heat exchanger

Advantages of plate heat exchangers:


• Outstanding heat transfer.
• Compact design.
• Little space required relative to the heat trans-
fer area.

Soldered plate heat exchangers are wide-


spread in refrigeration engineering and building
services.
The disadvantage of the soldered design is that it
Fig. 3.23 Sealed plate cannot be opened. If this kind of plate heat
heat exchanger exchanger is blocked by deposits, residue or
foreign bodies, it has to be replaced.
The soldered design is a version developed from
the widely used sealed plate heat exchangers.
On the sealed design, the plate package, con-
sisting of the plates and seals, is pressed together
with clamp bolts. The adjacent figures show this
kind of plate heat exchanger, as a photo and
schematically.
Key advantages of sealed plate heat exchangers:
Fig. 3.24 Plate with seal
• Opening and cleaning possible.
Platten

• Large heat transfer areas can be achieved


(several 1000m² per unit).
• The heat transfer area can be varied by chang-
ing the number of plates.

Platten

Fig. 3.25 Sealed plate heat exchanger,


schematic

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Example applications of plate heat exchangers


include:
• Chemical plants
• Petrochemicals
• Food industry
• HVAC (heating, ventilation and air condition-
ing)
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.8 WL 110.03 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger unit description

3.8.1 Layout and function

The adjacent photos show the WL110.03 Shell &


Tube Heat Exchanger.
Fig. 3.26 shows the shell and tube heat
exchanger with the base plate. Fig. 3.27 shows
an enlarged view.
The transparent shell allows the tube bundle to
Fig. 3.26 WL 110.03, with base plate be seen. The tube bundle (shown in Fig. 3.28) is
an assembly consisting of parallel tubes (seven
tubes in this case). These seven tubes are sol-
dered to the tube plates on both sides. This cre-
ates two separate areas, the tube area (inside the
tubes) and the shell area (between the tubes and
the outer shell).
Fig. 3.27 WL 110.03, enlarged
The shell area is divided by four baffle plates.
They deflect the fluid in the shell area, thus
improving the heat exchange. The flow in the shell
area is essentially perpendicular to the tubes, i.e.
the directions of flow cross (cross current flow).
Fig. 3.29 illustrates the principle (illustrated with
more than seven tubes). As determined by the
two different coupling designs (7), hot water (red)
Fig. 3.28 WL 110.03, tube bundle flows through the tube area and cold water
(shown in blue) through the shell area.
Viewed axially, the flows can run in the same
direction or in opposite directions. We therefore
differentiate between cross parallel flow and
cross counter flow.

Fig. 3.29 WL 110.03, schematic, cross


counter flow

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3.8.2 Connection to the service unit

Fig. 3.30 explains the individual steps required to


connect the WL 110.03 to the service unit:
1. Secure the base plate of the shell and tube
heat exchanger on the base plate (1) of the
service unit using the star grip bolts (8).
2. Plug the couplings (7) for hot water into the cor-
responding connections on the shell and tube
heat exchanger. Connect the hot water feed to
the lower connection to support bleeding.
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3. Plug the couplings (7) for cold water into the


corresponding connections on the shell and
tube heat exchanger. Ensure that the
required flow is produced (cross parallel flow or
cross counter flow).

Fig. 3.30 Connection for WL 110.03

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.8.3 General information for shell and tube heat exchanger

Advantages of shell and tube heat exchangers:


• Excellent heat transfer.
• Compact design.
• Comparatively little space required relative to
the heat transfer area.
• On many designs, the tube bundle can be
removed from the shell for cleaning and main-
tenance.

Fig. 3.31 shows two tube bundles with tubes,


baffle plates and tube plates.
Shell and tube heat exchangers are widely
used. The wide range of designs means that:
• Wide permitted temperature ranges can be
achieved, if almost unrestricted expansion of
the tube bundle is possible.
• Adaptations are possible for processes with a
change of phase (evaporation, conden-
sation).
Fig. 3.31 Tube bundle • Wide variety of material combinations can be
used, depending on temperatures, pressures
and fluid properties (corrosion etc.).
Example applications of shell and tube heat
exchangers include:
• Chemical plants
• Petrochemicals
• Food industry
• Power stations

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3.9 WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and Coil unit description

3.9.1 Layout and function

In many process engineering applications,


41 41
several basic operations are combined, for
example a fluid is heated by another fluid while
being stirred, with a chemical reaction taking
place at the same time. Such processes
frequently take place in tanks.
Depending on the specific perspective, the corre-
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

sponding tanks can have various designations,


including agitating vessels, chemical reactors or
heated reaction tanks. The process can generally
be carried out in batches or continuously.
Fig. 3.32 WL 110.04, with base plate
The WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer
and Coil is a model of this type of tank. It focuses
on investigation of heat transfer.
On the WL 110.04, heat transfer can occur
through the wall of the tank. To allow this, the tank
has a double jacket and the outer jacket is insu-
lated. As an alternative to the double jacket, an
internal heating coil can be used to transfer the
heat.
The installed stirrer improves the heat transfer.
Fig. 3.33 WL 110.04, cover
Fig. 3.32 shows the jacketed heat exchanger
with base plate. After loosening the three knurled
screws (41), the transparent cover can be
removed. Fig. 3.33 shows the cover with the stir-
rer attached to it. Next to the stirrer is the immer-
sion sleeve with temperature sensor for measur-
ing the water temperature in the tank.

Fig. 3.34 WL 110.04, stirrer,


propeller

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Fig. 3.34, Page 35 shows an enlarged view of the


51 52 51 propeller of the stirrer.
The top view of the open jacketed heat
exchanger is shown in Fig. 3.35. As well as the
heating coil (52) the flow breakers (51) attached
to the tank wall can clearly be seen. They ensure
a good stirring effect by preventing rotation of the
liquid in the tank.

The tank is filled with cold water before an exper-


iment. This cold water in the tank is then heated
by hot water.
The schematic view in Fig. 3.36 illustrates the
experiment options:
Fig. 3.35 WL 110.04, top view, cover • Heating with hot water flowing through the
removed
heating jacket (a)
• Heating with hot water flowing through the
heating coil (b)
As determined by the two different coupling
designs (7), only hot water (red) can be connected
to the jacket and heating coil.
The WL 110.04 is mainly suitable for batch
experiments.
With practice, continuous operation can also be
Fig. 3.36 WL 110.04, flow, achieved. In this case, heated water flows out of
schematic the tank while fresh cold water is simultaneously
fed in.
However, the level in the tank can only be roughly
adjusted when doing this. Therefore, reproducibil-
ity of the experiments is limited with continuous
operation.

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Fig. 3.37 explains the water connections for the


WL 110.04. The cold water return (E) can be iden-
tified by the ball valve (V4).
The tank can be drained by opening the ball
valve V4.
F
The tank can be filled with cold water using the
cold water feed (B).
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V4

A B C D

A Hot water heating jacket


B Cold water feed
C Hot water heating coil
D Hot water heating coil
E Cold water return
V4 Ball valve for draining
F Hot water heating jacket

Fig. 3.37 WL 110.04,


water connections

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.9.2 Connection to the service unit

The figures below explain the individual steps


required to connect the WL 110.04 to the service
unit:
1. Secure the base plate of the jacketed heat
exchanger on the base plate (1) of the service
unit using the star grip bolts (8).
2. Connect the plug for the stirrer cable to the con-
necting socket on the service unit (item 36 in
Fig. 3.12, Page 19).
3. Connect the measuring lead for the water tem-
perature (TI5) in the tank to the corresponding
socket on the service unit (item 38 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19).
4. Plug the couplings (7) for cold water into the
corresponding connections on the jacketed
heat exchanger as shown in Fig. 3.37,
Page 37.
5. Plug the couplings (7) for hot water into the
corresponding connections on the jacketed
heat exchanger, see also Fig. 3.37, Page 37.
Fig. 3.39, Page 39 shows the WL 110.04
Fig. 3.38 WL 110.04, attachment and
connected for option (a) from Fig. 3.36,
electrical connection Page 36, heating with hot water flowing
through the heating jacket. The hot water feed
is connected to the lower connection to support
bleeding.
Fig. 3.40, Page 39 shows the WL 110.04
connected for option (b) from Fig. 3.36,
Page 36, heating with hot water flowing
through the heating coil.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT


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Fig. 3.39 WL 110.04, operation with heating Fig. 3.40 WL 110.04, operation with heating coil
jacket

3.9.3 General information for jacketed heat exchanger

The adjacent photo shows a jacketed heat


exchanger for production.
Advantages of jacketed heat exchangers:
• Product temperature precisely adjustable with
even temperature distribution.
• Easy cleaning of the interior of the tank
Jacketed heat exchangers are widely used for
batch processes
Example applications of jacketed heat exchang-
ers include:
• Chemical plants
• Food industry

Fig. 3.41 Example of a jacketed heat


exchanger

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.10 Commissioning

• Observe the safety instructions (see Chapter 2,


Page 5).
• Install the data acquisition program on the PC
(see Chapter 3.5.1, Page 22 onwards).
• Connect the service unit to the PC using the
cable supplied (USB port, see item 11 in Fig.
3.4, Page 13).
• Connect the service unit to the mains.
• Connect the hoses to the connecting block (2)
(see Fig. 3.8, Page 16).
• Set the main switch (item 35 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19) to „1“.
• Fill the hot water tank (B) with water (see Fig.
3.6, Page 15).
• Connect one of the available heat exchangers
(see also Chapter 3.6 to Chapter 3.9).
• Open the cold water feed at the cold water
mains. Fully open the regulator valve for cold
water V2 (10).
• Start the pump (P).
If the pump does not start running, stop it
immediately. Continue from section 3.11 on
page 41 onwards.
• Repair any leaks.
• Turn on the heater (H).
• Operate the experimental unit for a few min-
utes. During this time, practice using the data
acquisition program.
• Turn off the heater (H).

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

• Stop the pump (P).


• Close the cold water feed at the cold water
mains. Close the regulator valve V2 (10).
• Set the main switch (item 35 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19) to „0“.
• During long stoppages, start the pump (P),
occasionally, for a short moment.

3.11 Hot water pump does not start?


All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

This section can be skipped if the hot water


pump (P) starts up with no problems.

Experience has shown that long stoppages make


it more difficult to start up the hot water pump (P).
It is possible that the pump will not start up at the
first attempt.
Starting the pump repeatedly does not resolve the
problem. On the contrary, it can actually cause the
electric fuse to trip.
The following procedure is recommended:

1. Rinse the pump with cold water.


Using the admission pressure of the cold water
feed is recommended. Reversing the flow
direction through the pump enables the cold water
to be fed into the hot water tank (B).
This circuit is created by connecting the couplings
for the cold water feed and the hot water feed (see
adjacent photo).

Fig. 3.42 Rinse the pump (P) with cold


water, photo

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Fig. 3.43, Page 42 shows a schematic view of this


circuit, based on the process schematic in Fig.
3.3, Page 12.

FI TI
1 1

V1

FI
P 2

V2
LSL TI Cold water
1 B 4
B
H

TIC TI
7
Fig. 3.43 Rinse the pump (P) with cold water, schematic circuit

Method:
First ensure that the pump is not actuated (set the
switch (33) in Fig. 3.12, Page 19 to "0" position).
After connecting the couplings, completely open
regulating valves V1 and V2. Open the cold water
supply. As soon as water is flowing, allow the level
in the tank (B) to rise by several litres. Then shut
off the cold water supply and disconnect the
couplings. Reconnect the original heat exchanger
and continue with commissioning or the experi-
ment.
If the pump still does not start up, continue with 2.
below.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

2. Turn motor shaft with screwdriver.


First ensure again that the pump is not actuated
(set the switch (33) in Fig. 3.12, Page 19 to "0"
position). Disconnect the WL 110 service unit
from the mains electricity.
The adjacent figure repeats the photo from Fig.
3.7, Page 15. It shows the pump in the right-hand
half of the housing, with the rear panel removed.
The front of the motor shaft has a slotted design
and is intended to be accessible.
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

However, the carrying handle on the right-hand


half of the housing next to the pump must be
removed first. The motor shaft can then be turned
P with a screwdriver.
Fig. 3.44 Right housing section, The series of photos below illustrates the
rear panel removed procedure.

Fig. 3.45 Remove carrying handle and turn motor shaft with screwdriver

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

3.12 Drainage pipe for heat exchanger

Depending on the water quality and ambient con-


Aeration Drainage
ditions, cloudiness and deposits may occur in the
water cycle over time. This can be caused by
dust, germs or bacteria getting into the water
cycle from the environment
If any cloudiness or deposits are identified, both
the supply unit and the heat exchangers should
be drained.
The couplings on the supply unit and the fittings
for the various heat exchangers have a self-clos-
Fig. 3.46 Drainage pipe ing design. This prevents continuous unintended
drainage. However, it makes infrequent inten-
tional drainage more difficult
The drainage pipe is supplied as an accessory for
intentional drainage of the heat exchangers.
The drainage pipe is made up of drainage and
aeration fittings (s. Fig. 3.46).
Both the drainage and aeration fittings have a
coupling and a male coupling. This allows them to
be connected to every fitting on the different heat
Fig. 3.47 WL 110.03, Shell drainage exchangers.
The adjacent figures show how to connect the
drainage pipe, using the example of the
WL 110.03 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger.
For drainage, the heat exchanger with connected
drainage pipe is turned until the aeration fitting is
at the top and the drainage fitting is at the bottom.

Fig. 3.48 WL 110.03, Tube section


drainage

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3.13 Shutting down

• Observe the safety instructions (see Chapter 2,


Page 5).
• Disconnect the service unit from the mains
electricity supply.
• Remove the USB cable from the USB port on
the service unit.
• Drain the hot water tank (B). This is done by
opening the ball valve V3.
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

• Open the regulator valve V2 (10).


• Uncouple the cold water feed and return hoses.
• Drain the heat exchangers (see Chapter 3.12,
Page 44).
• Store the trainer covered, in a clean, dry and
frost-free location.

3 Unit description 45
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

46 3 Unit description
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

4 Fundamental principles

The basic principles set out in the following make


no claim to completeness. For further theoretical
explanations, refer to the specialist literature.

4.1 Heat transfer

We differentiate between direct heat transfer


and indirect heat transfer.
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An example of direct heat transfer is introducing


hot steam into water to rapidly heat the water
stored in a tank. The hot steam condenses in the
liquid water and gives up its condensation heat to
the content of the tank.
Direct heat transfer can only be used if the heat
carrier introduced does not interfere with the com-
position and concentration of the tank filling.
In indirect heat transfer the heat is transferred
from one fluid to another through a partition in a
heat exchanger.
The fluid flows on the two sides of the partition do
not mix.
In terms of the flow directions of the fluids on
both sides of the partition, we differentiate
between parallel flow, counter flow and cross
flow. In other words, the fluids either flow in the
same direction, in opposing directions or perpen-
dicular to one another.

4 Fundamental principles 47
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

4.2 Indirect heat transfer

Whilst the hot fluid is flowing along the partition,


Partition
Hot fluid Cold fluid it is cooled and gives up heat to the partition. In
Th turn, the heated partition gives up heat to the cold
 Th medium flowing along the other side of the parti-
Tp,h
 Tp T tion. This heats the cold fluid.
Tp,c
 Tc Heat transfer at the partition can be sub-divided
Tc
into three separate processes.
s
1. The hot fluid gives up heat to the partition.
Travel
2. The partition conducts heat from the hot
Fig. 4.1 Temperature curve at the surface to the cold surface.
partition
3. The partition gives up the heat to the cold fluid.
The temperature curve at the partition is shown
schematically in Fig. 4.1. Each of the three heat
transfer processes is assigned a temperature
difference (  T h ,  T p and  T c ).
Note: Below, the variables for the hot side are
indicated by the suffix h and those for the cold
side with the suffix c. The suffix p represents the
partition, while the suffixes in and out indicate the
inlet and outlet.
The efficiency of a heat exchanger is defined by
the quality of the transfer of heat during the three
heat transfer processes.

48 4 Fundamental principles
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

4.2.1 Heat transfer from fluid-partition

The ability to transfer heat from one fluid to the


partition or vice versa is described by the coeffi-
cient of heat transfer  .

Q =   A  T  t (4.1)

The formula defines the amount of heat Q trans-


ferred in the time t. As well as the coefficient of
heat transfer  and the partition area A, the tem-
perature difference  T between the fluid and par-
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tition temperatures is a crucial factor in the heat


transfer.
In general the heat flow is of interest, i.e. the
amount of heat per unit time that a heat
exchanger transfers. The heat flow is specified
using a power unit, e.g. kW or kJ/s.
·
For heat flow Q the equation is generally:
·
Q =   A  T (4.2)

In the specific case of the hot side of the partition


with hot fluid (suffix h) or the cold side with cold
fluid (suffix c):
·
Q = h  A   Th (4.3)

where  T h = T h – T p, h (4.4)

and
·
Q = c  A   Tc (4.5)

where  T c = T p, c – T c (4.6)

4 Fundamental principles 49
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

4.2.2 Thermal Conduction in the Partition

Within the partition the heat is transferred from the


hot side to the cold side by thermal conduction.
Here the following relationship applies:
· 
Q = ---  A   T p (4.7)
s
where  T p = T p, h – T p, c (4.8)

Here  is the thermal conductivity of the parti-


tion material and s is the wall thickness of the
partition.

4.2.3 Heat Transmission

Because the three heat flows are of equal magni-


tude in a steady state:

· 
Q =  h  A   T h = ---  A   T p =  c  A   T c (4.9)
s

or, summarised at the mean coefficient of heat


transfer km of the heat exchanger:
1
k m = ----------------------------
- (4.10)
1- + s + ----- 1-
----- ---
h  c
·
With the heat flow Q
·
Q = k m  A m   T lm (4.11)

50 4 Fundamental principles
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Explanations of Formula (4.11):


1. As the temperatures along the partition are not
constant, a mean temperature difference must
be used for calculations. The temperature
curve is non-linear, which means that rather
than the arithmetic mean, the logarithmic
mean temperature difference  T lm must be
used.

 T max –  T min
 T lm = ------------------------------------
- (4.12)
  T max
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ln ----------------
  T min 

 T max and  T min relate to the temperature


difference between the fluids, each at one point
in the heat exchanger. Further information
follows in Chapter 4.4, Page 55.
2. The surfaces on the cold and hot sides are not
generally of equal size. For example, in a tubu-
lar heat exchanger, the inner surface of the
tube is smaller than the outer surface, which
means that in this case a mean area Am should
be used.

Ah – Ac
A m = ------------------
- (4.13)
A
ln  ------
h
Ac
3. ln defines the natural logarithm for the
base e = 2,71828.
The mean coefficient of heat transfer km char-
acterises the heat exchanger. It can be used to
compare different heat exchangers with one
another. There are guideline values for km for
particular designs, enabling similar heat exchang-
ers to be dimensioned.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

When comparing coefficients of heat transfer from


different sources, we recommend paying atten-
tion to the reference. In many cases, for heat
exchange tubes they do not refer to the mean
area Am but, due to the reduced calculation
required, to either the inner or outer surface of the
tube.
However, all figures for the WL 110 series refer to
Am to allow a fair comparison between the
WL 110.02 plate heat exchanger on the one hand
and the WL 110.01 tubular heat exchanger and
WL 110.03 shell & tube heat exchanger on the
other.

4.2.4 Analogy to fluid dynamics and electrics

The inverse of the mean coefficient of heat


transfer km is known as the heat transition coef-
ficient.
Rearranging Formula (4.10), Page 50 gives the
heat transition coefficient:
1- + s + -----
1 = ----- 1-
------ --- (4.14)
km h  c

The term s /  is known as the thermal conduc-


tivity resistance. The quotients 1/  h and 1/  c
are also known as the heat transfer resistance.
The heat transmission can thus be understood
as series connection of the three individual
resistances. As in fluid mechanics and electrics,
the total resistance here is given by the sum of the
individual resistance values.

52 4 Fundamental principles
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4.3 Heat flow through the heat exchanger

Hot fluid

·
Q h,out
·
Q h,in

·
Q = Transferred heat flow
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·
Q c,out
·
Q c,in

Cold fluid

Fig. 4.2 Energy flow in heat exchanger (loss free)

Fig. 4.2 shows a schematic view of the energy


and heat flow in a heat exchanger (losses are not
indicated).
·
The transferred heat flow Q is calculated from the
difference between the input and output heat
· ·
flows ( Q in - Q out ). In an ideal heat exchanger with-
out losses it is not relevant whether the hot or cold
medium is used for the calculation (see Fig. 4.2).
Generally the heat flow is determined from the
mass flow rate m· , the specific heat capacity c
p
and the absolute temperature T :
· · T
Q = cp  m (4.15)

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

The transferred heat flow is thus:


· · · ·  T
Q h = Q h,out – Q h,in = c p,h  m h h,out – T h,in  (4.16)

for the hot fluid, and


· · · ·  T
Q c = Q c,out – Q c,in = c p,c  m c c,out – T c,in  (4.17)

for the cold fluid.


With no exchange of heat with the surroundings:
· · ·
Q = –Qh = Qc (4.18)

·
If the heat flow figures differ, the mean value Q m
is calculated.
· · · ·
· –Qh + Qc Qc – Qh
Q m = -----------------------------
- = -------------------
- (4.19)
2 2

This enables the mean coefficient of heat trans-


fer km for the heat exchanger to be calculated:

·
Qm
k m = ------------------------
- (4.20)
A m   T lm

c p,c  m ·  T ·
c c,out – T c,in  – c p,h  m h   T h,out – T h,in 
k m = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- (4.21)
2  A m   T lm

where · =   V· h
m (4.22)
h h

and · =   V·
m (4.23)
c c c

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

4.4 Temperature curve

If we plot the fluid temperatures in the heat


exchanger in a combined graph against the travel
T h,in Hot fluid
x we obtain the temperature curve. The travel x
T h,out runs along the heat transfer surface from the fluid
T c,out inlet to the outlet.
T c,in
Cold fluid The adjacent two figures show example tempera-
ture curves for a tubular heat exchanger with
Travel x
Cold parallel flow (Fig. 4.3) and counter flow (Fig. 4.4).
The temperatures are normally exponential rather
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Hot
than linear.
This is clearly illustrated by the parallel flow exam-
Fig. 4.3 Temperature curve for ple (see Fig. 4.3). The temperature difference is
parallel flow at its maximum when the fluids enter the heat
exchanger (x =0) and at its minimum at the outlet.
With the maximum temperature difference, a
large heat flow can be transferred, i.e. the temper-
T h,in Hot fluid atures change quickly. As the temperature differ-
ence is reduced, the temperatures change more
T c,out slowly.
T h,out
T c,in With parallel flow, the outlet temperature T c,out
Cold fluid
always remains lower than T h,out .
Travel x
By contrast, with counter flow the outlet tempera-
ture T c,out of the heated fluid can be higher than
Hot the outlet temperature T h,out of the cooled fluid.

Cold

Fig. 4.4 Temperature curve for


counter flow

4 Fundamental principles 55
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

In Chapter 4.2.3, Page 50 onwards, the logarith-


mic mean temperature difference  T lm was
used to calculate the temperature differences
 T max and  T min . The following equations
explain these temperature differences:

For parallel flow:

 T max = T h,in – T c,in (4.24)

 T min = T h,out – T c,out (4.25)

For counter flow, as shown by the example in Fig.


4.4, Page 55, the equations are:

 T max = T h,in – T c,out (4.26)

 T min = T h,out – T c,in (4.27)

At this point, it is important to mention that for


counter flow there are also temperature curves in
which the difference increases along the travel x.

56 4 Fundamental principles
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

5 Experiments

The selection of experiments makes no claims of


completeness but is intended to be used as a
stimulus for your own experiments.
The results shown are intended as a guide only.
Depending on the construction of the individual
components, experimental skills and environmen-
tal conditions, deviations may occur in the experi-
ments. Nevertheless, the laws can be clearly
demonstrated.
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Note: In the experiments performed by G.U.N.T.,


the temperature of the incoming cold water T4
was around 15°C. Different temperatures T4 lead
to changed measured values.

Note on the water quality of the water used:


Cold water from the cold water mains is required
for cooling. The hot water tank is normally filled
with tap water.
We recommend avoiding the use of water with a
high water hardness (>5°dH). The lower the water
hardness, the fewer deposits form in the experi-
mental units.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

This experiment chapter is split into two sections


because the WL 110.04 Shell & Tube Heat
Exchanger has a different design to the other
three heat exchangers.
As explained in Chapter 3.9, Page 35 onwards,
the WL 110.04 is primarily intended for batch
operation, in contrast to the other three heat
exchangers. In addition, only the WL 110.04 has
a stirrer. Therefore, there are also different exper-
iment aims, methods of performing experiments,
measured values and evaluations.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

5.1 Experiments with WL 110.01, WL 110.02 and WL 110.03

The experiments described here relate to the fol-


lowing three heat exchangers from the WL 110
series:
• WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger
• WL 110.03 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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5.1.1 Experiment aims

1. Comparison of parallel flow and counter flow


operation. Heat transmission and representa-
tion of temperature curves.
2. Investigation of heat transmission when chang-
ing the cold water and hot water flow rates.
3. Investigation of heat transmission when chang-
ing the hot water temperature.
4. Comparison of heat transmission for the differ-
ent heat exchanger types.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

5.1.2 Experiment series, general conditions

The WL 110 series offers a wide range of options


for carrying out experiments under widely varying
conditions.
A series of experiments is set out below, which
can be used to investigate the experiment aims
described in Chapter 5.1.1.
This series of experiments includes experiments
V1-01 to V10-03. The first number in this designa-
tion indicates the experiments, while the second
number indicates the heat exchanger used.

· ·
Experiment HE Flow V c ,V h SP(T7 )
direction
Key: ltr/min °C
HE: Heat exchanger V1-01 01 PF 0,7 70
PF: Parallel flow V2-01 01 PF 1,4 70
CF: Counter flow V3-01 01 PF 2,1 70
·
Vc : Cold water flow rate V4-01 01 CF 1,4 70
·
Vh : Hot water flow rate V5-01 01 CF 1,4 45

SP(T7 ): Setpoint for T7 V6-01 01 CF 1,4 20

V7-02 02 PF 1,4 70

V8-02 02 CF 1,4 70

V9-03 03 PF 1,4 70

V10-03 03 CF 1,4 70

Tab. 5.1 Parameters for experiments V1-01 to V10-03

Tab. 5.1 summarises the selected general condi-


tions. Changed general conditions are shown with
yellow shading.
The designation SP(T7 ) indicates the setpoint
(SP) for the temperature T7 of the hot water in the
tank (B).

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5.1.3 Experimental setup

Connected WL 110 Heat Exchanger Service


Unit, commissioning carried out as described in
Chapter 3.10, Page 40, in conjunction with the
associated heat exchangers.
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5.1.4 Performing the experiment

The parameters to be set are set out in Tab. 5.1,


Page 60.
1. Observe the safety instructions (see
Chapter 2, Page 5).
2. Secure the selected heat exchanger on the
base plate of the service unit as described
in Chapter 3.6, Page 25 to Chapter 3.8 and
connect.
3. Set the main switch (item 35 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19) to „1“.
4. Check the water level in the hot water tank
(B) (see Fig. 3.6, Page 15).
– If the hot water tank (B) is empty: Add
water until the low level is reached (level
switch LSL1 trips and the low water warn-
ing lamp (item 29 in Fig. 3.12, Page 19)
goes out. Then add 0,5ltr of water with a
beaker.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

– If the hot water tank (B) is filled but with an


unknown volume above the low level:
Partially drain the hot water tank (B) (see
Fig. 3.8, Page 16) until the low level is
reached (level switch LSL1 trips and the
low water warning lamp lights up). Then
add 0,5ltr of water with a beaker.
5. Start the PC. Start the data acquisition pro-
gram.
6. Open the cold water feed at the cold water
mains.
7. Open the regulator valve for cold water V2
(10).
8. Open the regulator valve for hot water V1 (9).
9. Start the pump (P).
10. If required, bleed the heat exchanger
(Detach the heat exchanger base plate.
Turn the heat exchanger with a through flow
such that the air can escape upwards. Re-
attach the base plate).
11. Set the desired hot water setpoint SP(T7 ) on
the TIC7 controller (28) (see also Fig. 3.13,
Page 21).
12. If the temperature T7 of the hot water in the
tank (B) is higher than the setpoint SP(T7 ):
Cool the hot water circuit until T7 < SP(T7 ).
·
13. Set the desired cold water flow rate V c using
the regulator valve V2 (10).
·
14. Set the desired hot water flow rate V h using
the regulator valve V1 (9).

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

15. Turn on the heater (H).


16. Make settings for the measured value file.
Start automatic measured value recording.
17. Observe the measured values. Wait until a
steady state is reached, i.e.:
– The water temperature T7 is no longer ris-
ing.
– The parts in contact with the product have
taken on the water temperatures.
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– The measured values only change


slightly.
· ·
– The heat flow values Q h and Q c are sim-
ilar.
18. Save screenshots for the time response of
the measured values and the current tem-
perature curve in a file.
Give the file a name that will allow you to
identify the values in the measured value file
later.
19. When the experiment is complete, first turn
off the heater (H).
20. Then stop the pump (P).
21. Close the regulator valves V1 (9) and V2
(10).
22. If a further experiment is to be performed
with a different heat exchanger, continue
from step „2“.

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23. If a further experiment is to be performed


with the same heat exchanger, compare the
current water temperature T7 with the new
setpoint SP(T7 ).
– If the hot water has a significantly higher
temperature level, drain the hot water
tank (B). Continue the experiment from
step „2“.
– If the hot water temperature level is simi-
lar or lower, continue the experiment from
step „7“.
24. When the last experiment is complete, stop
recording and save the measured value file.
25. Close the cold water feed at the cold water
mains.
26. Set the main switch (35 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19) to “0”.

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5.1.5 Measured values

The data acquisition program saves the meas-


ured values in measured value files. This meas-
ured value file contains a chronological sequence
of measured data records. A measured data
record is a snapshot of all the measured values
at a given point in time.
An interval of 1s was selected (representing the
time between recording of two measured data
records). A recording duration of 60min results in
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61200 measured values (each measured data


record contains 17 measured values).
A tabular representation of the complete meas-
ured value file, with all measured data records,
would be too extensive to set out at this point.
Therefore, just a selection will be presented.

The table below supplements the data from


Tab. 5.1, Page 60. In addition to the parameters
for the experiment series, the following measured
values and calculated values are set out here:
• Hot water feed temperature T1
• Hot water return temperature T3
• Cold water feed temperature T4
• Cold water return temperature T6
• Mean coefficient of heat transfer km
·
• Mean heat flow Q m

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· · ·
Experi- HE Flow V c ,V h SP(T7 T1 T3 T4 T6 km Qm
ment direction
ltr/min °C °C °C °C kW/(m²K) kW
V1-01 01 PF 0,7 70 67,0 51,1 15,6 31,5 0,93 0,76

V2-01 01 PF 1,4 70 67,8 54,7 15,6 29,5 1,43 1,32

V3-01 01 PF 2,1 70 67,0 55,6 15,1 27,9 1,83 1,75

V4-01 01 CF 1,4 70 67,1 54,4 15,3 29,5 1,37 1,31

V5-01 01 CF 1,4 45 43,7 37,4 15,1 22,9 1,30 0,69

V6-01 01 CF 1,4 20 20,6 19,8 15,0 17,5 1,68 0,16

V7-02 02 PF 1,4 70 65,2 43,1 14,3 37,5 2,25 2,22

V8-02 02 CF 1,4 70 61,2 36,2 15,2 41,7 2,58 2,50

V9-03 03 PF 1,4 70 67,3 57,4 15,2 26,5 1,27 1,03

V10-03 03 CF 1,4 70 67,8 57,1 15,0 26,7 1,30 1,08

Tab. 5.2 Parameters for experiments V1-01 to V10-03, with measured and calculated values added

The hot water feed temperature T1 is included


here so that the actual hot water temperature can
be incorporated into the evaluation.
The cold water feed temperature T4 helps in com-
paring the results from your own experiments.
For experiment aim 3, the temperatures T3 and T6
are also required.

Note: Experiments V1-01 to V6-01 were


conducted with a not yet insulated WL 110.01
Tubular Heat Exchanger. The partially insulated
WL 110.01 version now available provides
slightly different measured values.

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5.1.6 Analysis, comments and evaluation

Experiment aim 1,
comparison of parallel flow and counter flow
operation. Heat transmission and representa-
tion of temperature curves.
The comparison is made using the example of the
WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger. Experiments
V7-02 (parallel flow) and V8-02 (counter flow) are
included.
The following temperature curves were produced
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using an earlier version of the measurement data


acquisition program.
Due to the limited number of measuring points,
the links between the feed and return tempera-
tures are shown as simplified straight lines here.
In the figures, the designation of the water tem-
peratures is enlarged.

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T1

T3
T6

T4

Fig. 5.1 Temperature curve for experiment V7-02, WL 110.02, parallel flow

T1

T6
T3

T4

Fig. 5.2 Temperature curve for experiment V8-02, WL 110.02, counter flow

68 5 Experiments
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Comments and evaluation:


• In counter flow mode, the heat transmission
is better than in parallel flow mode. The values
for the mean coefficient of heat transfer km are
2
2,58 kW  m  K  for counter flow and
2
2,25 kW  m  K  for parallel flow (see Tab. 5.2,
Page 66).
As defined by Formula (4.20), Page 54 the
·
mean heat flow rises as km increases Q m . The
values in Tab. 5.2, Page 66 confirm this rise.
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• The temperature curve from experiment V8-02


in Fig. 5.2, Page 68 confirms the assertion from
Chapter 4.4, Page 55. In experiment V8-02 the
outlet temperature T 6 = T c,out of the heated
fluid is higher than the outlet temperature
T 3 = T h,out of the cooled fluid. This is not possi-
ble in parallel flow mode.
For this reason alone, the heat transmission
must be better for counter flow mode than for
parallel flow mode.

Experiment aim 2,
Investigation of heat transmission when
changing the cold water and hot water flow
rates.
The comparison is made using the example of the
WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger in parallel
flow mode. The experiments V1-01, V2-01 and
V3-01 are analysed.
Fig. 5.3 shows the dependency of the mean
coefficient of heat transfer km on the flow rates for
· ·
cold water ( V c ) and hot water ( V h ).

5 Experiments 69
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

2,0
km
1,8

1,6
·
1,4 k m V 
1,2

1,0

0,8
0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2 · 2,2
V
Fig. 5.3 Mean coefficient of heat transfer km as a function of cold water and hot water
flow rates, for experiments V1-01, V2-01 and V3-01

Comments and evaluation:


Tab. 5.2, Page 66 and Fig. 5.3, Page 70 show
that the mean coefficient of heat transfer km
·
increases as the flow rates of cold water ( V c ) and
·
hot water ( V h ) rise.
The cause of this increases is the greater turbu-
lence caused by the increased flow rates on both
sides of the „partition“ (in this case the inner tube).
The greater turbulence produces higher coeffi-
cients of heat transfer  c and  h , and thus lower
heat transfer resistances 1/  h and 1/  c . As
defined by Formula (4.14), Page 52 this results in
a lower heat transfer resistance 1/km and there-
fore greater heat transmission.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Experiment aim 3,
Investigation of heat transmission when
changing the hot water temperature.
The comparison is made using the example of the
WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger in counter
flow mode. The experiments V4-01, V5-01 and
V6-01 are analysed.
The table below supplements the data from
Tab. 5.2, Page 66. In addition to the measured
values, the following calculated values are also
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set out:
•  T max as defined in Formula (4.26), Page 56,
here T3 -T4
•  T min as defined in Formula (4.27), Page 56,
here T1 -T6
•  T lm as defined in Formula (4.12), Page 51.
·
• Mean heat flow Q m , from measured value file.

·
Experiment SP(T7 ) T1 T3 T4 T6  T max  T min  T lm Qm
°C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C kW
V4-01 70 67,1 54,4 15,3 29,5 39,1 37,6 38,3 1,31

V5-01 45 43,7 37,4 15,1 22,9 22,3 20,8 21,5 0,69

V6-01 20 20,6 19,8 15,0 17,5 4,8 3,1 3,9 0,16

Tab. 5.3 Parameters and measured values for experiments V4-01 to V6-01,
calculated values for experiment aim 3 added

Fig. 5.4 shows the dependency of the mean heat


·
flow Q m on the logarithmic mean temperature
difference  T lm graphically.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

· 1,4
Qm
1,2
1,0
·
0,8 Q m T lm 
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
 T lm
·
Fig. 5.4 Mean heat flow Q m as a function of  T lm
for experiments V4-01, V5-01 and V6-01

Comments and evaluation:


·
Fig. 5.4 shows that the mean heat flow Q m
increases as the temperature T4 (hot water feed)
or  T lm rises. This increase is approximately lin-
ear.
Formula (5.1) repeats Formula (4.20), Page 54,
·
rearranged for Q m :
·
Q m = k m  A m   T lm (5.1)

·
The equation states that Q m changes proportion-
ally to  T lm if km and Am are constant.
Am is constant here as these three experiments
were performed with the same heat exchanger
km should actually also be largely constant. This
is generally the case in experiment V4-01 with
2
km =1,37 and in V5-01 with km =1,30 kW  m  K  .
However, in experiment V6-01
2
km =1,68 kW  m  K  differs significantly.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

A possible explanation for this difference is that in


experiment V6-01 there is a low temperature dif-
ference between the cold and hot water. This
increases the impact of any measuring inaccu-
racy.

Experiment aim 4,
Comparison of heat transmission for the dif-
ferent heat exchanger types.
Comments and evaluation:
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The comparison of the average coefficients of


heat transfer km is important. Analysing the mean
·
heat flows Q m is not useful here as the three heat
exchangers have different heat transfer areas
(see also Chapter 6.2, Page 83 onwards).
An evaluation can be carried out using Tab. 5.2,
Experi- HE Flow km Page 66. This is done by comparing those exper-
ment direction iments that only differ in terms of the heat
kW/(m²K) exchangers, with identical flow rates and the
V2-01 01 PF 1,43 same setpoint SP(T7 ) for hot water. Tab. 5.4
V4-01 01 CF 1,37 shows the corresponding extract from Tab. 5.2:
V7-02 02 PF 2,25 • For parallel flow mode (shown shaded in
V8-02 02 CF 2,58 blue) these are the experiments V2-01, V7-02
and V9-03.
V9-03 03 PF 1,27
The values for the average coefficient of heat
V10-03 03 CF 1,30
transfer km rise in the following order of the
Tab. 5.4 Heat transmission of heat
heat exchangers: WL 110.03, WL 110.01 and
exchanger types
WL 110.02.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

• For counter flow mode the experiments V4-


01, V8-02 and V10-03 are compared.
Once again, the values for the mean coefficient
of heat transfer km rise in the order of heat
exchangers WL 110.03, WL 110.01 and
WL 110.02.

The best coefficient of heat transfer by some dis-


tance is thus obtained using the WL 110.02 Plate
Heat Exchanger.
It is notable that the best heat transmission in
experiment V8-02 is linked to the highest differ-
ence between the hot water setpoint
SP(T7 ) = 70°C and the hot water feed tempera-
ture T1 = 61,2°C (see Tab. 5.2, Page 66).
The explanation for this is that the mean heat flow
·
Q m = 2,50kW is also at a maximum in this exper-
iment. The remaining difference from the installed
electric heating power of 3kW (see also
Chapter 6.1, Page 81) corresponds to the heat
losses from the hot water outside the heat
exchanger (hoses, service unit etc.).

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

5.2 Experiments with WL 110.04

5.2.1 Experiment aim

Recording the measured value time response.

5.2.2 General conditions

The adjacent figure repeats Fig. 3.36, Page 36. The


experiment is performed as described in a), i.e.
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a defined volume of cold water inside the tank is


heated by the hot water flowing through the
heating jacket in batch mode.
The volume of cold water should:
• fill the tank well, so that a large proportion of the
heating jacket area is covered.
• such that no water spills over during the exper-
Fig. 5.5 WL 110.04, flow,
schematic iment when stirring.
This defined volume of cold water can be adjusted
by filling the tank using the cold water feed (item
B in Fig. 3.37, Page 37) on the service unit.
However, we recommend adding the cold water
with a separate beaker and funnel (see Fig. 5.6).
It is useful to measure the water into the beaker in
advance. This results in greater accuracy and
reproducibility for repeat experiments.

Fig. 5.6 Filling the WL 110.04

5 Experiments 75
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

A good fill is obtained with 1200g of water. The


flow breakers (see also Fig. 3.35, Page 36) are
then completely covered.

The other general conditions are selected to


quickly achieve significant heating:
• Hot water setpoint SP(T7 )=70°C.
·
• Hot water flow rate V h = 2,1ltr/min.
• Operate the stirrer at maximum speed.

5.2.3 Experimental setup

Connected WL 110 Heat Exchanger Service


Unit, commissioning carried out as described in
Chapter 3.10, Page 40, in conjunction with the
WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and
Coil.

Fig. 5.7 Service unit with WL 110.04

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

5.2.4 Performing the experiment

The parameters to be set are set out in


Chapter 5.2.2, Page 75.
1. Observe the safety instructions (see
Chapter 2, Page 5).
2. Secure the WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with
Stirrer and Coil on the base plate of the
service unit as described in Chapter 3.9,
Page 35 onwards and connect (see Fig. 5.7,
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

Page 76).
3. Set the main switch (item 35 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19) to „1“.
4. Check the water level in the hot water tank
(B) (see Fig. 3.6, Page 15).
– If the hot water tank (B) is empty: Add
water until the low level is reached (level
switch LSL1 trips and the low water warn-
ing lamp (item 29 in Fig. 3.12, Page 19)
goes out. Then add 0,5ltr of water with a
beaker.
– If the hot water tank (B) is filled but with an
unknown volume above the low level:
Partially drain the hot water tank (B) (see
Fig. 3.8, Page 16) until the low level is
reached (level switch LSL1 trips and the
low water warning lamp lights up). Then
add 0,5ltr of water with a beaker.
5. Start the PC. Start the data acquisition pro-
gram.
6. Fully open the regulator valve for hot water V1
(9).

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

7. Start the pump (P).


8. Set the desired hot water setpoint SP(T7 ) on
the TIC7 controller (28) (see also Fig. 3.13,
Page 21).
9. Turn on the heater (H).
10. Measure 1200g of cold water into a sepa-
rate beaker.
11. Wait until the hot water temperature T7 has
reached the setpoint SP(T7 ).
·
12. Set the desired hot water flow rate V h using
the regulator valve V1 (9).
13. Make settings for the measured value file.
Start automatic measured value recording.
14. Add the content of the beaker to the
WL 110.04 (see also Fig. 5.6, Page 75).
15. Start the stirrer.
Set the maximum speed.
16. Wait until the temperature T5 of the water in
the WL 110.04 has approximately reached
the hot water temperature.
17. Save a screenshot for the time response of
the measured values in a file.
Give the file a name that will allow you to
identify the values in the measured value file
later.
18. When the experiment is complete, first turn
off the heater (H).
19. Then stop the pump (P).
20. Close the regulator valve V1 (9).
21. Stop the stirrer.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

22. Stop recording and save the measured


value file.
23. Set the main switch (35 in Fig. 3.12,
Page 19) to “0”.

5.2.5 Measured values, time response

The following measured value time response


curve was produced using an earlier version of
the measurement data acquisition program.
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

Fig. 5.8 Measured value time response for WL 110.04, batch mode, with heating jacket

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

5.2.6 Analysis, comments and evaluation

Explanation of measured value time response


(see Fig. 5.8, Page 79):
·
The hot water flow rate V h is shown in green
·
here. V h fluctuates around 2,1ltr/min.
Before adding the cold water the temperatures T1
(hot water feed) and T3 (hot water return) are
around 70°C.
When the cold water is added, the hot water
return temperature T3 falls because the hot wall of
the heating jacket quickly gives up heat to the cold
water (see adjacent extract from Fig. 5.8,
Page 79).
The temperature T5 of the water in the tank is
slightly above 30°C directly after adding the water
at 16:08.
Initially, the tank content is heated quickly due to
the large temperature difference. As the tempera-
ture difference between the hot water and the tank
content is reduced, the temperature T5 rises
increasingly slowly. It eventually approaches the
hot water temperature asymptotically.
The temperature difference between the hot
Fig. 5.9 Extract from measured value water feed and return reduces as the heat trans-
time response for WL 110.04
mission decreases.
Heating the tank content from 30°C to 65°C takes
around 10min.
Similar experiments can be used to simulate real
processes on a small scale, to obtain information
about the design of larger actual heat exchang-
ers.

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6 Appendix

6.1 Technical data for WL 110, Heat Exchanger Service Unit

Dimensions:
Length x Width x Height: Approx. 1000 x 700 x 600 mm
Weight: Approx. 52 kg

Connection values:
Electrical supply 230 V / 50 Hz
Rated consumption (power) Approx. 3,2 kW
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

Optional alternatives, see rating plate


Cold water, required admission pressure: Approx. 3 bar g
Cold water, temperature: recommended T < 20 °C

Hot water tank, with heater:


Nominal volume: Approx. 10 ltr
Heating power: Approx. 3 kW

Hot water pump:


Type: Centrifugal pump
Maximum flow rate: 10 ltr/min
Maximum head: 30 mFS

Temperature measurement:
Type: Pt100
Measuring range: 0...100 °C

Hot and cold water flow rate measurement:


Type: Paddle wheel flow meter
Measuring range: 20...250 ltr/h

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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Temperature controller: Hardware controller with display,


used as two point controller.
Default settings: Hysteresis: 0,2 °C
Setpoint limited to max.: 70 °C

Data acquisition: USB communication.


Program environment: LAB-View Runtime
System requirements:
• PC with Pentium IV processor, 1GHz, or better.
• Min. 1024 MB RAM.
• Min. 1 GB available hard disk space.
• 1 CD-ROM drive.
• 1 USB port.
• Graphics card resolution min. 1024 x 768
pixels, True Color.
• Windows Vista / Windows 7 / Windows 8.

82 6 Appendix
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.2 Technical data for accessories (heat exchangers)

Various heat exchangers for connection to WL 110.


Hot and cold water supply from WL 110.

6.2.1 WL 110.01 Tubular Heat Exchanger

Parallel flow and counter flow operation possible.

Dimensions:
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

Length x Width x Height: Approx. 480 x 230 x 150 mm


Weight: Approx. 4 kg

Tubular heat exchanger,


essentially consisting of two double tubes.

Tubular heat exchanger, geometry and material:


Effective tube length, Approx. 360 mm each
Transparent outer tube material: PMMA
Outer tube wall thickness: 2 mm
Outer tube internal diameter: 16 mm
Inner tube material: Stainless steel
Inner tube wall thickness: 1 mm
Inner tube internal diameter: 10 mm
Mean logarithmic heat transfer
area, total, Am : Approx. 0,025 m²

Temperature measurement:
Type: Pt100
Measuring range: 0...100 °C

6 Appendix 83
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.2.2 WL 110.02 Plate Heat Exchanger

Parallel flow and counter flow operation possible.

Dimensions:
Length x Width x Height: Approx. 400 x 230 x 85 mm
Weight: Approx. 3 kg

Plate heat exchanger, geometry and material:


Number of soldered plates: 6
Plate material: Stainless steel
Heat transfer area, total, A: Approx. 0,048 m²

84 6 Appendix
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.2.3 WL 110.03 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Cross parallel flow and cross counter flow operation possible.

Dimensions:
Length x Width x Height: Approx. 400 x 230 x 110 mm
Weight: Approx. 3 kg

Shell and tube heat exchanger, geometry and material:


Shell material: PMMA
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Shell wall thickness: 3 mm


Shell internal diameter: 44 mm
Tube bundle consisting of 7 tubes.
Tube material: Stainless steel
Effective tube length: 184 mm
Tube wall thickness: 1 mm
Tube internal diameter: 4 mm
Baffle plate material: Stainless steel
Number of baffle plates: 4
Baffle plate wall thickness: 1 mm
Mean logarithmic heat transfer
area, total, Am : Approx. 0,02 m²

6 Appendix 85
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.2.4 WL 110.04 Jacketed Vessel with Stirrer and Coil

Dimensions:
Length x Width x Height: Approx. 400 x 230 x 400 mm
Weight: Approx. 8 kg

Jacketed heat exchanger


Insulated jacketed tank
with pipe coil and stirrer.
Type of stirrer: Propeller, with three blades
Stirrer speed range: Approx. 20...330 min-1

Jacketed heat exchanger, geometry and material:


Nominal tank volume: Approx. 1,2 ltr
Jacketed tank and pipe coil material: Stainless steel
Inner jacket wall thickness: 2,5 mm
Inner jacket internal diameter: 103 mm
Outer jacket internal diameter: 127 mm
Tank base wall thickness: 4 mm
Transparent cover material: PMMA
Pipe coil wall thickness: 1 mm
Pipe coil internal diameter: 6 mm
Pipe coil stretched pipe length: 2300 mm
Mean logarithmic heat transfer
area, pipe coil, Am : Approx. 0,05 m²
Mean logarithmic heat transfer area, inner jacket,
depending on level, at nominal volume Am : Approx. 0,05 m²

Temperature measurement:
Type: Pt100
Measuring range: 0...100 °C

86 6 Appendix
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.3 List of abbreviations

Abbreviation Meaning

PF Parallel flow

CF Counter flow

SP Setpoint

SP(T7 ) Setpoint for temperature measuring point T7

HE Heat exchanger
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6 Appendix 87
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.4 List of key symbols and units used

Symbol Mathematical/physical variable Unit

A Heat transfer area m²

Am Mean heat transfer area m²

cp Specific heat capacity kJ   kg  K 


2
km Mean coefficient of heat transfer kW   m  K 

m Mass g, kg
·
m Flow rate g/s

Q Amount of heat J, kJ
·
Q Heat flow, general W, kW

s Wall thickness mm, m

t Time min, s

T Temperature °C, K

 T lm Logarithmic mean temperature difference K

V Volume ltr, m³
·
V Flow rate ltr/min

x Travel, travel length mm, m

2
 Coefficient of heat transfer kW   m  K 

 Thermal conductivity kW   m  K 

 Density kg/ltr

88 6 Appendix
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

Suffix Explanation

c Cold

h Hot

in Inlet

lm Logarithmic mean

m Mean

max Maximum

min Minimum
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

out Outlet

p Partition

6 Appendix 89
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

6.5 List of symbols for process schematic

Symbol Name

Apparatus and equipment

Centrifugal pump

Tank, general

Heating or cooling

Fittings

Regulator valve

Ball valve, manually operated

General symbols, measuring points

Flow line

Function line

Measuring point with remote evaluation

Controller

Coupling

90 6 Appendix
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

7 Index

A
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Actual value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Amount of heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

B
Baffle plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Base plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

C
Coefficient of heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Control and display panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Counter flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 47, 67
Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Cross counter flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Cross flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 47
Cross parallel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

D
Data acquisition program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Direct heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Drainage pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

E
Embossing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Experiment series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

F
Flow breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Flow direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

G
General view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

7 Index 91
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WL 110-SERIES HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SERVICE UNIT

H
Heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Heat flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Heat transfer resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Heat transition coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Heat transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 69, 73
Heating coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 36
Help function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Hot water heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Hot water pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

I
Indirect heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Inner tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

J
Jacketed heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

L
Level switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Logarithmic mean temperature difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 56

M
Mean coefficient of heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 70
Measured data record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Measured value file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 65
Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

O
Outer jacket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Outer shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Outer tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

P
Parallel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 47, 67
Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Plate heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 67, 74
Plate package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Process schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

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S
Sealed plate heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Series connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Service unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Setpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Shell and tube heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Shell area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 32
Stirrer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 90

T
Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 06/2016

Temperature curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 68


Thermal conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Thermal conductivity resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Tube area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 32
Tube bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 34
Tube plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Tubular heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 69, 71

W
Wall thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Water Chiller for WL 110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Water connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Water quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
WL 110 series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

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94 7 Index