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Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 LESSON PLAN 1 - INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION Year Level: 1 Strand: Number and algebra (number and place value) Topic: simple addition and subtraction Content Description: Represent and solve simple addition and subtraction problems using a range of strategies including counting on, partitioning and rearranging parts (ACMNA015) Prior Knowledge Required Students should already be able to: • Count to ten in the correct order aloud • Name the number before or after any given number at least up to 10 • Use a range of practical strategies for adding small groups of numbers, including visual displays and using concrete materials Objectives By the end of the lesson students will be able to: 1. Recognize the different combinations that form 10 2. Add two single-digit numbers together correctly using a variety of strategies – including counting on, partitioning and rearranging parts 3. Use a variety of strategies to subtract small numbers within 10 Assessment 1. Teacher will observe the methods students use to add and subtract their objects 2. Teacher will collect children’s recordings 3. Teacher will use a checklist to record if students are successful solving addition and subtraction problems (see appendix A) Materials • Coloured paper • Textas • Glue sticks • Template of hand cut out • Bags • Counters

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Differentiation Gearing Up Gearing Down Give children who are ready and able the opportunity to explore the same activities, but with larger numbers. Place the extended students in groups together and place more counters in their bag, up to 20 depending on their abilities. For children who are struggling with the activity decrease the number of counters in their collection, start with 5 and move up to 10 when children have more confidence. Additionally, you could partner up struggling students with students who understand the activity and can assist them. LESSON OUTLINE Introduction (10 minutes) Children are seated in small groups at their tables. Get the students to count aloud together from 1 to 10. Ask students: what can we use to help us count to the number 10? Allow students to share their ideas. Explain to students that they will be using their fingers to help them count to 10 today. Provide students with a piece of coloured paper and two hand templates. Get students to glue down the palms of their hand sheets to the coloured paper – fingers should not be glued down so that students can move them up and down. Get students to count to 10 again by drawing the numbers on each of the 10 fingers, then get them to fold all the fingers down and draw 1-10 on the opposite side of the fingers. Exploration (30 minutes) Ask students: what do you think the word ‘add’ means? Allow students to share their ideas and explain that it means to join two or more numbers together to make a larger number. Show students that they can use their hand sheets to add numbers together to make 10 by flipping the fingers up and down to find different combinations. Get students to work together on their tables to find all the different ways they can add numbers to make 10. Get children to draw their findings on a separate piece of paper. At the end students should be encouraged to share and draw their answers on the whiteboard. Discuss the results. Ask the students if they see any patters? Do they see any combinations that are the same? (Adapted from EDUC5183 workshop 1, 2017).

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Students will now work in pairs. Provide students with a small bag, place different numbers of items from 1-9 items in each bag (such as counters, marbles, small toys). Students are then challenged to figure out how many more items are needed in order to have a total of ten items in the bag. Encourage them to use their hand sheet to help them. Observe what method students use to solve the problem. Once students have figured out how many more they need, ask them to find the other pair of students who have their missing number to create a perfect 10. Students can now work in their double pairs for the next activity. Ask students to move all 10 counters into one bag. Students take it in turns removing a random number of counters from the bag. The counters are then placed in front of everyone in the group. Students then have to figure out how many counters are remaining in the bag. Observe how the students solve the problem and what strategies they use to calculate how many are hidden. Encourage students to discuss how they have figured out how many items are missing from the bag in their groups. Reflection (10 minutes) Invite the students to share a piece of information that they have learnt from today’s lesson when performing simple addition and subtraction. Invite them to give examples of when they use addition and/or subtraction in their everyday lives. Explain a few examples from your own life.

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 LESSON PLAN 2 - INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION Year Level: 3 Strand: Number and algebra (number and place value) Topic: The relationship between addition and subtraction Content Description: Recognize and explain the connection between addition and subtraction (ACMNA029) Prior Knowledge Required Students should already be able to: • Count to and from 500 • Solve simple addition and subtraction calculations using a range of strategies – such as commutativity for addition, building to 10, 10 facts, counting on, partitioning and adding 10 Objectives By the end of the lesson students will be able to: 1. Build on their prior knowledge of subtraction and addition to understand that they are the inverse operations of each other 2. Solve number problems involving multiple digit numbers that involve the application of subtraction and addition 3. Understand and define the term ‘inverse’ in regards to addition and subtraction Assessment 1. Teacher will circulate and check for misconceptions through questioning 2. Students will be encouraged to share their findings and reasoning with each other 3. Teacher will create a poster to record all the students’ discoveries Materials • Digit cards • • Addition and subtraction flashcards (addends of up to 500) (see appendix B) Digiblocks (gearing down)

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Differentiation Gearing Up Gearing Down Challenge students with larger numbers, of addends of up to 1000, depending on the student’s abilities. To extend them even Provide students who are struggling with flashcards that use smaller numbers, maybe with addends of up to 100, depending on further, you could also add an additional number to the sentence to make the process their ability. Start small and go larger as the student’s confidence grows. Also provide longer + 14 + 6 = 32) student with concrete objects, (such as unifix cubes, digiblocks), to help them visualize the problem. LESSON OUTLINE Introduction (15 minutes) Children are seated in a circle around the whiteboard. Present students with a set of 3 number cards (start with simple numbers e.g. 30, 22, 52) and a subtraction and addition symbol card on the white board. Ask the students if anyone can think of a way to rearrange the numbers on the board to create a true number sentence using only these numbers and either + or -. Record the students’ ideas on the board (e.g. 30 + 22 = 52, 22 + 30 = 52, 52 – 30 = 22, 52 – 22 = 30). Repeat again with a different set, this time using larger numbers (e.g. 205, 415, 620). Again record the students’ ideas on the board (e.g. 205 + 415 = 620, 415 + 205 = 620, 620 – 205 = 415, 620 – 415 = 205). Can the students see any patterns? Are any of the combinations the same? Discuss the commutative property of the addition combinations. Ask students: how are addition and subtraction related to each other? Invite students to discuss their ideas and reasoning. Ask students if they have heard of the word ‘inverse’ and what does it mean? Allow students to share their ideas and guide them towards the understanding that inverse means the opposite or reversed or something. Exploration (25 minutes) Students are not seated at their tables. Students should now understand that the term ‘inverse’ means opposite or the reverse of something and that addition and subtraction are the inverse operations of each other. Ask students ‘what would you do if an equation had one missing number?’

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Provide groups of students with a set of five flashcards – these will have either an addition or subtraction problem, as well as one number missing (e.g. 21+ = 30 or 880 – = Reflection (10 minutes) Encourage the students to share something that they have learnt from today’s lesson about the relationship between addition and subtraction. If anyone is confident they can come up with a problem involving subtraction or addition and a missing number to share on the board for the class to work out. Solve this together as a class and ask another student to write the inverse of that operation. Encourage students to share the different methods they used to solve it.

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 LESSON PLAN 3 - INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION Year Level: 6 Strand: Number and algebra (number and place value) Topic: Integers Content Description: Investigate everyday situations that use integers. Locate and represent these numbers on a number line (ACMNA124) Prior Knowledge Required Students should already be able to: • Solve simple problems using both addition and subtraction using a range of different • strategies Understand the relationship between addition and subtraction as inverse operations • Identify and explain strategies for finding unknown values in number sentences involving addition and subtraction Objectives By the end of the lesson students will be able to: 1. Understand and define the term ‘integers’, ‘positive numbers’, and ‘negative numbers 2. Investigate everyday situations that use integers and represent these numbers on a number line 3. Solve everyday additive and subtractive problems using a number line Assessment 1. Teacher will circulate and check for misconceptions through questioning 2. Students will be encouraged to share their findings and reasoning with each other 3. Teacher will observe the methods students use to add and subtract integers Materials • Large number line on butchers paper • Markers • Thermometer sheet • Number line hand out • Dice with negative and positive numbers • Regular dice • Counters

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Differentiation Gearing Up Gearing Down To extend students that are finding the task easy provide them with two normal dice of different colours (e.g. blue and red). Tell them that the blue die is positive numbers and the red die is negative numbers. They have to roll both die at the same time and have to calculate whether they have scored a positive or a negative number from that. Provide students who are struggling with one normal die and tell them that this always represents negative numbers. They will start at the positive +10 end. The winner is the first one to reach -10. LESSON OUTLINE Introduction (15 minutes) Students are seated in a circle with Place a number line in the middle of the circle ranging from negative 10 to positive 10, but to begin with, only draw the positive numbers 0 to 10 on the number line. Leave the negative numbers blank (adapted from EDUC5183 workshop 4, 2017). Ask the students if there only positive numbers in the world? Allow students to share their answers and guide them towards the understanding that positive numbers are not the only numbers in the world. Ensure that students understand there are both positive and negative numbers. Ask the students if anyone would like to have a go at completing the number line and drawing in the negative numbers. Write the word ‘integers’ on the whiteboard, along with the following numbers around it: 2, - 102, +4, -14, 15, 2.5, ¼, 37.86, \$204.35, 32.5%. Ask the students if they have heard of the word ‘integer’? Allow students to share their ideas and lead them toward the understanding that integers are whole numbers, which can be either positive or negative. Ask the students: which numbers on the whiteboard are integers (whole numbers, either negative or positive)? Allow students to share their answers – mark integers with a green tick and mark those that aren’t integers with a red cross to demonstrate examples of integers to students.

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Exploration (25 minutes) Students are seated at their tables in small groups. Provide each pair of students with a die that has positive and negative numbers and two counters. Every student should also get a number line displaying -10 up to +10. For the first activity, students will work in pairs. Each student gets a counter and they both start at zero. They then take it in turns rolling the die, if they get a positive number (e.g. +2) the student moves to the right towards the +10. When a student rolls a negative number (e.g. -1) they move to the left towards the -10. The winner is the student that gets to either end of the number line first (adapted from EDUC5183 workshop 4, 2017). Students now work individually at their tables. Ask students: does adding two numbers always give a positive answer? Allow students to share their answers and explain their reasoning. Write an example on the white board if necessary to help students visualize a problem (e.g. 3 + -4). Explain to students that we will now be looking at a number of problems involving integers in everyday situations. Use the image of a thermometer to discuss the idea of negative numbers being used in everyday situations. Ask the question to students if the temperature is 5 °C today, and tomorrow it is 6°C colder than today – is this possible? Students can use their thermometer handout to help them solve the problem. Allow students to share their ideas and answers. Write worded problems on the whiteboard: 1. It is -18°C in Berlin and 13°C in Adelaide. What is the difference between these two temperatures? 2. It will be -7°C but the weatherman predicts it will be 22°C warmer by tomorrow afternoon. What will the temperature be tomorrow afternoon? 3. You are in a 10-story building, where the ground floor is zero. It also has 6 stories below the ground level for parking. If I am on the second floor and I take the elevator down 4 floors, which floor will I be on? (Adapted from Illuminations, 2017). Encourage students to draw a diagram if they need and to use their number line to help them visualize the problems. Allow students to share their answers and reasoning with the class.

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

 Reflection (10 minutes) Encourage the students to share something that they have learnt in today’s lesson about integers. Ask students when do we work with integers in the real world? Invite them to give other examples of when they use integers in their daily lives. Explain a few examples from your own life. If anyone is confident they can come up with a problem involving integers in everyday situations to share on the board for the class to work out. Solve this together as a class, encourage students to share the different methods they used to solve it.

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

REFERENCES

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) 2016, The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics, version 8.3, retrieved 31 February 2017

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/mathematics/curriculum/f-10?layout=1.

Illuminations 2017, Elevator Arithmetic, NCTM, retrieved 1 April 2017

https://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=4075.

Reys, R 2017, Helping Children Learn Mathematics, Milton, QLD, John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd.

Rogers, A 2017, EDUC5183 Workshop Week 1: 2017 – Sample lessons: Number, University of South Australia, Adelaide.

Rogers, A 2017, EDUC5183 Workshop Week 4: 2017 – Number line game, University of South Australia, Adelaide.

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

APPENDIX A

Year 1: Simple addition & subtraction

 Criteria ✓ Comments Understanding & Strategy Used concrete materials (hand sheet, counters) Rearranged materials Counting on Counting back from 10 Recorded results through drawings or symbols Results Found all combinations that create 10 Able to recognize commutative properties (saw that some combinations were the same) Able to add two single digit numbers together correctly Able to subtract number from 10 Attitude Worked well with others Able to discuss ideas and explain reasoning with others Remained engaged

Karly Neoh #110234311

EDUC5183 – ASSESSMENT ONE

APPENDIX B Examples of Addition & Subtraction Flashcards