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Listening Skills Training

Preparation for ib TOEFL Listening & Further Study in U.S.A.

in a Chinese Language Institution

Die Zhu

2016 Fall
Listening Skills Training

----Preparation for TOEFL Listening & Further Study in U.S.A.

 Course:

The teaching context will be in a Chinese language institution, which offers

courses for preparation for TOEFL, IELTS and GRE. This language center is

especially for students who want to pursue study in American. TOEFL test is basically

made up by four parts: reading, listening, speaking and writing. To make our teaching

and earning more effective, we shrink the class size into a 10-student class. This class

focuses especially on teaching and training students’ listening skills, however

listening can not be so separated with speaking, so this course will go through some

speaking teaching and training as well. Listening courses can be divided into three

levels: basic, intermediate and advanced level, which will all get involved during the

whole semester. Besides listening skills training targets TOEFL test, there is one unit

about virtual daily life/ school life in America. As a L2 learner, I clearly know the

truth that passing TOEFL test does not promise learning and understand well in a real

foreign language environment.

 Needs Assessment:

Students who have taken TOEFL test before can have a more concrete of their

listening proficiency than those have never taken it before. While, all the students

should take additional assessment regardless of whether they have taken the real test

before. The needs assessment will include the following part: a whole listening part

from TPO1 (Rationale: TPO is very valuable, once students take it, that set of tasks
will lost the function of estimation. TPO1 is a really “ancient” one, while it is still an

official one.), and two authentic listening: interview and the record of calling a police.

From this assessment, instructors can have a general idea of what skills students have

never learned as well as what skills they have already known. Knowing students’

original listening skills helps a lot to avoid instructors teaching blindly.

 Goals and Objectives:

The prime goal of our course is to help students to improve listening skills to

pass TOEFL, while passing TOEFL is the minimum requirement of studying in

America. The global goal of the course is to make sure students have the ability to

adapt in American environment. More conditional dialogues added for students to

understand including the following aspects: make greetings and small talks fluently,

understand a professional lecture well (at least can pick the main idea).

 Materials:

 TPO, TOEFL practice online, which is a kind of OFFICIAL practice

released by ETS, especially for people who are preparing for TOEFL test.

As it has only 48 whole sets of model tests, so from another perspectives,

TPO is very valuable for students.

 Transcript, transcript of all the TPO listening.

 Different genres of videos from YouTube, other universities, etc.. When we

talk about American life, authentic videos can help to show a help students

better understand what’s’ going on in real life.

 PowerPoint
 Evaluation:

 At the first one or two class, instructor may take a record of students’

presentation, and then record students’ presentation at the end of the

semester, so that both instructor and students can compare their

performance from different stages.

 Stage Reflection paper. Students will be asked to write 3 reflection papers

during this semester. There is no settled date or course for students to write

about, what they need to analyze is their own progress and improvement.

 Assignment.

 After class practice. Besides skills, practice also takes an important

place in listening teaching. The instructor will set assignment every

class, which matches the class content.

 Assignment analysis reflection. Firstly, work at those questions after

listening, then analyze where should be paid more attention to raise

students’ sense of key information during listening.

 Syllabus:

1-1 Course Introduction/ Ice breaking

Basic Level

Week Content Task Rationale Assignment

1-2 Conversation1-Basic 1). Topic pool review Students can know the TPO 1,2,3,4

comparison and 2). Get familiar with these two components of a regular Conversation

contrast between categories. conversation, what’s part


academic conversation usually included in the

& daily one. academic conversation

and what’s usually

included in the daily one.

1-3 Conversation2- Start Start to have the sense of taking Taking notes is not an Re-listen day1-2

to take notes notes, and knowing that taking easy habit for students to conversation ,

notes is not the main part of build up so it is put at the this time,

listening. What it plays is only very early stage to help students start to

assistant function. students to have a take the notes

general idea of it and get After

used to it. re-listening,

analyze the

transcript of

day1-2

homework and

bring the

analysis to the

next class.

(Reminder:

Please write the

first reflection

paper this or
next week)

1-4 Conversation3- 1). Under instructor’s guidance to Transcript analysis is Reflection

Controlled practice+ do practice of conversation. another important role. paper for this

Transcript analysis 2). Analyze the transcript after After transcript analysis, stage

listening students can have a

general idea of the

logical connection. Only

be aware of the logical

connection, students can

know where the key

information may occur.

Intermediate Level

Week Content Task Rationale Assignment

2-1 Introduction and 1). Topic Pool Review The topics of TOEFL

overview of the 2). Show students the sample lecture can be separated

second part of listening task. into 4 parts: Natural

listening: lecture. science, Social science,

Life science and Culture

&Arts.

2-2 Lecture2- the steps of 1). Figure out the logical line of a Different topics of Do TPO practice

a lecture lecture. lectures show different after class, and

2). Analyze one lecture of Natural process, which can make bring the notes
science and Social science students understand next class

3). Start to take notes of a lecture. better.

2-3 Lecture3- controlled 1). Under instructor’s guidance to Transcript analysis is Re-listen day2-2

practice+ transcript do practice of lecture. another important role. lecture , this

analysis 2). Analyze the transcript after After transcript analysis, time, students

listening following instructor’s students can have a start to take the

direction. general idea of the notes

logical connection. Only After

be aware of the logical re-listening,

connection, students can analyze the

know where the key transcript of

information may occur. day2-2

homework and

bring the

analysis to the

next class.

(Reminder:

Please write the

first reflection

paper this or

next week)

2-4 Combined practice Do a whole listening part from As our class is a real After class,
TPO, just like the real test. After small size one, so I think complete two

the test, instructor asked students it is feasible to let whole listening

to do transcript analysis and error students to exchange part, transcript

analysis. their own opinions about analysis and

this listening part. Also, error analysis as

this process could be well.

another assessment to The secondary

show how students know reflection paper

and which aspects they should be

do not really understand. started.

These could be all shown

during students’

feedback in class.

Advanced Level

Week Content Task Rationale Assignment

3-1 Speaking combined After students complete the This process is to show Find different

summary: listening tasks, they are required students’ ability of genres of

Conversation to do oral summary according to understanding during listening, like

their notes and their memory. listening, and to show the news report,

harmony of taking notes authentic

and listening. lecture,

3-2 Speaking combined After students complete the This process is to show advertisement,
summary: lecture listening tasks, they are required students’ ability of dramas, etc..

to do oral summary according to understanding during Anything

their notes and their memory. listening, and to show the students think

When it comes to lecture, it will harmony of taking notes may face in

be more difficult, for student to do and listening. future. And

summary. bring it to the

next class.

Culture

Week Content Task Rationale Assignment

4-1 Let’s know the U.A.S. Introduce what real America look This unit mostly

like. designed to avoid

Show students authentic videos students being losing

from YouTube that shows real their mind and ley them

situation they may face, like order have a general idea about

in a restaurant, or ask directions in how America looks like.

subway station.

Let students freely discuss about

what they know about America.

4-2 Let’s know the Introduce what university life This class is meant to

American students’ looks like, of course about final eliminate stereotype

university life! week and “party culture” about American

Let students freely discuss about Universities (Chinese


what they know about America. students and parents

usually think American

university life is more

relaxing than our

domestic one). Students

only know what their life

real life can be, then they

have the motivation to

fight.
Lesson Plan
Lesson Plan Week 1-2

TOEFL iBT Listening Part Preview

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

The conversation and the academic discussion from TOEFL Practice Online (See

Appendix)

Goals of Lesson:

Explore students into different kinds of conversation and classroom discussion.

Objectives:

1. Topic pool preview

2. Know the procedure of different categories. (Key words)

Orientation (15 minutes)

Students will hear two conversations.

Students in groups discuss what they think about these two. Is there any

difference between these two categories? What points are speakers trying to

make? What are his/her problems? What do speakers imply by which sentence?

Why does the main character talk to another person?

Rationale: Students can know the components of a regular conversation, what’s

usually included in the academic conversation and what’s usually included in the

daily one.

Presentation (35mins)

Give students transcripts of these two conversations (See appendix1&2,


appendix1 is about A discussion about colonial settlements, and appendix2 is

about an error in registration record. Appendix1 is an academic discussion and

appendix2 is a daily conversation on campus.)

Listen one more time; students may mark where they did not catch at the first

time on the transcripts. Share after think why they miss it at the first time.

Analyze the structure and content. Lead students to go through every

grammatical marker like transitions, conjunctions, subordinate, etc.. According to

students’ reaction, instructor may explain more meticulously on why students

should focus on grammatical markers and give more examples.

Refer to the transcripts; students have a chance to give a brief summary of the

conversation.

Rationale: Students may develop a sense of where ETS may set a question. And by

doing this, students will get a preview of what’s going to be taught in the following

weeks.

Engagement (20mins)

Now that students have already known the basic components of a conversation

and where should be focused on, they have the chance to listen these two

conversations again and this time, they have to do the exercises. Of course, they

have to mark why they made their choices on the transcripts after listening.

Rationale: Students can actually try to experience the feeling that for now they

know the transcripts and they have to make choice relying on analysis.
Evaluation (10 mins)

It's the time to show the answer. Students are going to report their evidence to

the class, and give their reason why they make their choices.

Rationale: this process could help those students who are slower than others. And

provide an access to others’ thoughts.

Expansion

Finish 4 conversation listening part and analyze the transcripts: where should be

focused on and where students think could be a trap. After finish it, students

should mark why. (Appendix3, 4, 5, 6)

Rationale: Students can practice the process teacher mentioned during the class.

Students with lower proficiency can get trained in this part because the speaking

speed is fast in conversation section. While, this section will be easier for those

quicker students.
Appendix1
TPO31 listening 1-1 Discussion about colonial settlements
Listen to part of a conversation between a student and her United States History
professor.
So, Amanda, you've asked a lot of questions about trade during the colonial
period of the United States. Has our discussion clarified things for you?
Well, yeah, but now, I think writing about trade for my paper isn't going to work.
Oh, so your questions about shipping routes were for your research paper?
Yeah. But now, I see that I probably need to come up with a new paper topic.
Actually, there was one other idea I had. I have been thinking about doing
something about community planning in the early British settlements in Eastern
North America.
Oh. OK.I am curious. Why are you interested in doing something on community
planning in colonial times?
Well, I am much more into architecture. It’s my major and I mean, planning out a
town or city goes along with that. I mean, not that I don't like history... I am
interested in history... really interested...But I think, you know, for a career,
architecture is more for me.
That's great. I've gotten some very thought-provoking papers from students
whose interests go beyond history.
Ok. But for the paper you wanted us to try to include a comparison, right?
Yes. Actually, that was really the purpose of the assignment. The way the United
States developed, or perhaps I should say the colonies, since the land that would
become the Eastern United States... uh... there were British colonies there four
hundred years ago. But anyway... uh... development in colonies differed greatly
depending on geography. I’m looking for papers that have ideas about something
that happened one-way in the Northern colonies happened a different way in the
Southern colonies.
Is that true in terms of urban planning?
Very true. Towns in the Northern colonies were centralized and compact. They
provided a meeting point for exchanging goods, for participatory government,
and for practicing religion. Houses would be built along the roads that led into
town. And just outside the developed area, there would usually be an open field
of some sort for grazing animals and also group activities. Actually, the model for
planning a town in the Northern colonies was not unlike the model for the
development of towns in medieval Europe. After all, the colonists had just come
from Europe and the medieval period was just ended.
Medieval Europe. But what about the south? If I remember correctly... in the
South, at least initially, they didn't build towns so much as they built trading
posts. That’s right.
Most of the settlers in the North wanted to start a whole new life. But most of the
people who came from Europe to the South just wanted to make some money
and then go back. It is not surprising that some of most common buildings were
storage facilities and port facilities.
Appendix2
TPO31 listening 1-4 An error in registration record
Listen to a conversation between a student and a employee at the university
center for off-campus study.
Hi, I am Tom Arnold.
I am supposed to pick up a packet from the regional center for marine research. I
am doing an internship there this summer.
Yes, I have it right here. The mail carrier dropped if off a few minutes ago.
Thanks. Um... I wanted to ask about getting credits for the internship. I don't
know if... I might be able to help you with that.
Is there a problem?
I just wanted to make sure the details have been corrected. The system should
show that I am registered to earn four credits. But as of Friday, nothing was
showing up yet. I was told it would be fixed this morning.
Well, I can check on the computer for you. Tom Arnold, right?
Yes.
Well, it is showing credits... but only three.
Really? So now what? These all have to be finalized last week. Well, yes. The
course enrollment period ended last week.
But since our office was supposed to get this straightened out for you before
then.... Let me see what I can do.
Uh... did the university give approval for you to earn four credits for this
internship? Because the other students at the center for marine research are only
getting three.
Um... I am pretty sure those other students are doing the internship at the
center's aquarium, taking classes in marine biology and then teaching visitors
about the various displays. I am doing a special research internship with the
center. We’ll be collecting data on changes to the seafood out in the open ocean.
Oh, that sound quite advanced.
Well, the internship requires me to have scuba diving certification and to be a
senior oceanography student. I want to do advanced study in oceanography
when I graduate. So I really want to get a sense of what real research is like.
I see. Now let's try and see if we can...Oh, ok. I see the problem. There are two
kinds of internships listed here - regular and research. Yours is listed as regular
so it is only showing three credits.
Can you switch it?
Not yet. But is lists Professor Leonard as...
She is in charge of all the internships.
She just needs to send an email so I have an official record. Then I can switch it.
And that should solve everything.
Great! And I know Professor Leonard is in her office this afternoon, so I can go
there later. It will be such a relief go get all these paperwork completed.
Appendix3
TPO32 listening 1-1 The bookstore's buyback policies
http://toefl.kmf.com/question/b415ab763336a31a0c3679ff2f2e8d99/221fwk.
html
Listen to a conversation between a student and a bookstore employee.
Hi. Can I help you?
Yeah. I need to sell back a textbook. Are you the person I speak to about that?
I am. But we can't buy textbooks back just yet, because the bookstore's buyback
period isn't until next Thursday.
I thought it started this week.
It is only in the last week of the semester after classes are over.
Oh. Well, can you tell me if this book will be on the buyback list.
I can look. But we are still putting the list together. Professors have to tell us what
books they'll definitely need again next semester, and the deadline for them to let
us know isn't for a couple of days. So the list I have here is not really complete.
Um... what class was the book for?
Intro to economics, with Professor Murphy.
Professor Murphy. OK. I checked earlier and I know she hasn't gotten back to us
on that class yet. So we don't know if she'll use the same book next time. Usually
if an updated edition of a textbook is available, professors will go for that one.
So if this book doesn't end up on the buyback list, what can I do? I spent over a
hundred dollars for it, and I want to get something back.
Well, if a professor didn't assign it for a class here, we could buy back for a whole
seller who would distribute it for sale for another university bookstore.
OK. Anyway, if professor Murphy does put it on the list, it is important that you
come in as early as possible next Thursday. There's only a limited number of
books we would buy back. Once we get the number of books we need for next
semester, we would stop buying them.
OK. So how much money will I get for the book?
Well, if it's on the buyback list, we'll pay fifty percent of what the new price was.
But that also depends on what condition the book is in, so it needs to be cleaned
up as much as possible.
Cleaned up?
Because used books show wear and tear, you know, water stains, scruffy covers,
yellow highlighting. You really need to make sure there are no pencil marks on
the book. The price you can get for a text depends on the shape it's in.
You mean I have to erase all the pencil marks?
If you want the best price for it.
And what if you decide the book is too beat-up and don't buy it back. That does
happen. Well, one more thing you can try is to place an ad in the student
newspaper to see if you can sell it directly to another student.

Appendix4
TPO32 listening 1-4 Paper topic about wood harvesting techniques
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/pre?id=331lpk
listen to a conversation between a student and an anthropology professor.
So how was the field trip to the Nature Center yesterday? You are in that biology
class, aren't you?
Yeah. I am. The trip was amazing. We took a hike through the woods and our
guide pointed out all kinds of animal and plant species. She could identify every
bird, every tree, I have to tell you. I was very impressed with her knowledge.
I am glad to hear you enjoyed the trip. Well, I am interested in getting an
advanced degree in forestry after I graduate from here. So I love all this stuff. And
actually, yesterday's trip got me thinking about my research paper for your class.
Wonderful! Tell me more.
So our guide was talking about how the human need for natural resources had
shaped the environment. And I just assumed that the human impact on the
environment was always destructive.
Um, but that's not necessarily true.
Yeah. That's what she was telling us. She said there's archaeological evidence that
some prehistoric cultures relied heavily on dead wood for fuel, or just cut off
some of the branches of trees instead of killing the whole tree.
It is so funny you mentioned that. I was just reading an article about an
archaeological site in Turkey where scientists found evidence that ancient people
had been harvesting the branches from pistachio and almond trees. Of course,
when you prune these trees, cutting off just the branches like that, you are
actually encouraging more growth. And you end up with a bigger crop of nuts. So
this was a pretty smart strategy for collecting wood.
See, that's what I'd like to write about. I want to look at ancient methods of wood
harvesting that didn't result in the destruction of the whole forest. Hums, so you
want to write your entire paper on wood harvesting?
Is... is that a problem?
Well, it's certainly a timely topic. Researchers are investigating this now. It's just
that... well... I am not sure how it fits with the assignment. Remember you are
supposed to be focusing on a particular culture or region.
Yeah. Actually I was planning on writing about the wood harvesting practices of
the people who lived here. You know, the Native Americans who were living in
this area and what that might tell us about how they lived.
OK. Well, that's a possibility. I just want to make sure you can find enough
information on that topic to write a well-developed paper. I'd like you to get
started on your research right away. Maybe even talk to that nature guide and
show me what information you can find. Then we can talk about whether or not
your topic will work.

Appendix5
TPO33 listening 1-1 University's policies regarding dorm rooms
http://toefl.kmf.com/question/9050596534953220892dbde45af737cc/a91hyk.
html
Listen to a conversation between a student and a university employee.
Hi. I am a little lost. Um, is this the housing maintenance office?
You found it. How can I help you?
Oh, good. I have a quick question. Are we allowed to keep electric heaters in our
rooms?
Actually, you are not. What's going on? Your room cold?
It's freezing in my room. I think the heat went out or something.
Are you sure it's out? Maybe it just got turned out too far.
Oh, no. I tried adjusting the, uh, the heat control, but it doesn't make any
difference. It's so cold in my bedroom I can't sleep at night. I've actually been
sleeping on the sofa in the front room. The heat still works in there. Actually, we
get hot air in all the bedrooms except ours.
Wow! Do you have a roommate?
Yeah. But she said she isn't bothered by the cold. But on the sofa, I am kept up by
the noise out in the hall. The dorms can sometimes get pretty noisy. So what can
be done about it?
Well, OK. There's a couple of things we can do. I can have a custodian take a look
at it and see if he can do something.
Actually, I asked the custodian yesterday to take a look. But he said he couldn't
find anything wrong. He said that some of the other rooms have lost heat also
and that if we'd come here you guys would fix it.
Oh, he did? That's weird, because I would have... well, the custodians themselves
are usually supposed to report any problems right away. OK. In that case, then
what you need to do is... here, fill out this form.
I have to fill out a form?
Yeah, but at least that'll put your heater problem in a work order for the
maintenance crew and they'll get to you as soon as possible. Just so you know,
because it's not winter yet and it's not as cold as it could be, it may take a few
days for a maintenance crew to get to you.
A few days? I can't even sleep in my own room! Can't we just get an electric
heater?
I am sorry. But students just aren't allowed. OK. I can see that this is a problem,
and not just with your room. So if you can get the form back to me this afternoon,
I'll try to get a maintenance crew to look at your problem by tomorrow. How's
that?
Oh, that would be great. Seriously. I have to take off now. But when I fill this form
out, I give it to you, right?
Right. And if I am not here, just put it in my box and I'll get it.

Appendix6
TPO33 listening 1-4 Write about genetic explanation of picky eaters
http://toefl.kmf.com/question/a6cd0b6b3f3f283b38f80d0b8057f1d9/621luk.h
tml
Listen to a conversation between a student and his biology professor.
Professor Landrea.
Hi, Dennis. You are right on time. Come on in and have a seat.
Great! Thanks.
So like I told you in class, I just wanted to take a few minutes to meet with
everyone to make sure your class presentations for next week are all in order and
coming along well. And as you know, you are supposed to report on some area of
recent research in genetics, something... you know... original.
Well, I think I found just the thing! It actually occurred to me a couple nights ago
while I was eating dinner in the cafeteria. Tell me professor, do you like broccoli?
Broccoli? You mean the vegetable broccoli?
Yeah.
Well, I guess not really.
Me neither. I have never liked it or most other vegetables for that matter...
brussels sprouts, asparagus, cauliflower... you name it. They just taste bitter
and... well... nasty to me. My mother always called me a picky eater.
OK... And?
And so I got to wondering, I mean, I am obviously not the only person like this. So
is this just because of some... like trauma from our childhoods? Some bad
experience we've had with some vegetables? Or could there be some genetic
explanation for why some people are picky eaters and others aren't?
OK. I see. Well, I suppose it's a possibility.
Actually, it turns out it's more than a possibility. I started doing some research in
the library that night and I found out that a biologist at the National Institutes of
Health has been looking at that very question recently.
Well, I guess that's not too surprising. And this is great stuff actually. So what's
the verdict?
Well, this guy seems to have discovered a particular gene that actually makes it
possible for people to taste the bitterness in certain green vegetables. But people
who have a mutation in that gene cannot taste the bitterness.
Well... that's certainly fascinating! But... so this biologist is basically claiming that
people who like to eat these vegetables actually have some sort of sensory deficit?
Sort of makes us picky eaters than normal ones, doesn't it? I mean, that's kind of
turning things on their head, isn't it?
Well... then again, it wouldn't be the first time, would it? Think of it this way:
humans originally needed to have a stronger sensitivity to bitter-tasting foods so
they could learn what plants were good for them and which ones might be
poisonous. But at some point, as people figured out what they could safely eat,
this need became less crucial and a segment of the population lost that ability.
OK. Well, you make a compelling case. I can't wait to hear more about this when
you deliver your report.
Lesson Plan Week 1-3
Start to take notes

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

The conversation and the academic discussion from TOEFL Practice Online (See

Appendix)

Goals of Lesson:

Help students to gain a sense of taking notes while taking notes only enjoy

assistant function. Start to keep the balance of taking notes and listening.

Objectives:

3. TPO 12 1-1 - Revise a Hemingway paper;TPO 15 1-1- Performance on a

biology exam

4. Be aware of the advantages of taking notes.

Orientation Activity (10 minutes)

Students will hear two conversations.

The first one is TPO12 (Appendix1). Students are asked to only listen the tape

instead of taking any notes, just by their memory. Then, students will hear the

secondary one TPO15 (Appendix2). This time, students are required to do

dictation.

After listening, students can check their answer and freely discuss in group that

how they feel during these two different sections. Which way do they think fit

them best? During which section they feel more confident?

Rationale: Students barely identify with something told them, while if they go
through it by themselves, they can learn better. So this activity is designed for

students to gain the sense that taking notes is extremely important, because they

cannot rely on their memory all the time. Also, they can be aware that it is also

unpractical to take notes all the way. Then, as the result, students can start to know

how to keep the balance between listening and taking notes.

Presentation (40mins)

Tell students the rationale of the orientation activity, tall them what they are

required to gain. And then, for the presentation part, instructor introduces

students a way of taking note (Appendix3). Like where should be focused on and

what kind of information should be taken down. Also, during the introduction,

instructor should mention that taking notes is a personal thing; students should

develop their own system of note taking.

Rationale: As taking notes is not an easy habit to build up, so it is introduced at this

really early stage. From students’ perspectives, note taking could be very

complicated and hard to develop an own one, so in this course, what instructor does

is to do a general introduction to give students a general idea, avoid to being too

deep. (Note taking will be discussed at the middle stage.)

Engagement (20mins)

Now that students have really known about the importance of note taking. So, it’s

that time for them to practise. Students are asked to listen another two

conversation TPO33-1-1-Notothenioids (Appendix4) and

TPO33-1-4-Renaissance Gardens (Appendix5).


Rationale: Let students to listen two new conversations is to show the advantages

of taking notes. If they listen some already listened conversations, their results will

definitely be effected.

Evaluation (10 mins)

Students will discuss in groups to exchange their experience from the very

beginning of this class till now. How they feel when taking notes? Do they already

develop their own characters? How they express logical connection?

Rationale: This process could provide an access to others’ thoughts.


Appendix1
TPO 12 1-1 - Revise a Hemingway paper
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/89efah.html
Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.
So Professor Tibets, your notes said that you want to see me about my
heavy-weight paper. I have to say that grade wasn't what I was expecting. I
thought I'd done a pretty good job.
Oh, you did. But do you really want to settle for pretty good when you can do
something very good?
You think it can be very good?
Absolutely!
Would that mean you'd... ­I could get a better grade?
Oh, sorry! It's not for your grade. It's...I think you could learn a lot by revising it.
You mean, rewrite the whole thing? I really swamped. There're deadlines
wherever I turn and... and I don't really know how much time I could give it.
Well, it is a busy time, with spring break coming up next week. It's your call. But I
think with all a little extra effort, you could really turn this into a fine essay.
No... yeah... I mean, after I read your comments, I... I can see how it tries to do too
much.
Yeah. It's just too ambitious for the scope of the assignment.
So I should cut out the historical part?
Yes. I would just stick to the topic. Anything unrelated to the use of nature
EMITRY has no place in the paper. All that tangential material just distracted
from the main argument.
Yeah, I never know how much to include. You know... where to draw the line?
Tell me about it! All writers struggled without one. But it's something you can
learn. That will become more clear with practice. But I think if you just cut out
the... emm...
The stuff about history, but if I cut out those sections, won't it be too short?
Well, better a short well-structured paper than a long paper that
poorly-structured and wanders off topic. So all I have to do is to leave those
sections? Well, not so fast. After you cut out those sections, you'll have to go back
and revise the rest, to see how it all fits together. And of course, you'll have to
revise the introduction too, to accurately describe what you do in the body of the
paper. But that shouldn't be too difficult. Just remember to keep the discussion
focused. Do you think you can get it to me by noon tomorrow?
Wow... emm... I have so much.. er.. but I'll try.
OK, good! Do try! But if you can't, well, sure for after spring break, OK?

Appendix2
TPO 15 1-1- Performance on a biology exam
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/2d1jsk.html
Listen to part of a conversation between a Student and her biology professor.
Hi Samantha, how did your track meet go?
Great! I placed first in one race and third in another.
Congratulations! You must practice a lot.
Three times a week pre-season, but now that we're competing every weekend,
we practice 6 days a week from 3:30 till 5:00.
Athletics place a heavy demand on your time, don't they?
Yeah, but I really love competing, so...
You know I played soccer in college and my biggest challenge, and I didn't always
succeed, was getting my studying in during soccer season. Are you having a
similar...
No, I... I really do make time to study. And I actually study more for this class than
I do for all my other classes. But I didn't see the grade I expected on my mid-term
exam, which is why I came by.
Well, you didn't do badly on the exam, but I agree it did not reflect your potential.
I say this because your work on the lab project was exemplary. I was so
impressed with the way you handle the microscope and the samples of onion
cells, and with how carefully you observed and diagramed and interpreted each
stage of cell division. And I don't think you could have done that if you hadn't
read and understood the chapter. I mean it seemed like you really had a good
understanding of it.
I thought so too, but I missed some questions about cell division on the exam.
So what happened?
I just sort of blanked out, I guess. I had a hard time remembering details. It was
so frustrating.
Alright, let's back up. You say you studied, where, at home?
At my kitchen table actually.
And that's supposed to be a quiet environment?
Not exactly. My brother and parents try to keep it down when I am studying, but
the phone pretty much rings off the hook, so...
So you might try a place with fewer distractions, like the library...
But the library closes at mid-night, and I like to study all night before a test, you
know, so everything is fresh in my mind. I studied six straight hours the night
before the mid-term exam. That's why I expected to do so much better.
Oh ok.You know that studying six consecutive hours is not equivalent to studying
one hour a day for six days.
It isn't?
No. There is research that shows that after about an hour of intense focus, your
brain needs a break. It needs to, you know, shift gears a little. Your brain's ability
to absorb information starts to decline after about the first hour. So if you are
dealing with a lot of new concepts and vocabulary, anyway, if you just reviewed
your notes, even 20 minutes a day, it'd be much better than waiting until the
night before an exam to try and absorb all those details.
Oh, I didn't realize.
Think of your brain as a muscle. If you didn't practice regularly with your track
team, and then tried to squeeze in three weeks worth of running practice just the
day before a track meet, how well do you think you'd perform in your races?

Appendix3
How to take notes
1. 确定记录内核心话题
IBT 听力正式开始之前会有一个简短的内容介绍,之后屏幕上会出现一些和听力内
容相关的,这些可以帮助我们确定下面所要听部分的核心话题。例如, listen to a
conversation between a professor and student in a biology class.从这个介绍我们可
以知道下面对话内容的场景:biology class,结下来会出现一个图片,里面文字为:Friends
of the Earth, Biology class.后面还会出现一个对话内容的图片。通过这些文字和图片,
我们可以推断这个对话的主题为与人类地球有关的一个结构,这样机构主要会负责环保事宜。
确定主题可以让考生悬着的心慢慢落地。后面的长对话给出的文字和图片提示与对话类
似。
2. 记录细节
确定核心话题之后,我们需要做的就是记录与其相关的细节,主要的细节为 what ,
when, where , who , why 和 how 等。注意记录对话和演讲中信息引导词和信息引导句后面
的信息,例如, First ..., let’s look at the ..., Now, Let’s move on to ..., in
the nest part of lecture, I‘d like to talk about....
3. 具体的记录方法
1)主要记录实词:名词,动词,形容词。这次词语所包含的信息量大,也是重读和
重复的核心词汇。
2)采用简写、符号和缩写的速记法方法记录,例如:Q.=question,ltd.=limited,
+=and/plus , ?=question ,/=or。此外,还可以用一些其它只有自己熟悉的速记符号来记
录重要信息。
当然,对这些原则的熟练把握离不开勤学苦练以及词汇量的基础。考生要想在新托
福的听力考试中取得理想的成绩,需要具备较强的听力理解能力和扎实的英语知识基础。IBT
听力分数的提高需要广大考生持续的努力和不断总结!\
实例:
下面,我以具体的例子来进行说明。注意,其中的符号是本的个人习惯,各位考生
可以根据自己的习惯创造适合于自己使用的符号,完全没有必要拘泥于本文中所用符
号。
OG p157 Practice Set 1. Track01
上方为听力内容,下方为笔记,我把两者对比起来写,以便清楚地显示出听到什么
内容改记下什么,怎么记。
Narrator: listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.
学生和教授之间的对话,因而在纸面的左右两侧分别写上 P(代表 professor) 和
S(student),之后,教授说的话写左边,学生说的话写右边。
Student: Uh, excuse me, Professor Thompson. I know your office hours are
tomorrow, but I was wondering if you had a few minutes free to discuss something.
S: discuss sth.
Professor: sure, john. What did you want to talk about?
Student: well, I have some quick questions about how to write up the research
project I did this semester- about climate variations.
S: how 2 writ research—天气变化(单词拼写不熟悉,所以可以用中文写)
Professor: Oh, yes. You were looking at variations in climate in the Grant
City area, right? How far along have you gotten?
虽然是教授说的,但是描述的是学生的项目,因此直接接着前面上文的 climate
variations(天气变化)写—— in grant city
Student: I’ve got all my data, so I’m starting to summarize it now, preparing
graphs and stuff. But I’m just…I’m looking it and I’m afraid that’s it’s not
enough, but I’m not sure what else to put in the report. S: got all data,
now summarize, not enough, what else put in
Professor: I hear the same thing from every student. You know, you have to
remember now that you’re the expert on what you’ve done. So, think about what you’
d need to include if you were going to explain your research to someone with general
or casual knowledge about the subject, like… like your parents. That’s usually
my rule of thumb: would my parents understand this?
P: remember u r expert ,What 2 include 2 explain 2 sb. general/ casual kwldge,
—parents. Rule: understand? (用箭头把 parents 指过来,没有必要再写一遍)
Student: Ok, I get it.
Professor: I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know
about the subject.
P: recgnz how much u know
Student: Right. I understand. I was wondering if I should also include the
notes from the research journal you suggested I keep?
S: ? include notes journal
(向左的箭头表示 from); ? 表示是一个问句或者不确定的事。
Professor: Yes, definitely. You should use them to indicate what your
evolution in thought was through time. So, just set up, you know, what was the purpose
of what you were doing-to try to understand the climate variability of this area
– and what you did, and what you approach was.
P: Yes. Use to indicate__ thought . set up purpose of ur doing, wt did, wt
way
(用__表示没有听清楚的单词; 多次出现 what, 为加快速度,用 wt 简写,approach
拼写复杂,用同义词 way 代替)
Student: Hmm … something just came into my mind and went out the other
side.
Professor: That happens to me a lot, so I’ve come up with a pretty good memory
management tool. I carry a little pad with me all the time and jot down questions
or ideas that I don’t want to forget. For example, I went to the doctor with my
daughter and her baby son last week and we knew we wouldn’t remember everything
we wanted to ask the doctor, so we actually made a list of five things we wanted
answers to. P: carry a pad, jt down Q eg: see doctor, list Q. (用字
母发音 jt 来记忆可能不认识的单词 jot;用 Q 表示 question, 托福听力中的举例子一般是
为说明其他事物服务的,所以只要知道这个例子的作用就可以,而没有必要清楚细节,所以
这里只要知道例子是 see doctor, list Q.就可以了。
Student: A notepad is a good idea. Sine I’m so busy now at the end of the
semester, I’m going pretty forgetful these days. OK. I just remembered what I was
trying to say before.
S: good idea. Remembered
Professor: Good. I was hoping you’d come up with it.
Student: Yes. It ends up that I have data on more than just the immediate
Grant City area, so I also included some regional data in the report. With everything
else it should be a pretty good indicator of the climate in this part of the state.
S: + include regional data (also, as well, and 可以用+表示)
Professor: Sounds good. I’d be happy to look over a draft version before
you hand in the final copy, if you wish.
P: look over draft before final copy
Student: Great. I’ll plan to get you a draft of the paper by next Friday.
Thanks very much. well, see ya.
S: give P by nxt Fri。
这样一来,几乎所有的要点都已经落实到书面。做题目时,结合笔记和头脑中的记
忆,全部做对不是什么难事。

Appendix4
TPO33-1-1-Notothenioide
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/a91hyk.html
Listen to a conversation between a student and a university employee.
Hi. I am a little lost. Um, is this the housing maintenance office?
You found it. How can I help you?
Oh, good. I have a quick question. Are we allowed to keep electric heaters in our
rooms?
Actually, you are not. What's going on? Your room cold?
It's freezing in my room. I think the heat went out or something.
Are you sure it's out? Maybe it just got turned out too far.
Oh, no. I tried adjusting the, uh, the heat control, but it doesn't make any
difference. It's so cold in my bedroom I can't sleep at night. I've actually been
sleeping on the sofa in the front room. The heat still works in there. Actually, we
get hot air in all the bedrooms except ours.
Wow! Do you have a roommate?
Yeah. But she said she isn't bothered by the cold. But on the sofa, I am kept up by
the noise out in the hall. The dorms can sometimes get pretty noisy. So what can
be done about it?
Well, OK. There's a couple of things we can do. I can have a custodian take a look
at it and see if he can do something.
Actually, I asked the custodian yesterday to take a look. But he said he couldn't
find anything wrong. He said that some of the other rooms have lost heat also
and that if we'd come here you guys would fix it.
Oh, he did? That's weird, because I would have... well, the custodians themselves
are usually supposed to report any problems right away. OK. In that case, then
what you need to do is... here, fill out this form.
I have to fill out a form?
Yeah, but at least that'll put your heater problem in a work order for the
maintenance crew and they'll get to you as soon as possible. Just so you know,
because it's not winter yet and it's not as cold as it could be, it may take a few
days for a maintenance crew to get to you.
A few days? I can't even sleep in my own room! Can't we just get an electric
heater?
I am sorry. But students just aren't allowed. OK. I can see that this is a problem,
and not just with your room. So if you can get the form back to me this afternoon,
I'll try to get a maintenance crew to look at your problem by tomorrow. How's
that?
Oh, that would be great. Seriously. I have to take off now. But when I fill this form
out, I give it to you, right?
Right. And if I am not here, just put it in my box and I'll get it.

Appendix5
TPO33-1-4-Renaissance Gardens
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/621luk.html
Listen to a conversation between a student and his biology professor.
Professor Landrea.
Hi, Dennis. You are right on time. Come on in and have a seat.
Great! Thanks.
So like I told you in class, I just wanted to take a few minutes to meet with
everyone to make sure your class presentations for next week are all in order and
coming along well. And as you know, you are supposed to report on some area of
recent research in genetics, something... you know... original.
Well, I think I found just the thing! It actually occurred to me a couple nights ago
while I was eating dinner in the cafeteria. Tell me professor, do you like broccoli?
Broccoli? You mean the vegetable broccoli?
Yeah.
Well, I guess not really.
Me neither. I have never liked it or most other vegetables for that matter...
Brussels sprouts, asparagus, cauliflower... you name it. They just taste bitter
and... well... nasty to me. My mother always called me a picky eater.
OK... And?
And so I got to wondering, I mean, I am obviously not the only person like this. So
is this just because of some... like trauma from our childhoods? Some bad
experience we've had with some vegetables? Or could there be some genetic
explanation for why some people are picky eaters and others aren't?
OK. I see. Well, I suppose it's a possibility.
Actually, it turns out it's more than a possibility. I started doing some research in
the library that night and I found out that a biologist at the National Institutes of
Health has been looking at that very question recently.
Well, I guess that's not too surprising. And this is great stuff actually. So what's
the verdict?
Well, this guy seems to have discovered a particular gene that actually makes it
possible for people to taste the bitterness in certain green vegetables. But people
who have a mutation in that gene cannot taste the bitterness.
Well... that's certainly fascinating! But... so this biologist is basically claiming that
people who like to eat these vegetables actually have some sort of sensory deficit?
Sort of makes us picky eaters than normal ones, doesn't it? I mean, that's kind of
turning things on their head, isn't it?
Well... then again, it wouldn't be the first time, would it? Think of it this way:
humans originally needed to have a stronger sensitivity to bitter-tasting foods so
they could learn what plants were good for them and which ones might be
poisonous. But at some point, as people figured out what they could safely eat,
this need became less crucial and a segment of the population lost that ability.
OK. Well, you make a compelling case. I can't wait to hear more about this when
you deliver your report.
Lesson Plan Week 2-1

Introduction and overview of the

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

Lecture part of TPO

Goals of Lesson:

Explore students into different kinds of lectures.

Objectives:

Topic pool preview: Natural science, Social science, Life science and Culture &Arts.

Provide a chance for students to find their shortcut and strong points in lectures.

Objectives:

One lecture from each different category

Students can identify different categories.

Orientation (20 minutes)

Let students to listen and watch a TED TALK

http://www.ted.com/talks/natalie_panek_let_s_clean_up_the_space_junk_orbitin

g_earth It's about to clean up the space junk orbiting earth. a TPO lecture

(Appendix TPO02-L4-Bode’s law)Then let students comparison and contrast

these two listening resources. Its there any difference between a ted talk and a

TPO lecture? Why they are different? Are they talking about a same theme?

Rationale: Let students to develop a sense that different genres of listening

resources are different even though they share the same theme.
Presentation (20mins)

For presentation, the instructor will introduce that there are 4 different

categories of lectures in TPO (appendix2,3,4,5):Natural science, Social science,

Life science and Culture &Arts. Then ask students to listen one lecture from each

category. There is no needs for students to take notes or finish the tasks, what they

need to do is only listening. Then, students discuss in groups that what find from these

4 lectures? Something similar? Or something different? Do they have any advice for

their peer during listening to different categories?

Rationale: Actually, the similarity and difference of these 4 categories lectures are

very obvious, so it is not a difficult task. Students can have access to other thoughts

during discussion.

Engagement (20mins)

From these 4 categories of lectures, Natural science and Culture& arts are more

difficult for Chinese students relatively. As the result, we focused more on these

two. Students will be asked to finish the listening task of these tow categories

and then checked the answer in class.

Rationale: Because these two are difficult, so more class time is worth being put on

these.

Evaluation (30 min)

After answer checking, students will discuss in groups about their mistakes. Why

they made these mistakes during listening? Why they miss these key information?

And then, if there are questions that students cannot deal with by themselves,
they can ask the instructor freely. Then, the instructor can pull these questions

from students as general questions to analyze and explain to the whole.

Rationale: This process could provide an access to others’ thoughts.


Appendix1
TPO02-L4-Bode’s law
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/b6d22h.html
Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class. You will not need to remember
the numbers the professor mentions.
OK. Let's get going. Today I'm going to talk about how the asteroid belt was
discovered. And... I'm going to start by writing some numbers on the board. Here
they are; We'll start with zero, then 3, ... 6, ... 12. Uh, tell me what I'm doing.
Multiplying by 2?Right, I'm doubling the numbers, so 2 times 12 is 24, and the
next one I'm going to write after 24 would be...
48.
48. Then 96.We'll stop there for now. Uh, now I'll write another row of numbers
under that. Tell me what I'm doing. 4, 7, 10... How am I getting this second row?
Adding 4 to the numbers in the first row.
I'm adding 4 to each number in the first row to give you a second row. So the last
two will be 52, 100, and now tell me what I'm doing.
Putting in a decimal?
Yes, I divided all those numbers by 10 by putting in a decimal point. Now I'm
going to write the names of the planets under the numbers. Mercury... Venus...
Earth... Mars. So, what do the numbers mean? Do you remember from the
reading?
Is it the distance of the planets from the Sun?
Right. In astronomical units - not perfect, but tantalizingly close. The value for
Mars is off by... 6 or 7 percent or so. It's... but it's within 10 percent of the average
distance to Mars from the Sun. But I kind of have to skip the one after Mars for
now. Then Jupiter's right there at 5-point something, and then Saturn is about 10
astronomical units from the Sun. Um, well, this pattern is known as Bode's Law.
Um, it isn't really a scientific law, not in the sense of predicting gravitation
mathematically or something, but it's attempting a pattern in the spacing of the
planets, and it was noticed by Bode hundreds of years ago. Well, you can imagine
that there was some interest in why the 2.8 spot in the pattern was skipped, and
um... but there wasn't anything obvious there, in the early telescopes. Then what
happened in the late 1700s? The discovery of...?
Another planet?
The next planet out, Uranus - after Saturn.
And look, Uranus fits in the next spot in the pattern pretty nicely, um, not
perfectly, but close. And so then people got really excited about the validity of this
thing and finding the missing object between Mars and Jupiter. And telescopes,
remember, were getting better. So people went to work on finding objects that
would be at that missing distance from the Sun, and then in 1801, the object
Ceres was discovered.
And Ceres was in the right place - the missing spot. Uh, but it was way too faint
to be a planet. It looked like a little star. Uh, and because of its star-like
appearance, um, it was called an "asteroid". OK? "Aster" is Greek for "star", as in
"astronomy". Um, and so, Ceres was the first and is the largest of what became
many objects discovered at that same distance. Not just one thing, but all the
objects found at that distance from the asteroid belt. So the asteroid belt is the
most famous success of this Bode's Law. That's how the asteroid belt was
discovered.

Appendix2
TPO003-L3-Spectroscopy
http://toefl.kmf.com/question/88fd8c1dbc12e169f24b09ae6e7314c9/1c335h.h
tml
Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class.
Now astronomy didn't really bloom into the science it is today until the
development of spectroscopy.
Spectroscopy is basically the study of spectra and spectral lines of light, and
specifically for us, the light from stars. It makes it possible to analyze the light
emitted from stars. When you analyze this light, you can figure out their distance
from the earth, and identify what they are made of, determine their chemical
composition.
Before we get into that, though, it's probably a good thing to back up a bit. You all
know how when you take a crystal prism and pass a beam of sunlight through it,
you get a spectrum, which looks like a continuous band of rainbow colors. The
light that we see with our human eyes as a band of rainbow color falls in a range
of what's called visible light. And visible light spectroscopy is probably the most
important kind of spectroscopy.
Anyone want to take a stab at the scientific term for visible light? And I'm sure all
of you know this because you all did the reading for today.
Optical radiation. But I thought being exposed to radiation is dangerous.
Yes, and no. If you are talking about radiation, like in the element Uranium, yeah,
that's dangerous. But radiation as a general term actually refers to anything that
spreads away from its source. So optical radiation is just visible light energy
spreading out.
OK, so we've got a spectrum of a beam of sunlight and it looks like the colors
bleed into each other. There are no interruptions, just a band flowing from violet
to green, to yellow, to... you get the idea.
Well, what happens if the sunlight's spectrum is magnified? Maybe you all didn't
do the reading. Well, here's what you'd see. I want you to know this that this
spectrum is interrupted by dark lines called spectral lines. If you really magnify
the spectrum of the sunlight, you could identify more than 100,000 of them .They
may look like kind of randomly placed, but they actually form many distinct
patterns. And if you were looking at the spectrum of some other star, the colors
would be the same. But the spectral lines would break it up at different places,
making different patterns. Each pattern stands for a distinct chemical element,
and so different sets or patterns of spectral lines mean that the star has a
different chemical composition.
So how do we know which spectral patterns match up with which elements?
Well, a kind of spectroscopic library of elements was compiled using flame tests.
A known element, say a piece of iron for example, is heated in a pure gas flame.
The iron eventually heats to the point that it radiates light. This light is passed
through a prism, which breaks it up into a spectrum. And a unique pattern, kind
of like a chemical fingerprint of spectral lines for that element appears. This
process was repeated over and over again for many different elements, so we can
figure out the chemical makeup of another star by comparing the spectral
pattern it has to the pattern of the elements in the library.
Oh, an interesting story about how one of the elements was discovered through
spectroscopy. There was a pretty extensive library of spectral line patterns of
elements even by the 1860s.A British astronomer was analyzing a spectrograph
of sunlight, and he noticed a particular pattern of spectral lines that didn't match
anything in the library. So he put two and two together, and decided there was an
element in the sun that hadn't been discovered here on the earth yet.
Any guesses about what that element is? It actually turned out to be pretty
common and I'm sure all of you know it. OK. Let's try something else. Any of you
happened to be familiar with the Greek word for "sun" by chance?
Something like "Helius" or something like that. Oh it must be "Helium". So you
are saying that helium was discovered on the sun first.
Yes, and this is a good example of how important spectroscopy is in astronomy.

Appendix3
TPO-06-L1.Boom and Bust
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/f11j8k.html
Listen to part of a lecture in an economics class.
Now when I mention the terms "boom and bust", what is that going to mind?
The dot com crash of the 90s.
OK. The boom in the late 1990s when all those new Internet companies sprung
up and then sold for huge amounts of money.Then the bust around 2000, 2001
when many of those same Internet companies went out of business.Of course,
booms aren't always followed by busts.We've certainly seen times when local
economies expanded rapidly for a while and then went back to a normal pace of
growth.But, there's a type of rapid expansion, what might be called the hysterical
or irrational boom that pretty much always leads to a bust.See, people often
create and intensify a boom when they get carried away by some new industry
that seems like it will make them lots of money fast.If you think that by the 90s,
people would have learned from the past.If they did, well, look at tulips.
Tulips? You mean like the flower?
Exactly. For instance, do you have any idea where tulips are from? Originally I
mean.
Well, the Netherlands, right?
That's what most people think, but no.They are not native to the Netherlands, or
even Europe.Tulips actually hail from an area that Chinese call the Celestial
Mountains in Central Asia. A very remote mountainous region. It was Turkish
nomads who first discovered tulips and spread them slowly westward.
Now, around the 16th century, Europeans were traveling to Istanbul and Turkey
as merchants and diplomats.And the Turks often gave the Europeans tulip bulbs
as gifts which they would carry home with them.For the Europeans, tulips were
totally unheard of, er, a great novelty.The first bulb to show up in the Netherlands,
the merchant who received them roasted and ate them.He thought they were
kind of onion.
It turns out that the Netherlands was an ideal country for growing tulips.It had
the right kind of sandy soil for one thing, but also, it was a wealthy nation with a
growing economy, willing to spend lots of money on new exotic things.Plus, the
Dutch had a history of gardening.Wealthy people would compete, spending
enormous amounts of money to buy the rarest flowers for their gardens.Soon
tulips were beginning to show up in different colors as growers tried to breed
them specifically for colors which would make them even more valuable.But they
were never completely sure what they would get.Some of the most priced tulips
were white with purple streaks, or red with yellow streaks on the petals, even a
dark purple tulip that was very much priced.
What happened then was a craze for these specialized tulips.We called that craze
"tulip mania".So, here we've got all the conditions for an irrational boom: a
prospering economy, so more people had more disposable income - money to
spend on luxuries, but they weren't experienced at investing their new
wealth.Then along comes a thrilling commodity.Sure the first specimens were
just played right in tulips, but they could be bred into some extraordinary
variations, like that dark purple tulip.And finally, you have an unregulated market
place, no government constrains, where price could explode.And explode they
did, starting in the 1630s.
There was always much more demand for tulips than supply.Tulips didn't bloom
frequently like roses. Tulips bloomed once in the early spring.And that was it for
the year.Eventually, specially-bred multicolored tulips became so valuable, well,
according to records, one tulip bulb was worth 24 tons of wheat, or thousand
pounds of cheese.One particular tulip bulb was sold and exchanged for a small
sheep.In other words, tulips were literally worth their weight in gold.
As demand grew, people began selling promissory notes guaranteeing the future
delivery of priced tulip bulbs.The buyers of these pieces of paper would resell the
notes and mark up prices.These promissory notes kept changing hands from
buyer to buyer until the tulip was ready for delivery.But it was all pure
speculation because as I said, there was no way to know if the bulb was really
going to produce the variety, the color that was promised.But that didn't matter
to the owner of the note.The owner only cared about having that piece of paper
so it could be traded later at a profit.And people were borrowing, mortgaging
their homes in many cases to obtain those bits of paper because they were sure
they'd find an easy way to make money.So now, you've got all the ingredients for
a huge bust.And bust it did, when one cold February morning in 1637, a group of
bulb traders got together and discovered that suddenly there were no bidders.
Nobody wanted to buy.Panic spread like wild fire and the tulip market collapsed
totally.

Appendix4
TPO-07-L2.Bats' Use of Ultrasound
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/c3d9oh.html
Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.
So, that is how elephant uses infrasound.Now, let's talk about the other and the
acoustic spectrums, sound that is too high for humans to hear - ultrasound.
Ultrasound is used by many animals that detected and some of them seen out
very high frequency sounds.So, what is a good example? Yes, Kayo.
Well, bats, since there is all blind, bets have to use sound for, you know, to keep
them from flying in the things.
That is echolocation. Echolocation is pretty self-explanatory, using echoes
reflected sound waves to located things.As Kayo said that bats used for
navigation and orientation.And what is else. Make?
Well, finding food is always important and I guess not becoming food for other
animals.
Right, on both accounts.Avoiding other predators, and locating prey, typically
insects that fly around it at night.Before I go on, let me just respond something
Kayo was saying.This idea that is bats are blind. Actually, there are some species
of bats, the one that don't use echolocation that do rely on their vision for
navigation, but its true for many bats, their vision is too weak to count on.
OK, so quick summary how echolocation works.The bats emit the ultrasonic
pulses, very high pitch sound waves that we cannot hear. And then, they analyze
the echoes, how the waves bound back.Here, let me finish the style diagram I
started it before the class. So the bat sends out the pulses, very focus birds of
sound, and echo bounds back.You know, I don't think I need to draw the echoes,
your reading assignment for the next class; it has diagram shows this very clearly.
So, anyway, as I were saying, by analyzing this echo, the bat can determine, say, if
there is wall in a cave that needs to avoid, and how far away it is. Another thing
uses the ultrasound to detect is the size and the shape of objects.For example,
one echo they quickly identified is one way associated with moth, which is
common prey for a bat, particularly a moth meeting its wings.However, moth
happened to have major advantage over most other insects. They can detect
ultrasound; this means that when the bat approaches, the moth can detect the
bat's presence. So, it has time to escape to safety, or else they can just remain
motionless. Since, when they stop meeting their wings, they will be much hard
for the bat to distinguish from, oh a leave or some other object.
Now, we have tended to underestimate just how sophisticated the ability that
animals that use ultrasound are.In fact, we kinds of assume that they were
filtering a lot out.The ways are sophisticated radar on our system can ignore the
echo from the stationary object on the ground. Radar are does this to remove
ground clutter , information about the hills or buildings that they doesn't need.
But bats, we thought they were filtering out kinds of information, because they
simply couldn't analyze it.But, it looks as we are wrong.Recently there was the
experiment with trees and specific species of bat.A bat called the laser spear
nosed bat.
Now, a tree should be huge and acoustic challenge for bat, right?I mean it got all
kinds of surfaces with different shapes and angles.So, well, the echoes from trees
are going to be massive and chaotic acoustic reflection, right, not like the echo
from the moth.So, we thought for a long time that the bat stop their evaluation as
simply that is tree. Yet, it turns out that is or at least particular species, cannot
only tell that is trees, but can also distinguish between a pine tree, and a
deciduous tree, like a maple or oak tree, just by their leaves.And when I say,
leaves, I mean pine needles too.Any idea on how we would know that?
Well, like with the moth, could be their shape?
You are on the right track.It actually the echo of all the leaves as whole the
matters. Now, think, a pine trees with all those little densely packed needles.
Those produced a large number of fain reflection in which what's we called as a
smooth of echo. The wave forms were very even, but an oak which has fewer
but bigger leaves with stronger reflections, produces a gigot wave form, or what
we called a rough echo. And these bats can distinguish between a two, and not
just was trees, but with any echo come in smooth and rough shape.

Appendix5
TPO-11-L2.Cape Cod House
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/241jhk.html
Listen to part of a lecture in an Architecture Class.
Today, we are taking a little detour from the grand styles of public architecture
we've been studying to look at residential architectures in the United States.
Since this is something we can all identify with, I think it will help us see the
relationship between the function of a structure and its style or form. This has
been an ongoing theme in our discussion, and we will be getting back to it just a
moment. But before we get started, I want you to take a moment to think: does
anyone know what the single most popular style for a house in the United States
is today? Bob?
I bet it is the ranch-style house.
Well, in this area, probably. But aren't we typical? Yes, Sue.
How about the kind of house my grandparents live in? They call it a Cape Cod.
That's the one. Here is a drawing of what we consider of a classic Cape Cod house.
These days, you see this style all over the United States. But it first showed up in
U.S. northeast, in the New England region, around the late 1600s. For those of
you who don't know the northeast costal region, Cape Cod is a peninsula, a
narrow strip of land that jets out into the Atlantic. And so many houses in this
particular style were built on Cape Cod, that the name of the place became the
name of the style. Now why did the Cape Cod style house become so popular in
the northeast? Well, one reason is that it's a great example of form following
function. We've talked about this design principle a lot about form following
function. And what did we say it's meant? Someone give me an application of this
principle. What did this concept that form should follow function? How would it
be applied to housing design?
Well, if it means the design of the building, it should be based on the needs of
people who use it. Then, well, the architect has to be very practical to think about
the people who actually be living in the house or working in the office building,
whatever. So for the architect, it's all about users not about showing off how
creative you can be.
Good, of course, for a Cape Cod house, it might be even more accurate to say that
form also follows climate. Who knows what the climate like on Cape Cod?
Cold in the winter...
And whenever I visit my grandparents, it's really wet. It's usually either raining
or snowing or foggy and windy, too. I guess because it's so exposed to the ocean?
That's right. So take another look at this drawing, and you can image how this
design might be particularly helpful in that kind of climate. Notice how the house
is fairly low to the ground. This relatively low compact structure helps the house
withstand the strong winds blowing off the ocean. And look at the slope of the
roof, the steep angle helps keep off all that rain and snow that accumulates in the
winter. Another thing, Cape Cod houses usually face south to take advantage of
the sun's warm through the windows. That's helpful in winter. Now what can you
tell me about the chimney, about its location.
Well, it's in the middle. Because, does that have something to do with heating the
houses? I mean since the heat never has to travel very far.
That means you can heat the house more efficiently, right?
Exactly, now see how the house has very little exterior decoration, that's also
typical of early Cape Cod houses.The wind was one reason, nothing sticking out
might blow away in the harsh weather, but there was probably another reason,
not related to the climate, more reflection of a rural New England society back
then. You see, Cape Cod houses were not built in the big cities, where all the rich
people lived back then. These were the modest dwellings the people who built
them simply couldn't afford lots of expensive decorated details. But that was
more than just matter of money. In these rural areas, people depended on each
other for survival. Neighbors had to help and supported each other in the
difficult environment, so you didn't want to appear to be showing off. You
wanted to avoid anything that might set you apart from your neighbors, the
same people you might need to help you someday. So all these help to create an
attitude of conformity in the community, and you can see why a modest, a very
plain style would become so widely imitated through out rural New England.
It is plain, but you know its nice looking.
Good point, and in fact it's precisely that as aesthetic appeal, the... the purity,the
nearly perfect proportion of the houses... that's another reason for the cape cod
enduring popularity even in the places where the climate was so mild, its
functional design doesn't matter.
Lesson Plan Week 2-2

The Steps of a Lecture

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

Lecture part of TPO

Goals of Lesson:

Students go deeper in lectures

Objectives:

1). Figure out the logical line of a lecture.

2). Analyze one lecture of Natural science and Social science

3). Start to take notes of a lecture.

Orientation (20 minutes)

Let students to listen an already listened lecture in day2-1, and then give

students the transcript of it. Ask students to mark where they think are

important like topic sentence, etc..(Day 2-1, appendix4)

Rationale: This part is the chance for the instructor to know students’ knowledge

base. Where students have already known. Where should be mentioned by

instructor. As the result, the instructor can avoid teaching blindly.

Presentation (30mins)

With the transcript, the instructor ask students to mark the logical connection

like so, therefore, but. And think with the listening tasks, let students to think

how many questions relate to logical connection. Then students listen to a


lecture about Arts (Day2-1, appendix5), and take note, focusing the logical

connection.

Rationale: Students can have a very deep impression about logical connection, and

they can track the logical connection to take notes.

Engagement (20mins)

Compare and contrast between two lectures (Day2-1, appendix4 and Day2-1,

appendix5). This time, the theme and form are regardless, what really matters

are their different way to develop. Are this logical connection sequential

development, chronological development or others?

Rationale: Students can have a deep impression about logical connection, and

comparison and contrast will make this impression deeper. Under instructor’s

guidance to distinguish different kinds of logical development helps a lot during

their further listening.

Evaluation (30 min)

Students discuss in groups about how they think about these two different way

of logical connection, and how they will adjust their note taking skills.

Rationale: This process could provide an access to others’ thoughts. Students can

show the ability of applying their note taking skills into different situation.

Expansion

Do TPO practice after class with note taking, and bring the notes next class
Appendix4
TPO-07-L2.Bats' Use of Ultrasound
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/c3d9oh.html
Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.
So, that is how elephant uses infrasound.Now, let's talk about the other and the
acoustic spectrums, sound that is too high for humans to hear - ultrasound.
Ultrasound is used by many animals that detected and some of them seen out
very high frequency sounds.So, what is a good example? Yes, Kayo.
Well, bats, since there is all blind, bets have to use sound for, you know, to keep
them from flying in the things.
That is echolocation. Echolocation is pretty self-explanatory, using echoes
reflected sound waves to located things.As Kayo said that bats used for
navigation and orientation.And what is else. Make?
Well, finding food is always important and I guess not becoming food for other
animals.
Right, on both accounts.Avoiding other predators, and locating prey, typically
insects that fly around it at night.Before I go on, let me just respond something
Kayo was saying.This idea that is bats are blind. Actually, there are some species
of bats, the one that don't use echolocation that do rely on their vision for
navigation, but its true for many bats, their vision is too weak to count on.
OK, so quick summary how echolocation works.The bats emit the ultrasonic
pulses, very high pitch sound waves that we cannot hear. And then, they analyze
the echoes, how the waves bound back.Here, let me finish the style diagram I
started it before the class. So the bat sends out the pulses, very focus birds of
sound, and echo bounds back.You know, I don't think I need to draw the echoes,
your reading assignment for the next class; it has diagram shows this very clearly.
So, anyway, as I were saying, by analyzing this echo, the bat can determine, say, if
there is wall in a cave that needs to avoid, and how far away it is. Another thing
uses the ultrasound to detect is the size and the shape of objects.For example,
one echo they quickly identified is one way associated with moth, which is
common prey for a bat, particularly a moth meeting its wings.However, moth
happened to have major advantage over most other insects. They can detect
ultrasound; this means that when the bat approaches, the moth can detect the
bat's presence. So, it has time to escape to safety, or else they can just remain
motionless. Since, when they stop meeting their wings, they will be much hard
for the bat to distinguish from, oh a leave or some other object.
Now, we have tended to underestimate just how sophisticated the ability that
animals that use ultrasound are.In fact, we kinds of assume that they were
filtering a lot out.The ways are sophisticated radar on our system can ignore the
echo from the stationary object on the ground. Radar are does this to remove
ground clutter , information about the hills or buildings that they doesn't need.
But bats, we thought they were filtering out kinds of information, because they
simply couldn't analyze it.But, it looks as we are wrong.Recently there was the
experiment with trees and specific species of bat.A bat called the laser spear
nosed bat.
Now, a tree should be huge and acoustic challenge for bat, right?I mean it got all
kinds of surfaces with different shapes and angles.So, well, the echoes from trees
are going to be massive and chaotic acoustic reflection, right, not like the echo
from the moth.So, we thought for a long time that the bat stop their evaluation as
simply that is tree. Yet, it turns out that is or at least particular species, cannot
only tell that is trees, but can also distinguish between a pine tree, and a
deciduous tree, like a maple or oak tree, just by their leaves.And when I say,
leaves, I mean pine needles too.Any idea on how we would know that?
Well, like with the moth, could be their shape?
You are on the right track.It actually the echo of all the leaves as whole the
matters. Now, think, a pine trees with all those little densely packed needles.
Those produced a large number of fain reflection in which what's we called as a
smooth of echo. The wave forms were very even, but an oak which has fewer
but bigger leaves with stronger reflections, produces a gigot wave form, or what
we called a rough echo. And these bats can distinguish between a two, and not
just was trees, but with any echo come in smooth and rough shape.

Appendix5
TPO-11-L2.Cape Cod House
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/241jhk.html
Listen to part of a lecture in an Architecture Class.
Today, we are taking a little detour from the grand styles of public architecture
we've been studying to look at residential architectures in the United States.
Since this is something we can all identify with, I think it will help us see the
relationship between the function of a structure and its style or form. This has
been an ongoing theme in our discussion, and we will be getting back to it just a
moment. But before we get started, I want you to take a moment to think: does
anyone know what the single most popular style for a house in the United States
is today? Bob?
I bet it is the ranch-style house.
Well, in this area, probably. But aren't we typical? Yes, Sue.
How about the kind of house my grandparents live in? They call it a Cape Cod.
That's the one. Here is a drawing of what we consider of a classic Cape Cod house.
These days, you see this style all over the United States. But it first showed up in
U.S. northeast, in the New England region, around the late 1600s. For those of
you who don't know the northeast costal region, Cape Cod is a peninsula, a
narrow strip of land that jets out into the Atlantic. And so many houses in this
particular style were built on Cape Cod, that the name of the place became the
name of the style. Now why did the Cape Cod style house become so popular in
the northeast? Well, one reason is that it's a great example of form following
function. We've talked about this design principle a lot about form following
function. And what did we say it's meant? Someone give me an application of this
principle. What did this concept that form should follow function? How would it
be applied to housing design?
Well, if it means the design of the building, it should be based on the needs of
people who use it. Then, well, the architect has to be very practical to think about
the people who actually be living in the house or working in the office building,
whatever. So for the architect, it's all about users not about showing off how
creative you can be.
Good, of course, for a Cape Cod house, it might be even more accurate to say that
form also follows climate. Who knows what the climate like on Cape Cod?
Cold in the winter...
And whenever I visit my grandparents, it's really wet. It's usually either raining
or snowing or foggy and windy, too. I guess because it's so exposed to the ocean?
That's right. So take another look at this drawing, and you can image how this
design might be particularly helpful in that kind of climate. Notice how the house
is fairly low to the ground. This relatively low compact structure helps the house
withstand the strong winds blowing off the ocean. And look at the slope of the
roof, the steep angle helps keep off all that rain and snow that accumulates in the
winter. Another thing, Cape Cod houses usually face south to take advantage of
the sun's warm through the windows. That's helpful in winter. Now what can you
tell me about the chimney, about its location.
Well, it's in the middle. Because, does that have something to do with heating the
houses? I mean since the heat never has to travel very far.
That means you can heat the house more efficiently, right?
Exactly, now see how the house has very little exterior decoration, that's also
typical of early Cape Cod houses.The wind was one reason, nothing sticking out
might blow away in the harsh weather, but there was probably another reason,
not related to the climate, more reflection of a rural New England society back
then. You see, Cape Cod houses were not built in the big cities, where all the rich
people lived back then. These were the modest dwellings the people who built
them simply couldn't afford lots of expensive decorated details. But that was
more than just matter of money. In these rural areas, people depended on each
other for survival. Neighbors had to help and supported each other in the
difficult environment, so you didn't want to appear to be showing off. You
wanted to avoid anything that might set you apart from your neighbors, the
same people you might need to help you someday. So all these help to create an
attitude of conformity in the community, and you can see why a modest, a very
plain style would become so widely imitated through out rural New England.
It is plain, but you know its nice looking.
Good point, and in fact it's precisely that as aesthetic appeal, the... the purity, the
nearly perfect proportion of the houses... that's another reason for the cape cod
enduring popularity even in the places where the climate was so mild, its
functional design doesn't matter.

Lesson Plan Week 2-4


Combined Practice

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

TPO44 the whole listening part

Goals of Lesson:

Do a whole listening part from TPO as mock examination

http://toefl.kmf.com/exam/prelistening?sheet_id=1335&mode=mock&u=u148163151

0908581&uu=ztm%231d63400a0913d7d75d583b4ce8f971c4

Objectives:

1). Do a whole listening part from TPO, just like the real test.

2). After the test, instructor asked students to do transcript analysis and error analysis.

Test (60 minutes)

Mock examination is combined with two sections, which are made up by one

conversation and two lectures. So the total are two conversation and 4 lectures.

Students will complete practice test in a timed environment.

Rationale: Let students to experience the real test atmosphere.

Engagement (30mins)

After the mock examination, the instructor will tell students the answer, and students

will report their own mistakes to the instructor. Students will be given the transcripts,

and discuss in groups about their mistakes and their notes and the logical connection.

The instructor will walk around as supervisor, and students can ask freely about their
questions. After discussion, the instructor will collect questions from students and

present them to the whole class.

Rationale: The feedback of the mock examination can be best as error analysis can

start immediately after the examination.

Expansion

After class, students are required to complete two whole mock examinations.
Lesson Plan Week 3-1

Speaking Combined Summary

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

The conversation and the academic discussion from TOEFL Practice Online (See

Appendix)

Goals of Lesson:

To improve students’ ability of understanding during listening, and make

students process a sense that understanding should always appear during

listening.

Objectives:

After students complete the listening tasks, they are required to do oral summary

according to their notes and their memory.

Orientation (15 minutes)

Students will hear one conversation first. After they finished the listening tasks,

they are required to listen it another time; this time, students have to focus on

the whole content, as they have to do oral summary after.

Rationale: during the orientation, students are not ruled to take notes or use the

methods taught by the instructor. In this section, students can do totally free-style

listening. From student’s feedback, instructor can tell how students have had

command of what is taught before or where the instructor should emphasize more.

Presentation (35mins)
From orientation part, some students may feel really tough to do oral summary,

while some students don't think so. So it is a great time for instructor to provide

an opportunity for those who think oral summary is not so difficult to give a brief

talk (informal one). And if there is no students volunteer to give brief talk (it

happens a lot), instructor should introduce how to re-estimate by the title and

topic, how to get information through logical connection, how to retell the story

by means of note taking.

Rationale: if student can do oral summary, it means that students can keep the

balance among listening, note taking and comprehension.

Engagement (40mins)

Now that students have already known the key element of doing a good oral

summary and the reason why they should to do oral summary practice. Then, let

students’ to discuss in groups to exchange what they have learned this class.

After that, let students re-listen the previous conversation, and require them to

do oral summary again. One group chooses a best one to present their group, and

the whole class can be the judge.

Rationale: To get every students involved in class, and some competition activity

can enhance motivation.

Expansion

Find different genres of listening, like news report, authentic lecture, advertisement,
dramas, etc.. Anything students think may face in future. And bring it to the next

class.

Rationale: To prepare for the culture class.


Lesson Plan Week 3-1

Speaking Combined Summary

Class time: 90 minutes

Materials needed:

The conversation and the academic discussion from TOEFL Practice Online (See

Appendix)

Goals of Lesson:

To improve students’ ability of understanding during listening, and make

students process a sense that understanding should always appear during

listening.

Objectives:

After students complete the listening tasks, they are required to do oral summary

according to their notes and their memory.

Orientation (15 minutes)

Students will hear one conversation first. After they finished the listening tasks,

they are required to listen it another time; this time, students have to focus on

the whole content, as they have to do oral summary after.

Rationale: during the orientation, students are not ruled to take notes or use the

methods taught by the instructor. In this section, students can do totally free-style

listening. From student’s feedback, instructor can tell how students have had

command of what is taught before or where the instructor should emphasize more.

Presentation (35mins)
From orientation part, some students may feel really tough to do oral summary,

while some students don't think so. So it is a great time for instructor to provide

an opportunity for those who think oral summary is not so difficult to give a brief

talk (informal one). And if there is no students volunteer to give brief talk (it

happens a lot), instructor should introduce how to re-estimate by the title and

topic, how to get information through logical connection, how to retell the story

by means of note taking.

Rationale: if student can do oral summary, it means that students can keep the

balance among listening, note taking and comprehension.

Engagement (40mins)

Now that students have already known the key element of doing a good oral

summary and the reason why they should to do oral summary practice. Then, let

students’ to discuss in groups to exchange what they have learned this class.

After that, let students re-listen the previous conversation, and require them to

do oral summary again. One group chooses a best one to present their group, and

the whole class can be the judge.

Rationale: To get every students involved in class, and some competition activity

can enhance motivation.

Expansion

Find different genres of listening, like news report, authentic lecture, advertisement,
dramas, etc.. Anything students think may face in future. And bring it to the next

class.

Rationale: To prepare for the culture class.


Appendix
TPO08-C2-A stratagem of attracting customers
http://toefl.kmf.com/listening/newdrilling/bc1jdk.html
Listen to conversation between a student and a business professor.
So, Richer, what is up?
Well, I know we will have a test coming up on chapters.
Chapter 3 and 4 from text book.
Right, 3 and 4, I didn't get something you said on class Monday.
Alright? Do you remember what it was about?
Yes, you were talking about a gym... a health club where people can go to exercise
that kind of thing.
OK, but the health club model is actually from chapter 5... so...
OK, chapter 5? Oh so it not... OK but I guess I still want to try to understand...
Of course, I was talking about an issue in strategic marketing, the healthy club
model. I mean with a health club you might think they would have trouble
attracting customers, right?
Well, I know when I pass by a healthy club and I see others people working out,
the exercising, I just soon walk on by.
Yes, there is that. Plus, lots of people have exercise equipment at home, or they
can play sports with their friends. Right?
Sure.
But nowadays in spite of all that, and expensive membership fees, health club are
hugely popular, so how come?
I guess that is what I didn't understand.
OK, basically they have to offer things that most people can't find anywhere else,
you know quality, that means better exercise equipment, high-end stuff, and
classes-exercise classes may be aerobics.
I am not sure if I... ok I get it. And you know another thing is I think people
probably feel good about themselves when they are at gym. And they can meet
new people socialize.
Right, so health clubs offer high quality facilities, and also they sell an image
about people having more fun relating better to others and improving their own
lives if they become members.
Sure that makes sense.
Well, then, can you think of another business or organization that could benefit
from doing this? Think about an important building on campus here, something
everyone uses, a major source of information?
You mean like an administrative building?
Well, that is not what I had in my mind.
Oh, You mean the library.
Exactly. Libraries. Imagine publish libraries. There are information resource for
the whole community, right?
Well, they can be. But, now, with the internet and big book stores, you can
probably get what you need without going to a library.
That's true. So if you were the director of a public library, what would you do
about that?
To get more people to stop in? Well, like you said, better equipment, maybe a
super fast internet connection. And not just a good variety of books but also like
nice and comfortable areas where people can read and do research - things that
make them want to come to the library and stay.
Great.
Oh, maybe have authors come and do some readings or, I don't know, special
presentations - something people couldn't get at home.
Now, you are getting it.
Thanks, professor Williams. I think so, too.