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<a href=Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Construction and Building Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/lo cate/conbuildmat Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET Zhi Ge, Hongya Yue, Renjuan Sun Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China highlights The recycled PET and clay brick aggregate were used to make PET mortar. The PET mortar had high early age strength and low water absorption. The specimen had high resistance to chloride ion penetration and sulfate attack. Specimen had uniform structure without micro-cracks in the interfacial area. article info Article history: Received 30 December 2014 Received in revised form 13 April 2015 Accepted 2 May 2015 Available online xxxx Keywords: PET Recycled clay brick Mechanical property SEM Durability abstract This paper studied the fabrication and properties, including strength, water absorption, resistance to sul- fate attack and chloride ion penetration, and micro-structure of a new type of mortar made with recycled clay brick (CB) and post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The effects of binder to CB aggregate ratio and curing condition on strength were investigated. The results indicate that binder to CB aggregate ratio had a significant influence on strength. The optimum value was 1:2. For curing condition, specimen cured at 180 C for 2 h had higher strength. The specimen with proper mix proportion and curing could reach 42.5 MPa and 12.6 MPa for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. Also, the 4-h compres- sive strength was 85.4% of 28-day strength. The PET mortar had low water absorption of 0.87% and high resistance to sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) test showed that PET mortar had uniform micro-structure with very low porosity. The CB aggregate was well covered by PET. There were no micro-cracks found in the aggregate-paste interfacial area. 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction As the building demolition increased continuously, construction waste becomes a major pollutant. In China, around 7000 million tons construction waste was produced annually. Due to Chinese traditional building habits, significant portion of the demolition waste is clay bricks (CB) [1,2] . Traditionally, waste CB is majorly land filled. This method has disadvantages of occupying limited space, especially in large city, and raising environmental issues. Therefore, recycling the waste CB effectively becomes one of the important concerns for environment. Research show that waste CB could be reused to partially replace aggregate in cement concrete [3–7] . Concrete with recycled waste CB aggregate had advantages of lightweight and high temperature resistance. However, the water absorption of these concrete was much higher ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 0531 88392842. E-mail address: sunrenjuan@sdu.edu.cn (R. Sun). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 0950-0618/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. due to CB’ high porosity, which could lead to durability problems. Combining CB with a waterproof cementing material could be a potential way to solve this issue. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most important and common waterproof materials with high performance to price ratio and excellent properties, such as high durability, good mechanical and electrical properties, and low production cost. Therefore, it is widely used in packaging, fibers, and other areas [8–11] . The annual production of PET exceeds 6.7 million tons worldwide, especially in Asian because of the increasing demands in China and India [12] . The environmental issue caused by PET pollution is becoming more and more serious [11] . Compared with burning and backfilling, recycling PET as building materials is a more economical and environment-friendly way which attracts more attention. Currently, there are three major ways to recycling waste PET. The first method is that wasted PET is shredded to par- ticles and used as a substitute for aggregate to produce concrete. Results show that concrete with PET had low water absorption Please cite this article in press as: Ge Z et al. Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET. Constr Build Mater (2015), http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 " id="pdf-obj-0-3" src="pdf-obj-0-3.jpg">
<a href=Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Construction and Building Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/lo cate/conbuildmat Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET Zhi Ge, Hongya Yue, Renjuan Sun Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China highlights The recycled PET and clay brick aggregate were used to make PET mortar. The PET mortar had high early age strength and low water absorption. The specimen had high resistance to chloride ion penetration and sulfate attack. Specimen had uniform structure without micro-cracks in the interfacial area. article info Article history: Received 30 December 2014 Received in revised form 13 April 2015 Accepted 2 May 2015 Available online xxxx Keywords: PET Recycled clay brick Mechanical property SEM Durability abstract This paper studied the fabrication and properties, including strength, water absorption, resistance to sul- fate attack and chloride ion penetration, and micro-structure of a new type of mortar made with recycled clay brick (CB) and post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The effects of binder to CB aggregate ratio and curing condition on strength were investigated. The results indicate that binder to CB aggregate ratio had a significant influence on strength. The optimum value was 1:2. For curing condition, specimen cured at 180 C for 2 h had higher strength. The specimen with proper mix proportion and curing could reach 42.5 MPa and 12.6 MPa for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. Also, the 4-h compres- sive strength was 85.4% of 28-day strength. The PET mortar had low water absorption of 0.87% and high resistance to sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) test showed that PET mortar had uniform micro-structure with very low porosity. The CB aggregate was well covered by PET. There were no micro-cracks found in the aggregate-paste interfacial area. 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction As the building demolition increased continuously, construction waste becomes a major pollutant. In China, around 7000 million tons construction waste was produced annually. Due to Chinese traditional building habits, significant portion of the demolition waste is clay bricks (CB) [1,2] . Traditionally, waste CB is majorly land filled. This method has disadvantages of occupying limited space, especially in large city, and raising environmental issues. Therefore, recycling the waste CB effectively becomes one of the important concerns for environment. Research show that waste CB could be reused to partially replace aggregate in cement concrete [3–7] . Concrete with recycled waste CB aggregate had advantages of lightweight and high temperature resistance. However, the water absorption of these concrete was much higher ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 0531 88392842. E-mail address: sunrenjuan@sdu.edu.cn (R. Sun). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 0950-0618/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. due to CB’ high porosity, which could lead to durability problems. Combining CB with a waterproof cementing material could be a potential way to solve this issue. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most important and common waterproof materials with high performance to price ratio and excellent properties, such as high durability, good mechanical and electrical properties, and low production cost. Therefore, it is widely used in packaging, fibers, and other areas [8–11] . The annual production of PET exceeds 6.7 million tons worldwide, especially in Asian because of the increasing demands in China and India [12] . The environmental issue caused by PET pollution is becoming more and more serious [11] . Compared with burning and backfilling, recycling PET as building materials is a more economical and environment-friendly way which attracts more attention. Currently, there are three major ways to recycling waste PET. The first method is that wasted PET is shredded to par- ticles and used as a substitute for aggregate to produce concrete. Results show that concrete with PET had low water absorption Please cite this article in press as: Ge Z et al. Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET. Constr Build Mater (2015), http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 " id="pdf-obj-0-8" src="pdf-obj-0-8.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Construction and Building Materials

<a href=Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Construction and Building Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/lo cate/conbuildmat Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET Zhi Ge, Hongya Yue, Renjuan Sun Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China highlights The recycled PET and clay brick aggregate were used to make PET mortar. The PET mortar had high early age strength and low water absorption. The specimen had high resistance to chloride ion penetration and sulfate attack. Specimen had uniform structure without micro-cracks in the interfacial area. article info Article history: Received 30 December 2014 Received in revised form 13 April 2015 Accepted 2 May 2015 Available online xxxx Keywords: PET Recycled clay brick Mechanical property SEM Durability abstract This paper studied the fabrication and properties, including strength, water absorption, resistance to sul- fate attack and chloride ion penetration, and micro-structure of a new type of mortar made with recycled clay brick (CB) and post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The effects of binder to CB aggregate ratio and curing condition on strength were investigated. The results indicate that binder to CB aggregate ratio had a significant influence on strength. The optimum value was 1:2. For curing condition, specimen cured at 180 C for 2 h had higher strength. The specimen with proper mix proportion and curing could reach 42.5 MPa and 12.6 MPa for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. Also, the 4-h compres- sive strength was 85.4% of 28-day strength. The PET mortar had low water absorption of 0.87% and high resistance to sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) test showed that PET mortar had uniform micro-structure with very low porosity. The CB aggregate was well covered by PET. There were no micro-cracks found in the aggregate-paste interfacial area. 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction As the building demolition increased continuously, construction waste becomes a major pollutant. In China, around 7000 million tons construction waste was produced annually. Due to Chinese traditional building habits, significant portion of the demolition waste is clay bricks (CB) [1,2] . Traditionally, waste CB is majorly land filled. This method has disadvantages of occupying limited space, especially in large city, and raising environmental issues. Therefore, recycling the waste CB effectively becomes one of the important concerns for environment. Research show that waste CB could be reused to partially replace aggregate in cement concrete [3–7] . Concrete with recycled waste CB aggregate had advantages of lightweight and high temperature resistance. However, the water absorption of these concrete was much higher ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 0531 88392842. E-mail address: sunrenjuan@sdu.edu.cn (R. Sun). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 0950-0618/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. due to CB’ high porosity, which could lead to durability problems. Combining CB with a waterproof cementing material could be a potential way to solve this issue. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most important and common waterproof materials with high performance to price ratio and excellent properties, such as high durability, good mechanical and electrical properties, and low production cost. Therefore, it is widely used in packaging, fibers, and other areas [8–11] . The annual production of PET exceeds 6.7 million tons worldwide, especially in Asian because of the increasing demands in China and India [12] . The environmental issue caused by PET pollution is becoming more and more serious [11] . Compared with burning and backfilling, recycling PET as building materials is a more economical and environment-friendly way which attracts more attention. Currently, there are three major ways to recycling waste PET. The first method is that wasted PET is shredded to par- ticles and used as a substitute for aggregate to produce concrete. Results show that concrete with PET had low water absorption Please cite this article in press as: Ge Z et al. Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET. Constr Build Mater (2015), http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 " id="pdf-obj-0-19" src="pdf-obj-0-19.jpg">

Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET

Zhi Ge, Hongya Yue, Renjuan Sun

Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China

highlights

The recycled PET and clay brick aggregate were used to make PET mortar. The PET mortar had high early age strength and low water absorption. The specimen had high resistance to chloride ion penetration and sulfate attack. Specimen had uniform structure without micro-cracks in the interfacial area.

article info

Article history:

Received 30 December 2014 Received in revised form 13 April 2015 Accepted 2 May 2015 Available online xxxx

Keywords:

PET Recycled clay brick Mechanical property SEM Durability

abstract

This paper studied the fabrication and properties, including strength, water absorption, resistance to sul- fate attack and chloride ion penetration, and micro-structure of a new type of mortar made with recycled clay brick (CB) and post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The effects of binder to CB aggregate ratio and curing condition on strength were investigated. The results indicate that binder to CB aggregate ratio had a significant influence on strength. The optimum value was 1:2. For curing condition, specimen

cured at 180 C for 2 h had higher strength. The specimen with proper mix proportion and curing could reach 42.5 MPa and 12.6 MPa for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. Also, the 4-h compres- sive strength was 85.4% of 28-day strength. The PET mortar had low water absorption of 0.87% and high resistance to sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) test showed that PET mortar had uniform micro-structure with very low porosity. The CB aggregate was well covered by PET. There were no micro-cracks found in the aggregate-paste interfacial area. 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

As the building demolition increased continuously, construction waste becomes a major pollutant. In China, around 7000 million tons construction waste was produced annually. Due to Chinese traditional building habits, significant portion of the demolition waste is clay bricks (CB) [1,2]. Traditionally, waste CB is majorly land filled. This method has disadvantages of occupying limited space, especially in large city, and raising environmental issues. Therefore, recycling the waste CB effectively becomes one of the important concerns for environment. Research show that waste CB could be reused to partially replace aggregate in cement concrete [3–7]. Concrete with recycled waste CB aggregate had advantages of lightweight and high temperature resistance. However, the water absorption of these concrete was much higher

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 0531 88392842. E-mail address: sunrenjuan@sdu.edu.cn (R. Sun).

0950-0618/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

due to CB’ high porosity, which could lead to durability problems. Combining CB with a waterproof cementing material could be a potential way to solve this issue. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most important and common waterproof materials with high performance to price ratio and excellent properties, such as high durability, good mechanical and electrical properties, and low production cost. Therefore, it is widely used in packaging, fibers, and other areas [8–11]. The annual production of PET exceeds 6.7 million tons worldwide, especially in Asian because of the increasing demands in China and India [12]. The environmental issue caused by PET pollution is becoming more and more serious [11]. Compared with burning and backfilling, recycling PET as building materials is a more economical and environment-friendly way which attracts more attention. Currently, there are three major ways to recycling waste PET. The first method is that wasted PET is shredded to par- ticles and used as a substitute for aggregate to produce concrete. Results show that concrete with PET had low water absorption

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  • 2 Z. Ge et al. / Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

and lightweight [13–15]. This method is the greenest way to reuse waste PET as construction materials. However, increasing PET aggregate content could decrease the compressive and flexural strength gradually [14,15]. The second way is using recycled PET fiber in concrete to enhance its ductility, thus reducing the crack- ing due to plastic shrinkage [16–19]. But this method only recycles a small quantity of waste PET. The third method is to make poly- mer mortar or concrete using the unsaturated polyester resin made from depolymerized PET [20–23]. However, the cost of this method is very high. Properties of polymer mortar or concrete are very sen- sitive to temperature. Recently, waste PET has been used as binder to produce plastic soil, mortar, or concrete. Testing results show that this is an effective way to reuse waste PET [24–27]. In this research, the waste PET and CB aggregate were combined to produce recycle PET mortar. The purpose of using waste PET instead of cement as binder is that PET could prevent water from penetrating into the CB aggregate and, therefore, resolve the dura- bility issues caused by high permeability. The properties of this new PET mortar, including strength, water absorption, resistances to sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration, and micro-structure, were studied.

2. Experimental materials and design

  • 2.1. Experimental materials

The waste CB was employed to produce recycled fine aggregate. The properties of waste CB are shown in Table 1. To produce the fine aggregate with desired grading, the brick was crushed, sieved to different sizes and then recombined. The grading is shown in Table 2. The fineness modulus of recycled CB fine aggregate was 3.08. Recycled PET particles from a waste plastic recycling factory in Jinan were used. Main physical and mechanical properties of PET were tabulated in Table 3. In this research, Type F fly ash containing 3.88% CaO was also added to improve work- ability and strength.

  • 2.2. Experimental design

The effects of binder, including PET and fly ash, to CB aggregate ratio (by weight), curing condition, and amount of fly ash on the strength were investigated. Three different binder to CB aggregate ratios, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, were designed. The fly ash was used to partially replace PET. Three different replacement levels of 5%, 10% and 15% (by weight) were employed. The effect of four different curing temper- atures, 100 C, 120 C, 180 C and room temperature, was studied. Based on the strength results, the proper mix proportion and curing method was selected. The resistances of the selected mix to sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration were investigated.

  • 2.3. Specimen preparation

To produce the PET mortar, the recycled CB aggregate was first dried in the oven to remove any absorbed water. After that, PET, fly ash and recycled CB aggregate were weighed according to the mix proportion, and hand mixed uniformly. The mixture was then heated in the oven at 280 C for about 2 h until PET was melted completely. After that, the mixture was mixed again, put into molds quickly, and finally compacted to make specimens of recycled PET mortar. The molding process has to be completed before the hardening of PET.

  • 2.4. Testing methods

Infrared Spectrum test was performed to determine the main functional groups and the degree of crystallinity of PET. The VERTEX-70 FTIR spectrometers (BRUKER OPTICS) with scanned absorption bands from 400 cm 1 to 4000 cm 1 was employed.

Table 1

Properties of waste clay brick.

Properties

Value

Density

1.8 g/cm 3

Compressive strength

20 MPa

Water absorption

20%

Table 2

Grading of recycled clay brick fine aggregate.

Particle size (mm)

9.5

4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 0.075

Accumulated percentage 100 97 passing (%)

80

59

36

13

5

2

Table 3

Properties of waste PET.

 

Properties

Value

Density

1.35 g/cm 3

Melting point

260 C

Water absorption

0.16%

The compressive and flexural strength were measured based on ASTM C 109 [28] and ASTM C 348 [29]. The 50 50 50 mm and 40 40 160 mm specimens were tested for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. Three specimens were tested at each age. The average of these values is presented and discussed in this paper. The density of recycled PET mortar were measured based on ASTM C 642 [30]. For water absorption testing, the dry mass of specimens in air, A, was first obtained after dried in the oven over 24 h at 105 C and cooled down to the room temperature. After that, specimens were immersed into the water. The surface-dry mass, B, was then measured. The absorption was calculated as (B A)/A 100%. The resistance to sulfate attack of PET mortar was tested using drying and wet- ting method. For each cycle, specimens were first soaked in the 5% sodium sulfate solution for 16 h, dried in the air for 1 h, and then dried in the vacuumed oven at 40 C for 6 h. After that, specimens were cooled down to the room temperature. The weight and compressive strength were then tested. The chloride penetration resistance was tested based on ASTM C1202 [31]. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), SU-70 SEM, manufactured by Japan, was used to examine the microstructure of recycled PET mortar. Before testing, a gold casting was applied to the surface of specimens.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Physical properties

Fig. 1 is the infrared Spectrum of waste PET particles. The spec- trum illustrates that the material contained carbonyl C@O (1717.52 cm 1 ) stretching, aromatic skeletal stretching (1410.60 cm 1 ), C(O)AO stretching of the ester group (1262.0 cm 1 ). The 873.35 and 725.64 cm 1 are assigned to the coupled vibrations of the aromatic out-of-plane CAH bending mode and the out-of-plane O@CAO bending mode, respectively. The result clearly demonstrates that the waste material is PET. Fig. 2 illustrates the water absorption with time. After immersed in the water for 7 days, the water absorption was only 0.87%. Also, more than 75% water was absorbed in the first 30 min. The weight

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Fig. 1. Infrared Spectrum of PET.

Please cite this article in press as: Ge Z et al. Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET. Constr Build Mater (2015), http://

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Z. Ge et al. / Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

3

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 24 48 72 96
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
192
Time(h)
Water absorption(%)

Fig. 2. Water absorption of the PET mortar.

of absorbed water became stable in about 2 days. The water absorp- tion of the recycle PET-clay brick mortar was much lower than that of the recycled clay brick mortar or concrete. Although the clay brick has high porosity, melted PET could form a waterproof layer around the clay brick aggregate, resulting in low water absorption. The apparent density of the PET mortar was only 1.84 g/cm 3 , which was lower than that of normal mortar or concrete.

3.2. Compressive and flexural strengths

Fig. 3 shows the effect of binder to CB aggregate ratio on the compressive and flexural strength. As the ratio changed from 1:1 to 1:3, both compressive strength and flexural strength had first increased and then decreased. Specimen with ratio of 1:2 had the highest compressive and flexural strength of 42.5 MPa and 12.6 MPa, respectively. The lower strength of specimen with ratio of 1:1 could be caused by the internal cracking and large air voids. Since the coefficients of linear thermal expansion of PET and clay brick aggregate are around 59.4 10 6 m/(m k) and

5.5 10 6 m/(m k), respectively, higher tensile stress could be

developed during the cooling process due to high PET content

and induced micro-cracks, which in turn reduced the strength. As

shown in Fig. 4, large air bubbles could be trapped during the mix-

ing due to the high viscosity of PET. The large voids will further

reduce the strength. For specimen with ratio of 1:1, the compres-

sive and flexural strengths were 30.4 MPa and 11.35 MPa, respec-

tively. When the mass ratio was 1:3, the melted mixture had

very poor workability, which caused large porosity of the specimen

(Fig. 4). The compressive and flexural strengths were only 7.3 MPa

and 2.06 MPa, respectively. Based on the strength, the binder to

fine aggregate ratio of 1:2 was selected for the following tests. Fig. 5 indicates fly ash content had significant effect on the strength of the PET mortar. As the percentage of fly ash increased from 0% to 10%, the compressive strength increased 16%. However, when the fly ash changed from 10% to 15%, the compres- sive and flexural strengths were reduced. The increased strength is potentially caused by improved workability and crystalline degree. Previous research shows that adding fly ash to PET composite could produce a more homogeneous melting mixture [27]. Also, fly ash particles in the melted mixture could serve as miniature ball bearings due to its spherical shape, thus increasing the fluidity. A more uniform mixture will be produced due to the improved workability, resulting in higher strength. Besides improving work- ability, fly ash could also increase the crystalline degree [32]. When the content of fly ash further increased from 10% to 15%, the con- tent of PET was reduced resulting in lower strength. Therefore, in the following study, 10% of fly ash was selected.

3.3. Effect of curing condition

As shown in Fig. 6, the strength of PET mortar was also signifi- cantly influenced by the curing temperature. The higher the curing temperature, the higher the compressive strength was. When cured at 180 C, specimen obtained the maximum compressive strength of 42.5 MPa, which was 35% higher than that of specimen cured at

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Fig. 3. Effect of binder to CB aggregate ratio on the compressive and flexural strength.

1:1 1:2 1:3
1:1
1:2
1:3

Fig. 4. Specimens with different binder to CB aggregate ratio.

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room temperature. There are two possible reasons for this phe- nomenon. First, as specimen cured in the room condition, the surface temperature would decrease quickly from melting temperature. However, the inner temperature changed much slower due to the low heat conductivity of PET. The temperature gradient could cause large thermal stress and induce cracks inside specimen. Second, more crystal was produced under high curing temperature, which in turn increased hardness of PET. Fig. 7 shows the Infrared Spectrum of PET under different curing conditions. The band at 898 cm 1 is related to the amorphous content of PET. Based on the assumption that the amorphous and crystalline materials alone comprise the total sample, the amount of crystal can be inferred from the amorphous content [33]. The transmittance at 898 cm 1 increased as temperature increased, indicating higher percent of crystal was formed under higher curing temperature. Fig. 8 was the compressive strength development with time. Different from normal cement mortar, PET mortar had high early strength, which reached 36.9 MPa in only 4 h. It was 85.4% of 28-day strength. After 8 h, the strength became stable. Therefore, the PET mortar could be used as repair material for pavement fast track maintenance.

3.4. Durability and microstructure

Fig. 9 shows the mass change of specimens after wetting and drying recycles. The weight of specimen even increased after

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Fig. 5. Effect of fly ash content on the compressive and flexural strength.

soaking in the sodium sulfate solution. Different from the mass change, the compressive strength decreased from 43.6 MPa to 36.4 MPa and 36.9 MPa under sulfate attack and water after 10 cycles, respectively (Fig. 10). After 20 cycles, the compressive strength was 33.8 MPa and 34.6 MPa. Based on the mass and strength, the PET mortar had high resistance to sulfate attack. For

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Fig. 6. Effect of curing temperature on the compressive strength.

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Fig. 7. Infrared Spectrum of specimens cured under different temperatures.

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Fig. 8. Compressive strength development.

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Z. Ge et al. / Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

5

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Fig. 9. Mass change of specimen under wetting and drying cycles.

50 Sulphate solution 45 Water 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10
50
Sulphate solution
45
Water
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
Cycle numbers
Compressive strength(MPa)

Fig. 10. Compressive strength change under wetting and drying cycles.

the chloride ion penetrability test, the measured Coulomb charge value was only 43.2 C, indicating negligible chloride ion penetra- bility. The high durability could be caused by the low water absorption. The sodium sulfate or chloride ions were hard to pen- etrate into the specimen. Therefore, this PET mortar is suitable for using in aggressive environments or as protection material for steel rebar. Fig. 11 shows the microstructure of the PET mortar. The mortar was uniform with very low porosity. The recycled clay brick pow- der had air voids inside, which is why the clay brick had high water absorption. However, the clay brick aggregate was well covered by PET. There were no micro-cracks found in the interfacial area. This uniform and dense structure could be one of the reasons for the low water absorption and high durability. As shown above, the developed PET mortar has rapid strength development and high durability. Therefore, it could be used as fast repair material for sealing and patching of both asphalt and con- crete pavement. Also, the PET mortar may be used in corrosive environmental or as the protection material for steel reinforcement due to its low absorption and high durability. In addition to these,

the PET mortar could be used to prefabricate brick or barrier.

4. Conclusions

This paper used the recycled PET and clay brick to produce PET

mortar and investigated the major properties of the PET mortar.

The major conclusions are listed as following:

  • 1. With proper mixing proportion and curing, the compressive and flexural strength of the PET mortar could reach 42.5 MPa and 12.6 MPa, respectively. The strength development was very fast. Over 85.4% of 28-day compressive strength could be achieved within only 4 h. In order to obtain higher strength, the speci- mens should be cured at 180 C.

  • 2. The binder to CB aggregate ratio and fly ash content had signif- icant effect on strength. The optimum binder to CB aggregate ratio and fly content were 1:2 and 10%, respectively.

PET Paste Clay brick Aggregate PET Paste Interfacial Area Clay Brick Aggregate
PET
Paste
Clay brick
Aggregate
PET
Paste
Interfacial
Area
Clay Brick
Aggregate

Fig. 11. Microstructure of the PET mortar.

Please cite this article in press as: Ge Z et al. Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET. Constr Build Mater (2015), http://

6 Z. Ge et al. / Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 3. The PETChen MZ, Lin JT, Wu SP, et al. Utilization of recycled brick powder as alternative filler in asphalt mixture. Constr Build Mater 2011;25:1532–6 . [2] Zhao W, Leeftinkb RB, Rotterc VS. Evaluation of the economic feasibility for the recycling of construction and demolition waste in China – the case of Chongqing. Resour Conserv Recycl 2010;54(6):377–89 . [3] Xiao Z, Ling TC, Poon CS, et al. Properties of partition wall blocks prepared with high percentages of recycled clay brick after exposure to elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater 2013;49:56–61 . [4] Aliabdo AA, Abd-Elmoaty M, Abd-Elmoaty, et al. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production. Alexandria Eng J 2014;53:119–30 . [5] Zong L, Fei ZY, Zhang SP. Permeability of recycled aggregate concrete containing fly ash and clay brick waste. J Clean Prod 2014;70:175–82 . [6] Yang J, Du Q, Bao YW. 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Soil fused with recycled plastic bottles for various geo-engineering applications. In: Proceedings of sessions of geocongress 2008-geocongress 2008: geotechnics of waste management and remediation, GSP 177; 2008. p. 336–43. [26] Ge Z, Huang DW, Sun RJ. Properties of plastic mortar made with recycled polyethylene terephthalate. Constr Build Mater 2014;73:682–7 . [27] Li YD, White DJ, Peyton RL. Composite material from fly ash and post- consumer PET. Resour Conserv Recycl 1998;24:87–93 . [28] ASTM. ASTM C 109. Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars. American Society for Testing and Materials; 2010 . [29] ASTM. ASTM C 348. Standard test method for flexural strength of hydraulic- cement mortars. American Society for Testing and Materials; 2010 . [30] ASTM. ASTM C 642. Standard test method for density, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials; 2010 . [31] ASTM. ASTM C1202, Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration USA; 2010. [32] Duta A, Cazan C, Cosnita M. Fly ash in optimized composites based on recycled plastics and rubber. In: World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference. Denver, USA; 2011 [May 9–12]. [33] Miller RGJ, Willis HA. An independent measurement of the amorphous content of polymers. Polym Sci 1956;19:485–94 . Please cite this article in press as: Ge Z et al. Properties of mortar produced with recycled clay brick aggregate and PET. Constr Build Mater (2015), http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.081 " id="pdf-obj-5-4" src="pdf-obj-5-4.jpg">
  • 6 Z. Ge et al. / Construction and Building Materials xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

    • 3. The PET mortar had low water absorption of 0.87% and high resistance to chloride ion penetration and sulfate attack. The Coulomb charge value was only 43.2 C. After wetting and drying recycles, the mass did not change. The strength of specimens immersed in sodium sulfate solution and water were similar.

    • 4. The SEM results show that the PET mortar had uniform and dense structure with low porosity. Clay brick aggregate and PET were bonded well. No micro-cracks found in the interfacial area.

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51108247 and 51478252) and Scientific Research Foundation for Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars (20131792) for the financial support. Gratitude is also given to the material laboratory at Shandong University for the great help. Authors would also thank Yizhang Hu for helping the testing.

References