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ABSTRAK

Praktik bengkel semester V berjudul “Praktik Catu Daya” memberikan


gambaran penyaluran tenaga listrik mulai dari proses pembangkitan tenaga listrik
hingga sampai pada jaringan distribusi. Kegiatan praktik ini sendiri terbagi atas
tiga bagian, yaitu pengoperasian ATS/ AMF dan Genset, Pengoperasian dan
Pemeliharaan Kubikel, serta Transformator Distribusi.

Genset terdiri dari dua komponen utama, yaitu generator dan mesin
diesel, dalam pengoperasian secara otomatisnya dibutuhkan ATS/AMF.

Kubikel SM6 20 kV yang digunakan pada praktik bengkel ini terdiri atas
tiga bagian yaitu incoming, metering, dan outgoing. Kubikel adalah komponen
untuk memutuskan dan menghubungkan, pengukuran tegangan, arus, maupun
daya, peralatan proteksi, dan kontrol yang terpasang pada ruang tertutup dan
sebagai pembagi, penyalur, pengukur, pengontrol, dan proteksi sistem penyaluran
tenaga listrik.

Secara umum saluran distribusi tenaga listrik terbagi atas dua yaitu saluran
distribusi primer dan saluran distribusi sekunder. Saluran distribusi primer
digunakan untuk menyalurkan tenaga listrik dari gardu induk distribusi ke pusat-
pusat beban. Saluran ini terletak antara titik sekunder transformator substation
(G.I.) dengan titik primer transformator distribusi. Saluran distribusi sekunder
digunakan untuk menyalurkan tenaga listrik dari gardu distribusi ke beban-beban
yang ada di konsumen.

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KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kehadirat Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala yang telah memberikan rahmat
dan hidayah-Nya sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan laporan bengkel semester
V berjudul “Praktik Catu Daya” tepat pada waktunya.

Penulis menyadari bahwa penyelesaian laporan ini bukanlah buah pikiran


dari penulis sendiri, tapi juga berasal dari beberapa referensi yang penulis
dapatkan.

Maka pada kesempatan ini, penulis ingin mengucapkan terima kasih


kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu dalam penyelesaian laporan ini yaitu:

1) Penanggung Jawab, dosen pembimbing yang telah membantu penulis


dalam memberikan pengarahan untuk menyelesaikan praktek ini.
2) Para teknisi yang telah membantu dalam penyediaan alat yang dibutuhkan
oleh penulis untuk menyelesaikan praktek bengkel.
3) Rekan-rekan mahasiswa kelas III B listrik yang telah bersama-sama
menyelesaikan praktek bengkel semester V dan membantu penulis dalam
menyelesaikan penyusunan laporan bengkel ini.
Penyusunan laporan ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan, oleh karena itu
penulis mengharapkan kritik dan saran untuk kesempurnaan laporan ini.

Makassar, Desember 2016

Zairah Sapada

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DAFTAR ISI
ABSTRAK........................................................................................................ ii
KATA PENGANTAR....................................................................................... iii
DAFTAR ISI..................................................................................................... iv
DAFTAR GAMBAR........................................................................................ viii
DAFTAR TABEL............................................................................................. xii
BAB I PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang.......................................................................................... 1

1.2 Tujuan....................................................................................................... 1

BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA


2.1 Pembangkit Listrik................................................................................... 2
2.2 Automatic Transfer Switch dan Automatic Main Failure........................ 3
2.3 Kubikel dan Trafo Step Up...................................................................... 3
2.4 Jaringan Distribusi................................................................................... 4
2.5 Trafo Distribusi........................................................................................ 4
JOB KUBIKEL TEGANGAN MENENGAH DAN TRAFO
Lembar Pengesahan....................................................................................... 7
Ringkasan....................................................................................................... 8
Kata Pengantar............................................................................................... 9
BAB I Pendahuluan
1.1 Latar Belakang......................................................................................... 10
1.2 Tujuan...................................................................................................... 11
BAB II Tinjauan Pustaka
2.1 Panel Tegangan Menengah (Kubikel)...................................................... 12
2.2 SM6 Kubikel (Individual)........................................................................ 12
2.3 SM6 Kubikel (Didalam Sistem)............................................................... 15

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2.4 Transformator Daya................................................................................. 21
BAB III Alat dan Bahan
3.1 Kubikel SM6............................................................................................ 25
3.2 Tongkat Pemutar Kontak (Lever)............................................................ 25
3.3 Sepatu Safety........................................................................................... 25
3.4 Megger Isolasi.......................................................................................... 25
3.5 Megger Pentanahan.................................................................................. 25
3.6 Kunci Pas................................................................................................. 25
BAB IV Langkah Kerja
4.1 Pemeliharaan Kubikel.............................................................................. 26
4.2 Pengoperasian Kubikel............................................................................ 28
4.3 Pemeliharaan Transformator.................................................................... 30
4.4 Pengujian Transformator.......................................................................... 31
BAB V Gambar Rangkaian
5.1 Diagram Single Line ATS/ AMF........................................................... 33
BAB VI Analisa
6.1 Kubikel.................................................................................................. 34
6.2 Transformator........................................................................................ 39
BAB VII Penutup
7.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................................... 43
7.1 Saran..................................................................................................... 43
JOB GARDU DISTRIBUSI
Jenis – Jenis Penghantar TM dan Underground
Jenis Kabel Tanah Tegangan Menengah..................................................... 46
Jenis Kawat Penghantar.............................................................................. 47
TUGAS II Kesimpulan Gardu Distribusi
Komponen Utama Gardu Distribusi.......................................................... 49
TUGAS III Pentanahan

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Tahanan Pentanahan.................................................................................. 56
TUGAS BESAR Jaringan Tegangan Menengah
Gambar Situasi Jaringan Tegangan Menengah....................................... 60
Kontruksi Tiang Awal 20 kV................................................................... 61
Tiang Tumpu Tunggal............................................................................. 62
Kontruksi Isolator Aspan Ganda Tiang 6................................................ 63
JOB PENGOPERASIAN GENSET DAN ATS/ AMF
Lembar Pengesahan.......................................................................................... 65
Ringkasan.......................................................................................................... 66
Kata Pengantar.................................................................................................. 67
BAB I Pendahuluan
1.1 Latar Belakang.......................................................................................... 68
1.2 Tujuan....................................................................................................... 69
BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
2.1 Generator Set (Genset)............................................................................. 70
2.2 AMF(Automatic Main Failure) dan ATS(Automatic Transfer Switch) ... 75
BAB III ALAT DAN BAHAN
3.1 Genset...................................................................................................... 78
3.2 ATS/ AMF 30 KVA.................................................................................. 78
BAB IV LANGKAH KERJA
4.1 Prosedur Pengoperasian dan Stoping Genset secara Manual............... 80
4.2 Prosedur Pengoperasian dan Stoping Genset secara Otomatis............. 82
BAB V GAMBAR RANGKAIAN
5.1 Diagram Single Line ATS/ AMF........................................................... 84
BAB VI ANALISA
6.1 Generator Set........................................................................................ 85
6.2 ATS - AMF............................................................................................ 92

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BAB VII PENUTUP
7.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................................... 96
7.1 Saran..................................................................................................... 96
DAFTAR PUSTAKA........................................................................................ 97

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DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 2.a Genset 2WPS02........................................................................ 2
Gambar 2.b Jaringan Distribusi.................................................................... 5
Gambar 2.c Trafo Distribusi......................................................................... 6
JOB KUBIKEL TEGANGAN MENENGAH DAN TRAFO
Gambar 2.1 Kubikel Tipe IM dan IMC........................................................ 13
Gambar 2.2 Kubikel Tipe QM, QMC dan PM............................................. 14
Gambar 2.3 Tipe Kubikel DM1-A dan DM1-W.......................................... 15
Gambar 2.4 Kubikel Tipe CM...................................................................... 15
Gambar 2.5 Front View Konfigurasi secara Umum..................................... 16
Gambar 2.6 Busbar ...................................................................................... 16
Gambar 2.7 Heater....................................................................................... 17
Gambar 2.8 Sakelar Pentanahan................................................................... 18
Gambar 2.9 Fuse .......................................................................................... 18
Gambar 2.10 Trafo Tegangan....................................................................... 19
Gambar 2.11 Piranti Ukur............................................................................ 19
Gambar 2.12 PMT........................................................................................ 20
Gambar 2.13 Trafo Arus............................................................................... 21
Gambar 2.14 Transformator Daya................................................................ 22
Gambar 2.15 Inti Besi.................................................................................. 22
Gambar 4.1 Posisi Stand By......................................................................... 26
Gambar 4.2 (a) Lever................................................................................... 27
Gambar 4.2 (b) Kontak untuk Grounding.................................................... 27
Gambar 4.3 Posisi Grounding...................................................................... 27
Gambar 4.4 Pintu Panel Kubikel.................................................................. 27
Gambar 4.5 Memutar Lever ke Posisi Stand By.......................................... 28

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Gambar 4.6 (a) Pengunci Operasi................................................................ 28
Gambar 4.6 (b) Posisi Operasi..................................................................... 28
Gambar 4.7 Memindahkan Kunci dari A ke C............................................. 29
Gambar 4.8 Perubahan Indikator Pegas....................................................... 29
Gambar 4.9 Tombol ON pada Outgoing...................................................... 30
Gambar 6.1 Kubikel Incoming..................................................................... 35
Gambar 6.2 Name Plate................................................................................ 35
Gambar 6.3 Kabel 3 Fasa dari Trafo Step Up.............................................. 35
Gambar 6.4 (a) Bagian Atas Kubikel Metering............................................ 36
Gambar 6.4 (b) Bagian Bawah Kubikel Metering....................................... 36
Gambar 6.5 Spesifikasi Kubikel Metering................................................... 36
Gambar 6.6 Spesifikasi Fuse........................................................................ 37
Gambar 6.7 Trafo Tegangan......................................................................... 37
Gambar 6.8 Kubikel Outgoing..................................................................... 37
Gambar 6.9 Spesifikasi Outgoing................................................................ 38
Gambar 6.10 Spesifikasi Penghubung ke Beban.......................................... 38
Gambar 6.11 Trafo Arus............................................................................... 39
Gambar 6.12 Spesifikasi Trafo Step Up....................................................... 39
JOB JTM DAN GARDU DISTRIBUSI
Gambar 1.1 Lightning Arrester.................................................................... 49
Gambar 1.2 Fuse Cut Out............................................................................. 50
Gambar 1.3 Trafo Distribusi......................................................................... 52
Gambar 1.4 Tap Changer............................................................................. 53
Gambar 1.5 Sirip Trafo................................................................................. 53
Gambar 1 Pengoperasian Earth Tester......................................................... 56
JOB PENGOPERASIAN ATS/ AMF
Gambar 2.1 Generator.................................................................................. 71

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Gambar 2.2 Sistem Bahan Bakar................................................................. 72
Gambar 2.3 Voltage Regulator..................................................................... 73
Gambar 2.4 Pendingin dan Exhaust Sistem................................................. 73
Gambar 2.5 ATS - AMF............................................................................... 75
Gambar 4.1 MCB F7 dan NC45a ................................................................ 79
Gambar 4.2 Panel ATS/ AMF....................................................................... 79
Gambar 4.3 Selektor pada panel AMF......................................................... 80
Gambar 4.4 Selektor pada Aki .................................................................... 80
Gambar 4.5 Kunci Kontak............................................................................ 81
Gambar 4.6 Kunci Kontak Posisi Off........................................................... 81
Gambar 4.7 Posisi Off pada Aki................................................................... 81
Gambar 4.8 Posisi Off pada panel AMF...................................................... 82
Gambar 4.9 (a) layar panel ATS/ AMF ........................................................ 82
Gambar 4.9 (b) Posisi Auto pada panel ATS/ AMF..................................... 82
Gambar 6.1 Generator Set WPS20S............................................................. 85
Gambar 6.2 Mesin Diesel............................................................................. 87
Gambar 6.3 Saluran Injeksi Mesin Diesel.................................................... 88
Gambar 6.4 Battery Charger......................................................................... 89
Gambar 6.5 Generator Leroy Somer............................................................ 89
Gambar 6.6 Silincer...................................................................................... 90
Gambar 6.7 Aki 12 V.................................................................................... 91
Gambar 6.8 Panel Genset............................................................................. 91
Gambar 6.9 Emergency Stop Genset............................................................ 92
Gambar 6.10 Komponen dalam panel ATS/ AMF....................................... 93
Gambar 6.11 Automatic Transfer Switch...................................................... 93
Gambar 6.12 Miniature Circuit Breaker...................................................... 94
Gambar 6.13 Transformator Arus................................................................. 94

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Gambar 6.14 Monitor Panel ATS/ AMF....................................................... 95
Gambar 6.15 Panel AMF (a) Tampilan Luar................................................ 95
Gambar 6.15 Panel AMF (b) Tampilan Dalam............................................ 95

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DAFTAR TABEL
Tabel 6.1 Data Spesifikasi Teknik Trafo...................................................... 41

Tabel 6.2 Tahanan Isolasi Trafo Step Up 20 kV........................................... 42

Tabel 6.3 Hasil Pengujian Isolasi Kabel....................................................... 42

Tabel 1.1 Klasifikasi Konduktor................................................................... 34

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