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Three types of ceramic coating applicability in


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Article in Industrial Lubrication and Tribology · April 2005


DOI: 10.1108/00368790510601680

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Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
Three types of ceramic coating applicability in automotive industry for wear resistance purpose
Ramazan Köse Levent Urtekin Ali Ceylan Serdar Salman Fehim Findik
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Ramazan Köse Levent Urtekin Ali Ceylan Serdar Salman Fehim Findik, (2005),"Three types of ceramic coating applicability in
automotive industry for wear resistance purpose", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 57 Iss 4 pp. 140 - 144
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Feature

Three types of ceramic coating applicability


in automotive industry for wear resistance
purpose
Ramazan Köse, Levent Urtekin and Ali Ceylan
Dumlupinar University, Engineering Faculty, Kutahya, Turkey
Serdar Salman
Marmara University, Technical Education Faculty, Goztepe-Istanbul, Turkey, and
Fehim Findik
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Materials Technology Department, Sakarya University, Esentepe-Adapazari, Turkey

Abstract
Purpose – The aim of the research is to investigate the influence of ceramic coating on the wear performance of machine parts.
Design/methodology/approach – Ductile cast iron parts were coated using ceramics. Three ceramics were used for this purpose. These coated parts
were subjected to wear tests under a stable load. A pin-on-disc wear test apparatus was used.
Findings – As a result of this study, the following findings are reported: According to ASTM G 99-90 pin-on-disc experiments, Cr2O3 was found
to be best coating material with low wearing rate. Within row, Al2O3 and ZrO2 can be given. According to the previous work, motor parts for
example piston ring, cylinder liner and engine valve can be coated with ceramic. In this study, it is observed that the figure of merit is
increased in this study. Only wearing data is given in this research. The other results are also supporter of the results taken from the wearing
experiments. As a result, due to the decrease in heat loss and coaling stability of part can provide good results. With these, by coating there is
a decrease in oil reduction.
Research limitations/implications – Coatings were limited with three ceramics, a stable load was used, and coated parts were subjected to wear
test.
Practical implications – For future work, instead of using other coating materials, Cr2O3 is used for the best coating material with low wearing rate.
By this process, working life of the machine parts can be extended and a number of economical advantages may also be obtained.
Originality/value – This paper fulfills identified information needs and offers practical help to the industrial firms working with ceramic coating and
also to the academicians working on wear of materials.

Keywords Ceramics, Coating processes, Wear resistance

Paper type Technical paper

1. Introduction possessions. This approach is a good example of rising


superior materials (Rıckerby and Matthews, 1991; Strafford
Ceramic coating is one of the most significant surface coating et al., 1990).
methods whose significance is rising with current technological Ceramic coatings are mostly used to get better the life limit
growth. The high wear and corrosion resistance, low thermal of the sections exposed to wear. Via utilizing these coatings,
conductivity, electrical insulation and high melting temperature metallic material erosion is abridged without suspending the
of ceramics can be joined with good toughness and plastic operational speed. Extended material life is an essential
formability of metals to obtain outstanding material economic decisive factor for countries, which import wear-
resistant sections, in dwindling their budget for importing
these fractions.
The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at The experimental bonding strength values of ceramic
www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister coatings given by some researchers (Ambroz and Kaspar,
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at 1982; Demirci, 1994; Mattıng and Delventhal, 1966; Vural,
www.emeraldinsight.com/0036-8792.htm 1991) show clear changes. Literature data on the bonding
strength of ceramic coatings demonstrated that the plasma-
sprayed ceramic coatings have a higher bonding strength than
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology flame-sprayed coatings do (Berndt, 1985). The bonding
57/4 (2005) 140– 144
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 0036-8792]
strength values of ceramic coatings are lower than those of
[DOI 10.1108/00368790510601680] metallic coatings.

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Three types of ceramic coating applicability Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
Ramazan Köse et al. Volume 57 · Number 4 · 2005 · 140 –144

A bonding strength value of pure alumina, which was less With ceramic coatings, materials’ properties can be improved.
than the bonding strength value of stabilized alumina These properties are resistance to wear, corrosion, oxidation
(Eıchhorn and Metzler, 1968). The bonding strength of a and low heat conductivity. These properties are coming by
ceramic coating with a bonding coating is higher than that ceramic coating. By using plasma spraying, ceramics, metals,
without a bonding coating. In accordance with many plastics, cermets can be coated on ceramics and metals. At the
researchers, the adhesion strength between the substrate and heat spraying, using by spraying machine, ceramic is heated
the ceramic coating could be improved by a NiAl bonding and sprayed on the substrate via spraying machine (Salman,
coating (Unger, 1987; Gates et al., 1993). 1995).
Within the coating materials zirconia ceramics as wear
resistance material have been extensively considered for 2.1 Plasma-spraying and coating processes
engineering applications in the previous years (Hannink Coating material is getting through plasma gas and sprayed in
et al., 1984; Stachowiak et al., 2000; Sun et al., 1998). the liquid state on substrate material. This technique named
Latest works expose that microstructure and mechanical plasma spraying. In this technique, the coating powder is
properties, such as grain size (He et al., 1996a; Zum Gahr sprayed with a gas medium. This method is schematically
et al., 1993; Wang and Mao, 1995; Yang and Wei, 2000; shown in Figure 2 (Berndt, 1985).
Moulzolf et al., 1999), porosity (He et al., 1997), hardness Before plasma-spraying and coating processes, surface
(Strafford et al., 1990; Zhu et al., 2001), fracture toughness preparation of substrate was done similar to previous work
(Fischer et al., 1989), have strong effect on abrasive/sliding (Salman and Cizmecioğlu, 1998). In plasma-spraying
wear resistance of bulk ceramics and coatings under dry or technique, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen gases are used.
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lubrication circumstances. Among the reduction in the grain Due to the usage of these gases, oxidation problem is moved.
size of ceramics, their mechanical properties would be In the present study, ArþH2 gases are used. The advantage of
improved (Theunissen et al., 1992; He et al., 1996b), this technique is the coating of the powder, which has high
which is helpful in improving the abrasive/sliding wear melting point. Ceramic coating was improved by using
resistance of bulk ceramics and coatings (Strafford et al., plasma-spraying technique. In this study, one type of binding
1990; Rıckerby and Matthews, 1991; Ambroz and Kaspar, was used with three different ceramic coating powders. Ni-Al
1982; He et al., 1996a; Zum Gahr et al., 1993; Wang and bonding powder and Al2O3, Cr2O3 and ZrO2 ceramic
Mao, 1995; Yang and Wei, 2000; Moulzolf et al., 1999; He powders were used.
et al., 1997; Zhu et al., 2001; Stewart et al., 1999; Dogan
et al., 2002; Dogan et al., 2003). 2.2 Ceramic coating procedure
In this study, the machine parts which are used in The technical data of plasma spray used in this study is
automotive industry will be introduced and to increase wear given at Table I. The coating thickness was measured as
resistance, the ceramic coating will be applied to especially 200-300 mm. The wearing experiments were made according
piston ring and cylinder liner made from cast iron (Figure 1). to ASTM G 99-90 in this wearing experiment, pin-on-disc
In this study by plasma-spray technique and the performance apparatus was used for ceramic coating (Strafford et al.,
of these materials were investigated. 1990). The test apparatus used in the wear test is shown in
Figure 3. Circular SiC sandpaper was placed on the disc to
produce a wearing surface. The wear test conditions are
2. Experimental procedure shown in Table II. The volume loss of the ceramic coatings as
a function of testing time was obtained as similar to previous
It is stated that, 13 parts are made from ductile cast iron work (Salman and Cizmecioğlu, 1998).
within 35 automotive parts. This is 37 percent of all the
machine parts. According to their service and care of
machine, the piston ring and cylinder liner are observed to 3. Results and discussion
wear after about 100,000 km (Salman and Cizmecioğlu, The wear test circumstances given in Table II were used to
1998; Salman, 1995). get the test results which are shown in Figures 4-6 for
Cr2O3, Al2O3 and ZrO2 ceramic coatings. It is observed
Figure 1 The piston rings and cylinder line from all the figures (Figures 4-6) that volume loss is
augmented with the rising of wearing time. However, Cr2O3
was found to be the best ceramic coating material with low
wearing rate compared to the other coatings. It is also clear
from these figures that ZrO2 coating supplied the worse
result in the present study. This is consistent with the
previous work (Stachowiak et al., 2000; Sun et al., 1998;
Salman and Cizmecioğlu, 1998; Salman, 1995; Urtekin,
2001).
It is early reported (Salman and Cizmecioğlu, 1998) that
the highest mechanical properties (wear resistance and
bonding strength) were obtained from Cr2O3-SiO2-TiO2
with the NiAl bonding coating. Because, the ceramic coating-
bonding coating interface has minimum mismatch with
respect to ceramic coating-substrate interface due to the NiAl
interlayer bonding coating compensates thermal expansion

141
Three types of ceramic coating applicability Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
Ramazan Köse et al. Volume 57 · Number 4 · 2005 · 140 –144

Figure 2 The Schematic view of the plasma spraying gun (Salman, 1995)
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Table I Plasma spraying parameters differences between the ceramic coating and the substrate
interfaces.
Substrates Ductile iron
The optimum coating parameters were obtained. Quite
Plasma type Ar þ H2 profitable results were obtained using plasma-spraying
Argon flow rate (l/min) 44 techniques, a bonding coating (the optimum coating thickness
Hydrogen flow rate (l/min) 15 is approximately 150 mm) and a ceramic coating (the optimum
Plasma current (A) 500 ceramic coating thickness is approximately 200 mm). The
Arc voltage (V) 60-70 results are also in agreement with the earlier work (Hannink
Plasma gun type Metco 3MB et al., 1984; Salman and Cizmecioğlu, 1998; Salman, 1995;
Nozzle and electrode W cathode; Cu anode Urtekin, 2001).
Nozzle diameter(mm) 8
Injector distance (mm) 100 4. Conclusions
Injector angle (deg) 908
According to ASTM G 99-90 pin-on-disc experiments,
Powder feed rate (g/min) 42
Cr2O3 was found to be the best coating material with low
Powder carrier gas (l/min) 6
wearing rate. Within row, Al2O3 and ZrO2 can be given.

Figure 3 Wear testing apparatus

Table II Wear test conditions


Temperature (8C) 22 22 22 22 22
SiC grid number 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200
Applied weight (kgf) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Applied time (min) 2 4 6 8 10
Disc velocity (rev/min) 125 125 125 125 125
Coated ceramic thickness (mm) 0.2-0.3 0.2-0.3 0.2-0.3 0.2-0.3 0.2-0.3
Coated material diameter (mm) 10 10 10 10 10
Coated material height (mm) 30 30 30 30 30

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Three types of ceramic coating applicability Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
Ramazan Köse et al. Volume 57 · Number 4 · 2005 · 140 –144

Figure 4 Volume loss of plasma sprayed Cr2O3 ceramic coatings as a Dogan, H., Findik, F. and Morgul, O. (2002), “Friction and
function of wear time, (1) without NiAl bonding coating of Cr2O3 wear behaviour of implanted AISI 316L SS and comparison
ceramic; (2) with NiAl bonding coating of Cr2O3 ceramic coatings with a substrate”, Materials and Design, Vol. 23 No. 7,
pp. 605-10.
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