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Simulation of DPCM and ADM Systems

Christopher Mansour Roger Achkar


Department of Computer and Communications Engineering Department of Computer and Communications Engineering
American University of Science and Technology, AUST American University of Science and Technology, AUST
Beirut, Lebanon Beirut, Lebanon
christopher.mansour@hotmail.com rachkar@aust.edu.lb

Gaby Abou Haidar


Department of Computer and Communications Engineering
American University of Science and Technology, AUST
Beirut, Lebanon
gabouhaidar@aust.edu.lb

Abstract— Through years, Digital Communication systems, resulting from PCM, granular noise and slope overload
Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM), Linear Delta Modulation distortion resulting from LDM.
(LDM), Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM), and To observe the previously mentioned problems, and their
Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM), have proven their solution, the digital modulation systems are implemented
unlimited advantages over analog communication systems, in and simulated using Simulink. The relevance of this work
term of error minimization, and distances of transmission
lies in its ability to determine, by simulation, the effect of
enhancement. However two of these systems, the Pulse Coded
Modulation and Linear Delta Modulation, still have some noise on the transmission channel of the data, and prove
weaknesses limiting their advantages; these limitations how two of these systems, the Differential Pulse Coded
negatively affect the communication process causing Modulation and the Adaptive Delta Modulation, work and
quantization error, slope overload distortion and granular eliminate the aforementioned problems.
noise. On the other hand, communication engineers have
developed two additional digital communication systems which II. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
are the Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) and the Differential
Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM) in order to solve the A. Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM)
aforementioned problems. This paper discusses the Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM) is a method used to
implementation and simulation of the aforementioned digital
digitally represent sampled analog signals; in PCM a signal
communication systems using Simulink (The Math Works,
Inc., Natick, MA, USA) showing the effect of different types of
is represented by a sequence of coded pulses. A PCM
noise when applied to the channel, thus, proving the stream is a digital representation of an analog signal where
importance of DPCM and ADM systems in eliminating such the magnitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at
effects and ensuring a successful transfer of data. uniform intervals, with each sample being quantized to the
nearest value within a range of digital steps [3].
Keywords- Adaptive Delta Modulation, Differential Pulse Coded PCM has been used in digital telephone systems and is
Modulation, Pulse Coded Modulation, Linear Delta Modulation. also the standard form for digital audio in computers and
compact disks. However, PCM is not typically used for
I. INTRODUCTION
video in consumer applications such as DVD and DVR
Digital communications is the transfer of data over a because it requires two high bit rate [3].
point-to-point or even point-to-multipoint communication The performance of a PCM system is influenced by two
channel, examples of which are copper wires, optical fibers, major sources of noise, namely the channel noise which is
and wireless communications media. The data is introduced anywhere between the transmitter and the
represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an receiver; and the quantization noise which is introduced in
electrical voltage, radio-waves, or micro waves [1]. the transmitter and is carried all the way to the receiver
While analog communications is the transfer of output. This noise is signal dependent in the sense that it
continuously varying information signal, digital disappears when the message signal is switched off [4].
communications is the transfer of discrete messages. The The basic operations performed by the PCM transmitter
messages are either represented by means of line codes, or are: sampling in which the signal is sampled with a train of
by limited set of continuously varying form using the digital narrow rectangular pulses and changed into a discrete time
modulation methods [2]. signal; quantizing in which the discrete values are
Common techniques exist for the digital modulation approximated and changed into levels and this would be a
process in order to make the process of transmitting data new representation of the signal which is discrete in time
feasible, such as the PCM and the LDM. However, these and amplitude, and, encoding in which the obtained levels
two techniques have problems such as the quantization error are changed to bits. As for the PCM receiver, it consists of
the regenerative repeater for timing, equalization and
decision making. It is a decoder that changes the obtained
bits to levels again, and the reconstruction filter that
reconstructs the original signal.
“Fig. 1” shows the block diagram representation of Pulse
Coded Modulation PCM; as one can observe, the process is
divided into three steps: transmitter, regenerative repeater,
and receiver.
Figure 2. Delta Modulation Encoder (adapted from Simon
Haykin, “Communications Systems”, New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

Two types of distortions limit the performance of the


Delta Modulation as shown in “Fig. 3”. The first is the slope
overload distortion that is caused by the use of a step size
delta which is too small to follow portions of the waveform
that has a steep slope; and the granular noise, which is the
result of a large step size signal parts with small slope [6].

Figure 1. Block Diagram showing the PCM process


(adapted from Simon Haykin, “Communications Systems”,
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).
B. Linear Delta Modulation
Delta Modulation (DM) is an analog-to-digital and
digital-to-analog signal conversion technique used for
transmission of voice information where quality is not the
primary concern. Delta Modulation is a special type of Figure 3. : Illustration of the Distortions facing LDM
analog to digital quantizer, which is applicable to smoothly (adapted from Simon Haykin, “Communications Systems”,
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).
varying analog signals where there is a strong correlation
from one sample to the next. DM is the simplest form of
To achieve a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), Delta
differential pulse coded modulation where the difference
Modulation uses oversampling techniques; that is, the
between successive samples is encoded into n-bits data
analog signal is sampled at a rate several times higher than
stream; in Delta Modulation, the transmitted data is reduced
to a 1-bit data stream [5]. that of the Nyquist rate; this sampling is known as the
Nyquist Criteria in digital signal processing [7].
The main feature of Delta Modulation is that the analog
signal is approximated with series of segments which are III. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
then compared to the original analog wave to determine an
increase or a decrease in relative amplitude; after that, the A. Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM)
decision is made based on the comparison done. The Delta The Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM) is a
Modulation encoder shown in “Fig. 2” is known as a single signal encoder that uses the baseline of Pulse Coded
integrator modulator. The input signal is compared to the Modulation (PCM), discussed previously, but adds some
integrated output pulses, and the delta (difference) signal is functionality based on the prediction of the future values of
applied to the quantizer. The quantizer generates a positive the signal. Instead of taking a difference relative to the
pulse when the difference signal is negative and a negative previous input sample, a difference relative to the output of
pulse when the difference signal is positive. This difference a local model of the decoder process is taken. In this latter
signal moves the integrator step by step closer to the present option, the difference can be quantized, securing a good
value input, tracking the derivative of the input signal [5]. way to incorporate a controlled loss in the encoding. Thus,
the DPCM system reduces the error generated by the
quantization process (known as the “quantization error”) at
the transmitter of the PCM system. The DPCM transmitter
is similar to the PCM transmitter, but it has a prediction
filter for prediction of the future values of the signal;
consequently, eliminating the quantization error [8].
To illustrate the advantages of DPCM over PCM, a using what is known as the “Adaptive Algorithm”. The
typical example is taken into consideration; the same picture principle that underlines all ADM adaptive algorithms is
is coded in two ways. “Fig. 4” and “Fig. 5” are histograms twofold: when to apply a maximum value of delta if
showing the PCM and DPCM sample frequencies successive errors are of the same polarity, and when to
respectively. decrease delta if successive errors are of opposite polarity
[9-10].
The block diagram representation of the Adaptive Delta
Modulation (ADM) shown in “Fig. 6” consists of an input
which is a sampled message signal, a one bit quantizer for
the quantization process, and the adaptive algorithm which
is the key element in the ADM system.

Figure 4. Histogram of PCM samples image (adapted from


Anonymous, “Differential Pulse Coded Modulation”,
http://www.rasip.ferhr/research/compress/algorithms/fund/p
cm/dpcm/index.html

Figure 6. Block Diagram of ADM (adapted from Simon


Haykin, “Communications Systems”, New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

The Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) system is the


system that reduces the granular noise and slope overload
distortion resulting from Linear Delta Modulation; the
reduction is achieved due to the presence of the adaptive
filter or algorithm in the system [11-12].
In the following sections, the systems discussed are
implemented and simulated in Simulink (The Math Works,
Inc., Natick, MA, USA) to test and observe the effect of
noise on the transmission channel and to prove how ADM
Figure 5. Histogram of DPCM samples image (adapted and DPCM reduce these effects.
from Anonymous, “Differential Pulse Coded Modulation”,
http://www.rasip.ferhr/research/compress/algorithms/fund/p
cm/dpcm/index.html IV. SIMULATIONS

A. Simulink Implementation of Pulse Coded Modulation


On the histogram shown in “Fig. 4”, a large number of
samples have a significant frequency and we cannot pick The implementation of Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM)
only a few of them which would be assigned shorter code in Simulink, as shown in “Fig. 7”, requires the following: a
words to achieve compression. sine wave source block that provides the test signal; a
Bessel low pass filter of the 8th order to limit the signal’s
On the histogram shown in “Fig. 5”, all the samples are frequency and prevent aliasing error; a Zero-Order-Hold
between -20 and +20, and were assigned short code, block to allow the sampling process, thus changing the
achieving a solid compression rate. signal from a continuous varying signal to a discrete time
signal; a quantizer for the quantization process which
B. Adaptive Delta Modulation approximates the discrete values to levels; a uniform
Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) is the same as the encoder to encode the obtained levels to a bit data stream;
Linear Delta Modulation (LDM), but the only difference is and, a decoder followed by a reconstruction filter in order to
that the step size delta differs according to the input signal reconstruct the original signal.
blocks: a sine wave source block to provide the test signal; a
Zero-Order-Hold block to act as a sampler for the sampling
process, thus changing the continuous varying signal to a
discrete time signal; a 1-bit quantizer for the quantization
process; a unit delay; and an encoder for the encoding
process. On the receiver side, the receiver consists of a
decoder followed by Butter worth Filter of the 8th order for
the reconstruction of the original signal.

Figure 7. Simulink Implementation of PCM system.

In order to study the effect of noise on the PCM system,


band limited White Gaussian noise was added to the
transmission channel (between the encoder and the
decoder). The results of simulation are as shown in “Fig. 8”.

Figure 9. Simulink Implementation of LDM.

In order to study the effect of noise on the LDM system,


band limited White Gaussian noise was added to the
transmission channel between the encoder and the decoder as
shown in “Fig. 8”; and an Integrate and Dump block
followed by a gain and a low pass filter were added to act as
a matched filter to the rectangular pulse which helps in the
reconstruction process. Results of simulation are as shown in
“Fig. 10”.

Figure 8. Reconstructed vs. original signal of PCM system.

It is clear from these results that the reconstruction of the


signal after the addition of band limited White Gaussian
noise is a hard task within a PCM system, and that the
reconstructed signal is distorted. The obtained signal has a
different frequency and amplitude than the original signal,
and even the shape of the signal is completely different than
that of the original signal.

Figure 10. Addition of noise to LDM.


B. Simulink Implementation of Linear Delta Modulation
The implementation of Linear Delta Modulation (LDM)
in Simulink, as shown in “Fig. 9”, requires the following
Figure 11. Original vs. reconstructed signal of LDM system.
Figure 13. Reconstructed Signal after DPCM system's
simulation.
It is clear from the results shown in “Fig. 11” that the
reconstruction of the signal after the addition of noise to the
It is clear from the previous results that the Differential
transmission channel is a hard task, and that the
Pulse Coded Modulation system succeeded, to a certain
reconstructed signal is unstable and distorted.
extent, in reconstructing of the original signal, even after the
addition of noise to the transmission channel; this is due to
C. Simulink Implementation of Differential Pulse Coded the usage of the prediction filter, which predicts the future
Modulation values of the signal, hence, preventing the quantization
The Simulink implementation of the Differential Pulse error.
Coded Modulation (DPCM), shown in “Fig. 12”, consists of D. Simulink Implementation of Adaptive Delta Modulation
the following blocks: a sine wave source block to provide the
test signal; a quantizer for the quantization process; a The Simulink implementation of Adaptive Delta
differentiator filter that acts as the prediction filter discussed Modulation (ADM), shown in “Fig. 14”, consists of the
previously; a uniform encoder for the encoding process; and, following blocks: a sine wave source to provide the test
at the end, a low pass filter of type Bessel for filtering and signal, a quantizer for the quantization process, and, a LMS
reconstructing the original signal. filter with the LMS algorithm chosen to act as the adaptive
filter with the adaptive algorithm, driving the input signal to
the desired signal. On the receiver side, the same LMS filter
with the same algorithm is used in order to get the
successful reconstruction of the original signal, and to
eliminate the errors resulting from the Linear Delta
Modulation (LDM).

Figure 12. Simulink Implementation of DPCM.

In order to study the effect of noise on the DPCM


system, band limited White Gaussian noise was added to the
transmission channel between the transmitter and the
receiver; the results of the simulation are as shown in “Fig.
13”.
Figure 14. Simulink implementation of ADM.
In order to study the effect of the noise on the between the transmitted data from the transmitter’s side and
transmission channel , band limited White Gaussian noise the received data from the receiver’s side.
was added to the channel between the transmitter and the The obtained results prove the importance of the two
receiver; the results of the simulation are as shown in “Fig. systems, the Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) and the
15”. Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM), in
eliminating the effect of noise on the transmission channel,
and in making the reconstruction of the original signal easier
than when implementing the commonly used modulation
techniques.

VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


As a conclusion, this project proves the importance of
certain modulation techniques such as the Adaptive Delta
Modulation and the Differential Pulse Coded Modulation in
some environments and in solving the errors resulting from
commonly used modulation techniques, the Pulse Coded
Modulation and Linear Delta Modulation, such as granular
noise and slope overload distortion.
In the future, we will try to implement these two systems
the Adaptive Delta Modulation System (ADM) and the
Differential Pulse Coded modulation System (DPCM), in a
real-time application.
Working in real-time is important because the conditions
needed for the experiments are better than just testing them
Figure 15. Original vs. reconstructed signal of ADM using software such as Simulink; working in real-time
system. enhances the engineer’s knowledge and experience,
encouraging him/her to better think. It also helps the
The results shown in “Fig. 15” prove that the engineer to figure out all the problems and try his/her best to
reconstructed signal was approximately the same as that of solve them without relying on software to find the solution.
the original signal, which means that the Adaptive Delta
Modulation system has successfully reconstructed the REFERENCES
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