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Department of Computer and Communications Engineering Department of Computer and Communications Engineering

American University of Science and Technology, AUST American University of Science and Technology, AUST

Beirut, Lebanon Beirut, Lebanon

christopher.mansour@hotmail.com rachkar@aust.edu.lb

Department of Computer and Communications Engineering

American University of Science and Technology, AUST

Beirut, Lebanon

gabouhaidar@aust.edu.lb

Abstract— Through years, Digital Communication systems, resulting from PCM, granular noise and slope overload

Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM), Linear Delta Modulation distortion resulting from LDM.

(LDM), Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM), and To observe the previously mentioned problems, and their

Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM), have proven their solution, the digital modulation systems are implemented

unlimited advantages over analog communication systems, in and simulated using Simulink. The relevance of this work

term of error minimization, and distances of transmission

lies in its ability to determine, by simulation, the effect of

enhancement. However two of these systems, the Pulse Coded

Modulation and Linear Delta Modulation, still have some noise on the transmission channel of the data, and prove

weaknesses limiting their advantages; these limitations how two of these systems, the Differential Pulse Coded

negatively affect the communication process causing Modulation and the Adaptive Delta Modulation, work and

quantization error, slope overload distortion and granular eliminate the aforementioned problems.

noise. On the other hand, communication engineers have

developed two additional digital communication systems which II. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

are the Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) and the Differential

Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM) in order to solve the A. Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM)

aforementioned problems. This paper discusses the Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM) is a method used to

implementation and simulation of the aforementioned digital

digitally represent sampled analog signals; in PCM a signal

communication systems using Simulink (The Math Works,

Inc., Natick, MA, USA) showing the effect of different types of

is represented by a sequence of coded pulses. A PCM

noise when applied to the channel, thus, proving the stream is a digital representation of an analog signal where

importance of DPCM and ADM systems in eliminating such the magnitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at

effects and ensuring a successful transfer of data. uniform intervals, with each sample being quantized to the

nearest value within a range of digital steps [3].

Keywords- Adaptive Delta Modulation, Differential Pulse Coded PCM has been used in digital telephone systems and is

Modulation, Pulse Coded Modulation, Linear Delta Modulation. also the standard form for digital audio in computers and

compact disks. However, PCM is not typically used for

I. INTRODUCTION

video in consumer applications such as DVD and DVR

Digital communications is the transfer of data over a because it requires two high bit rate [3].

point-to-point or even point-to-multipoint communication The performance of a PCM system is influenced by two

channel, examples of which are copper wires, optical fibers, major sources of noise, namely the channel noise which is

and wireless communications media. The data is introduced anywhere between the transmitter and the

represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an receiver; and the quantization noise which is introduced in

electrical voltage, radio-waves, or micro waves [1]. the transmitter and is carried all the way to the receiver

While analog communications is the transfer of output. This noise is signal dependent in the sense that it

continuously varying information signal, digital disappears when the message signal is switched off [4].

communications is the transfer of discrete messages. The The basic operations performed by the PCM transmitter

messages are either represented by means of line codes, or are: sampling in which the signal is sampled with a train of

by limited set of continuously varying form using the digital narrow rectangular pulses and changed into a discrete time

modulation methods [2]. signal; quantizing in which the discrete values are

Common techniques exist for the digital modulation approximated and changed into levels and this would be a

process in order to make the process of transmitting data new representation of the signal which is discrete in time

feasible, such as the PCM and the LDM. However, these and amplitude, and, encoding in which the obtained levels

two techniques have problems such as the quantization error are changed to bits. As for the PCM receiver, it consists of

the regenerative repeater for timing, equalization and

decision making. It is a decoder that changes the obtained

bits to levels again, and the reconstruction filter that

reconstructs the original signal.

“Fig. 1” shows the block diagram representation of Pulse

Coded Modulation PCM; as one can observe, the process is

divided into three steps: transmitter, regenerative repeater,

and receiver.

Figure 2. Delta Modulation Encoder (adapted from Simon

Haykin, “Communications Systems”, New York: John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

Delta Modulation as shown in “Fig. 3”. The first is the slope

overload distortion that is caused by the use of a step size

delta which is too small to follow portions of the waveform

that has a steep slope; and the granular noise, which is the

result of a large step size signal parts with small slope [6].

(adapted from Simon Haykin, “Communications Systems”,

New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

B. Linear Delta Modulation

Delta Modulation (DM) is an analog-to-digital and

digital-to-analog signal conversion technique used for

transmission of voice information where quality is not the

primary concern. Delta Modulation is a special type of Figure 3. : Illustration of the Distortions facing LDM

analog to digital quantizer, which is applicable to smoothly (adapted from Simon Haykin, “Communications Systems”,

New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

varying analog signals where there is a strong correlation

from one sample to the next. DM is the simplest form of

To achieve a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), Delta

differential pulse coded modulation where the difference

Modulation uses oversampling techniques; that is, the

between successive samples is encoded into n-bits data

analog signal is sampled at a rate several times higher than

stream; in Delta Modulation, the transmitted data is reduced

to a 1-bit data stream [5]. that of the Nyquist rate; this sampling is known as the

Nyquist Criteria in digital signal processing [7].

The main feature of Delta Modulation is that the analog

signal is approximated with series of segments which are III. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS

then compared to the original analog wave to determine an

increase or a decrease in relative amplitude; after that, the A. Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM)

decision is made based on the comparison done. The Delta The Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM) is a

Modulation encoder shown in “Fig. 2” is known as a single signal encoder that uses the baseline of Pulse Coded

integrator modulator. The input signal is compared to the Modulation (PCM), discussed previously, but adds some

integrated output pulses, and the delta (difference) signal is functionality based on the prediction of the future values of

applied to the quantizer. The quantizer generates a positive the signal. Instead of taking a difference relative to the

pulse when the difference signal is negative and a negative previous input sample, a difference relative to the output of

pulse when the difference signal is positive. This difference a local model of the decoder process is taken. In this latter

signal moves the integrator step by step closer to the present option, the difference can be quantized, securing a good

value input, tracking the derivative of the input signal [5]. way to incorporate a controlled loss in the encoding. Thus,

the DPCM system reduces the error generated by the

quantization process (known as the “quantization error”) at

the transmitter of the PCM system. The DPCM transmitter

is similar to the PCM transmitter, but it has a prediction

filter for prediction of the future values of the signal;

consequently, eliminating the quantization error [8].

To illustrate the advantages of DPCM over PCM, a using what is known as the “Adaptive Algorithm”. The

typical example is taken into consideration; the same picture principle that underlines all ADM adaptive algorithms is

is coded in two ways. “Fig. 4” and “Fig. 5” are histograms twofold: when to apply a maximum value of delta if

showing the PCM and DPCM sample frequencies successive errors are of the same polarity, and when to

respectively. decrease delta if successive errors are of opposite polarity

[9-10].

The block diagram representation of the Adaptive Delta

Modulation (ADM) shown in “Fig. 6” consists of an input

which is a sampled message signal, a one bit quantizer for

the quantization process, and the adaptive algorithm which

is the key element in the ADM system.

Anonymous, “Differential Pulse Coded Modulation”,

http://www.rasip.ferhr/research/compress/algorithms/fund/p

cm/dpcm/index.html

Haykin, “Communications Systems”, New York: John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000).

system that reduces the granular noise and slope overload

distortion resulting from Linear Delta Modulation; the

reduction is achieved due to the presence of the adaptive

filter or algorithm in the system [11-12].

In the following sections, the systems discussed are

implemented and simulated in Simulink (The Math Works,

Inc., Natick, MA, USA) to test and observe the effect of

noise on the transmission channel and to prove how ADM

Figure 5. Histogram of DPCM samples image (adapted and DPCM reduce these effects.

from Anonymous, “Differential Pulse Coded Modulation”,

http://www.rasip.ferhr/research/compress/algorithms/fund/p

cm/dpcm/index.html IV. SIMULATIONS

On the histogram shown in “Fig. 4”, a large number of

samples have a significant frequency and we cannot pick The implementation of Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM)

only a few of them which would be assigned shorter code in Simulink, as shown in “Fig. 7”, requires the following: a

words to achieve compression. sine wave source block that provides the test signal; a

Bessel low pass filter of the 8th order to limit the signal’s

On the histogram shown in “Fig. 5”, all the samples are frequency and prevent aliasing error; a Zero-Order-Hold

between -20 and +20, and were assigned short code, block to allow the sampling process, thus changing the

achieving a solid compression rate. signal from a continuous varying signal to a discrete time

signal; a quantizer for the quantization process which

B. Adaptive Delta Modulation approximates the discrete values to levels; a uniform

Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) is the same as the encoder to encode the obtained levels to a bit data stream;

Linear Delta Modulation (LDM), but the only difference is and, a decoder followed by a reconstruction filter in order to

that the step size delta differs according to the input signal reconstruct the original signal.

blocks: a sine wave source block to provide the test signal; a

Zero-Order-Hold block to act as a sampler for the sampling

process, thus changing the continuous varying signal to a

discrete time signal; a 1-bit quantizer for the quantization

process; a unit delay; and an encoder for the encoding

process. On the receiver side, the receiver consists of a

decoder followed by Butter worth Filter of the 8th order for

the reconstruction of the original signal.

band limited White Gaussian noise was added to the

transmission channel (between the encoder and the

decoder). The results of simulation are as shown in “Fig. 8”.

band limited White Gaussian noise was added to the

transmission channel between the encoder and the decoder as

shown in “Fig. 8”; and an Integrate and Dump block

followed by a gain and a low pass filter were added to act as

a matched filter to the rectangular pulse which helps in the

reconstruction process. Results of simulation are as shown in

“Fig. 10”.

signal after the addition of band limited White Gaussian

noise is a hard task within a PCM system, and that the

reconstructed signal is distorted. The obtained signal has a

different frequency and amplitude than the original signal,

and even the shape of the signal is completely different than

that of the original signal.

B. Simulink Implementation of Linear Delta Modulation

The implementation of Linear Delta Modulation (LDM)

in Simulink, as shown in “Fig. 9”, requires the following

Figure 11. Original vs. reconstructed signal of LDM system.

Figure 13. Reconstructed Signal after DPCM system's

simulation.

It is clear from the results shown in “Fig. 11” that the

reconstruction of the signal after the addition of noise to the

It is clear from the previous results that the Differential

transmission channel is a hard task, and that the

Pulse Coded Modulation system succeeded, to a certain

reconstructed signal is unstable and distorted.

extent, in reconstructing of the original signal, even after the

addition of noise to the transmission channel; this is due to

C. Simulink Implementation of Differential Pulse Coded the usage of the prediction filter, which predicts the future

Modulation values of the signal, hence, preventing the quantization

The Simulink implementation of the Differential Pulse error.

Coded Modulation (DPCM), shown in “Fig. 12”, consists of D. Simulink Implementation of Adaptive Delta Modulation

the following blocks: a sine wave source block to provide the

test signal; a quantizer for the quantization process; a The Simulink implementation of Adaptive Delta

differentiator filter that acts as the prediction filter discussed Modulation (ADM), shown in “Fig. 14”, consists of the

previously; a uniform encoder for the encoding process; and, following blocks: a sine wave source to provide the test

at the end, a low pass filter of type Bessel for filtering and signal, a quantizer for the quantization process, and, a LMS

reconstructing the original signal. filter with the LMS algorithm chosen to act as the adaptive

filter with the adaptive algorithm, driving the input signal to

the desired signal. On the receiver side, the same LMS filter

with the same algorithm is used in order to get the

successful reconstruction of the original signal, and to

eliminate the errors resulting from the Linear Delta

Modulation (LDM).

system, band limited White Gaussian noise was added to the

transmission channel between the transmitter and the

receiver; the results of the simulation are as shown in “Fig.

13”.

Figure 14. Simulink implementation of ADM.

In order to study the effect of the noise on the between the transmitted data from the transmitter’s side and

transmission channel , band limited White Gaussian noise the received data from the receiver’s side.

was added to the channel between the transmitter and the The obtained results prove the importance of the two

receiver; the results of the simulation are as shown in “Fig. systems, the Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) and the

15”. Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM), in

eliminating the effect of noise on the transmission channel,

and in making the reconstruction of the original signal easier

than when implementing the commonly used modulation

techniques.

As a conclusion, this project proves the importance of

certain modulation techniques such as the Adaptive Delta

Modulation and the Differential Pulse Coded Modulation in

some environments and in solving the errors resulting from

commonly used modulation techniques, the Pulse Coded

Modulation and Linear Delta Modulation, such as granular

noise and slope overload distortion.

In the future, we will try to implement these two systems

the Adaptive Delta Modulation System (ADM) and the

Differential Pulse Coded modulation System (DPCM), in a

real-time application.

Working in real-time is important because the conditions

needed for the experiments are better than just testing them

Figure 15. Original vs. reconstructed signal of ADM using software such as Simulink; working in real-time

system. enhances the engineer’s knowledge and experience,

encouraging him/her to better think. It also helps the

The results shown in “Fig. 15” prove that the engineer to figure out all the problems and try his/her best to

reconstructed signal was approximately the same as that of solve them without relying on software to find the solution.

the original signal, which means that the Adaptive Delta

Modulation system has successfully reconstructed the REFERENCES

original signal without being affected by the noise that was

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Therefore, the Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) [2] Kundu, Sudak shina (2010), “Analog and Digital Communication”,

system has eliminated the granular noise and slope overload Pearson Education India.

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[4] B.M Oliver, J.R Pirece, and C.E Shannon. “ The Philosophy of

PCM”. Proceeding of the IRE 36.

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[5] Ray Hawk, What Is Delta Modulation, June,15,2011. Unpublished.

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[6] N.SJayant and A.E Rosenberg. “The Preference of Slope Overload

the best: the Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM) Distortion to Granularity in the Delta Modulation of Speech”. The

and the Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM). These two Bell System Technical Journal, volume 50,no.10 December 1971.

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hr/research/compress/algorithms/fund/pcm/dpcm/index.html

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS [9] Steel, R. , “Delta Modulation Systems”, London: Pentch Press. 1975

[10] Anonymous, “Delta Modulation (DM)”, [online document], [Feb

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