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CHAPTER 4

VALUES, ATTITUDE, AND, JOB SATISFACTION

 Job satisfaction is an important concern for both employer and employee because of the
benefits it brings to both.
 Values generally influence attitudes and behavior.
 Attitudes form the basis for determining how satisfied people are with their jobs

VALUES
 They refer to the importance a person attaches to things or ideas that serves as guide to
action.

 They are judgmental element of what is right, good, or desirable.

 They generally influence attitude and behavior.

HOW PEOPLE LEARN VALUES


Values are not inborn, they are learned. As they grow, people learn values through any or
all of the following:

1. Modeling – Every people oftentimes become models to persons who would later exhibit
good behavior in the workplace.

2. Communication of Attitudes – Attitude can affect communication in both positive and


negative ways. Pleasant, respectful, upbeat attitudes improve upward and downward
communication. Poor communication behavior on the other hand, must be dealt with
before it impacts the culture or company.

3. Unstated but Implied Attitudes – Values may be also affected by attitudes that are not
stated but are implied by way of action.

4. Religion
- Values are also learned through religion
TYPES OF VALUES
1. Achievement – this is a value that pertains to getting things done and working hard to
accomplish goals

2. Helping and Concern for Others – this value refers to the person’s concern with other
people and providing assistance to those who need help.

3. Honesty – this is a value that indicates the person’s concern for telling the truth and doing
what he thinks is right.

4. Fairness – this is a value that indicates the person’s concern for impartiality and fairness
for all concerned.

INDIVIDUAL VERSUS ORGANIZATIOAL VALUES


There is a value incongruence if the individual’s value is not in agreement with the
organization’s value that conflicts may arise.

ESPOUSED VERSUS ENACTED VALUES


What the company promotes as its own values may be different from what is practiced by
the organization.

INSTRUMENTAL AND TERMINAL VALUES


Terminal Values – represent the goals that a person would like to achieve in his/her
lifetime.
Ex: happiness, love, pleasure, self-respect, freedom

Instrumental Values – refer to preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the


terminal values.
Ex: ambition, honesty, self-sufficiency, courageousness
ATTITUDES
 These are linked with perception, learning, emotions, and motivation.

 They form the basis for job satisfaction in the workplace.

 These reflect how one feels about something.

THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES


1. Cognitive – It refers to the opinion or belief segment of an attitude.

2. Affective – It refers to the emotional or feeling segment.

3. Behavioral – It refers to the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or


something.

DIFFERENCE IN PERSONAL DISPOSITION


People differ in their personal disposition which some have either positively or negatively
affective attitudes.

Positive Affectivity – It refers to personal characteristic of employees that inclines them to


be predisposed to be satisfied at work.

Negative Affectivity – is a personal characteristic of employees that inclines them to be


predisposed to be dissatisfied at work.

HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED


 Attitudes are formed through learning which influences as direct and indirect experience.

 Those that were gathered through direct experience are the most accessible.

 Attitudes that are formed in an indirect way are the result of social interactions with the
family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture.
MOST IMPORTANT ATTITUDE IN THE WORKPLACE
o Job Satisfaction
o Job Involvement
o Organizational Commitment

EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES


Attitudes provides clues to the behavioral intentions or inclinations of an employee. The
manner in which a person will act can be gleaned from his attitudes.

Positive Job Attitudes – it indicates job satisfaction and are useful in predicting
constructive behaviors.
Ex: performing excellently in all job aspects, serving costumers beyond working hours

Negative Job Attitudes – it indicates job dissatisfaction and are useful in predicting
undesirable behaviors.
Ex: lack of job involvement, low commitment to the organization.

ENGAGEMENT IN JOB DISSATISFACTION


1. Psychological Withdrawal (e.g. daydreaming)
2. Physical Withdrawal (e.g. unauthorized absences, work slowdown)
3. Aggression (e.g. verbal abuse, dangerous actions against employees)

MAKING POSITIVE ATTITUDES WORK FOR THE ORGANIZATION


 Recruitment officers must require positive work attitudes before employment officers are
made.

 Those employed who has a negative attitude must be involved in a beneficiary program
that would help to be changed into positive attitude.

 Those who have positive attitude should be hired if other job requirements are met.

 Make the reward system tied to individual or team performance.


JOB SATISFACTION
It refers to the positive feeling about job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.

BENEFITS OF JOB SATISFACTION


1. higher productivity
2. a stronger tendency to achieve customer loyalty
3. loyalty to the company
4. low absenteeism and turnover
5. less job stress and burnout
6. better safety performance
7. better life satisfaction

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH JOB SATISFACTION


1. Salary
2. Work itself
3. Promotion Opportunity
4. Quality of Supervision
5. Relationship with co-workers
6. Working conditions
7. Job security

WAYS OF MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION


Single Global Rating Method – it refers to that approach where individuals are asked to a
single question.

Summation Score Method – it an approach where individuals indicate their feelings


regarding each key factors of their job.

JOB INVOLVEMENT
It refers to the degree to which a person identifies the job, actively participates to it, and
considers performance important to self-worth.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
It refers to the degree which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its
goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.

Affective Commitment – it refers to the employee’s emotional attachment to the


organization and belief in its value.

Continuance Commitment – it refers to the employee’s tendency to remain in an


organization because he cannot afford to leave.

Normative Commitment – it refers to an obligation to remain with the company for moral
or ethical reason.