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As long as you are alive, your body will constantly metabolize organic molecules and produce waste

products. If you are unable to get rid of metabolic waste products, they will accumulate to toxic levels
and poison your body. The urinary system is very important because it performs the essential
function of getting rid of these metabolic wastes.

Main Structures of the Urinary System


The main structures that make up the urinary system are two kidneys (contains nephrons), two
ureters, one bladder, one urethra, arteries and veins.

The ureter connects the kidney to the bladder. The bladder is storage for urine. Urine is excreted to
the outside of the body through the urethra.

The Main Structures of the Urinary System | Source

Kidney
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located outside the peritoneum at the posterior of the
upper abdomen. The kidneys are located one on each side of the vertebral column and are
protected by the ribs and a layer of fat. The renal artery, renal vein and ureter connect to the kidney
at the indented media border called the hilus.

Besides Urine Formation, the kidney has the following functions:

 Plays a major role in regulating blood volume because it controls the amount of water to be
excreted and the amount of water to be reabsorbed.
 Regulates electrolytes in the blood by controlling the secretion and reabsorption of sodium
and potassium ions.
 Regulates the pH of the blood by controlling the secretion and reabsorption of hydrogen
ions. When more hydrogen ions are excreted from the blood, it renders the blood less acidic
(more alkaline). But if more hydrogen ions are retained in the blood, this renders the blood
more acidic (less alkaline).
 Regulates blood pressure by regulating to amount of water excreted and the amount of
water reabsorbed back into the blood. When the kidneys excrete less water and reabsorb more
water, the blood volume will increase. An increase blood volume will lead to an increase blood
pressure. On the other hand if the kidneys excrete more water and reabsorb less water, the
blood volume will reduce. This will lead to reduced blood pressure.
 Plays a role in the regulation of red blood cell production. When the number of red blood
cells decreases, the level of oxygen in the blood will also decrease. This causes the kidney to
secrete a substance called erythropoietin. Erythropoietin travels to the bone marrow and
causes it to produce more red blood cells. When enough red blood cells have been produced,
this process is shut down via a negative feedback mechanism.

The Urinary System | Diagram of the kidney | Source

The Nephron
Structure of the Nephron

There are more than a million nephrons packed in the renal cortex of the kidney. The nephron is
made up of the glomerulus and a system of tubes.

The glomerulus is a network of intertwined capillaries mass. It is enclosed in a cup-shaped structure


called the bowman’s capsule. The space between the bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus is
called the bowman’s space. Fluid is filtered from the capillaries and the filtrate is collected into the
bowman’s space through the glomerular filtration membrane.

The fluid that is filtered is known as filtrate. The glomerular filtration membrane allows only elements
that are small enough to pass through. The filtrate then moves through the system of tubes where
elements are added (secretion from the blood) or removed (reabsorption back into the blood).

From the glomerulus, the filtrate passes through 4 segments of the nephron:

 Proximal convoluted tubule: reabsorption of nutrients and substances that the body needs
 Loop of henle: thin-lobed structure that controls the concentration of the urine
 Distal convoluted tubule: regulates sodium, potassium and pH
 Collecting duct: regulates water and sodium reabsorption.
The Urinary System | Diagram of the nephron | Source

How the Nephron Works in Urine Formation


The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. It does the job of the urinary system. The primary
function of the nephron is to remove waste products from the body before they build up to toxic
levels.

The nephron does its job of getting rid of metabolic wastes through filtration and secretion. Useful
substances are reabsorbed back into the blood.

Filtration

Blood enters the glomerulus via the afferent arteriole (branches from the renal artery), and leaves via
the efferent arteriole. The efferent arteriole is narrower than the afferent arteriole which helps in
building up a hydrostatic pressure. The flow of blood in the glomerulus creates hydrostatic pressure
in the glomerulus which forces molecules through the glomerular filtration membrane. This process
is called filtration.

Secretion and Reabsorption

Capillary beds surround the loop of henle, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. As the filtrate
flows through the nephron, elements of the blood get added to or removed from the nephron.
Generally, more elements get added into the nephron to be excreted then they get out of the
nephron.

The movement of elements from the nephron back into the blood is known as reabsorption while the
movement of elements from the blood into the nephron is known as secretion.

1. Proximal 3. Distal
2. Loop of 4. Collecting
convoluted convoluted
Henle duct
tubule tubule
Reabsorption Glucose, Water, Water, Sodium Water,
Amino acids, Sodium chloride, Sodium
Sodium chloride, Calcium ion, chloride,
Chloride, Calcium ion Bicarbonate Calcium
1. Proximal 3. Distal
2. Loop of 4. Collecting
convoluted convoluted
Henle duct
tubule tubule
Calcium ion,
Potassium ion, ion, Hydrogen
Bicarbonate ion
ion, water
Uric acid,
Potassium ion,
Secretion Hydrogen ion,
Hydrogen ion
Drugs
Table showing components secreted and reabsorbed during urine formation

Normal filtrate contains of water, glucose, amino acids, urea, creatinine, and solutes such as sodium
chloride, calcium, potassium and bicarbonate ions. Toxins and drugs may also be present.

Proteins or red blood cells are not present in the filtrate because they are too large to pass through
the glomerular filtration membrane. If these large molecules are present in the filtrate, it is an
indication of a problem in the filtration process.
The Urinary System | Physiology of the nephron | Source

1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule


Tubular Reabsorption

Potassium ion, sodium chloride, calcium ion, amino acids, glucose, bicarbonate ion and water are
reabsorbed back into the blood stream. Any filtered amino acids and glucose are also reabsorbed
back into the blood stream.

Tubular Secretion

Hydrogen ions, uric acid and drugs are secreted from the blood into the proximal convoluted tubule.
Uric acid and drugs are not filtered. They are excreted by secretion into the system of tubes at the
proximal convoluted tubule.
2. Loop of Henle
Reabsorption

The descending limb of the loop of henle is highly permeable to water. Water is reabsorbed here by
osmosis. The ascending limb is not water permeable but reabsorbs sodium chloride and calcium ion.

Filtrate at the loop of henle has a high concentration of metabolic waste products such as urea, uric
acid and creatinine. By the time the filtrate reaches the loop of henle, all the nutrients and
substances that the body needs would have already been reabsorbed.

3. Distal Convoluted Tubule


Reabsorption

Sodium chloride, calcium, bicarbonate ions, hydrogen ions and water are reabsorbed from the distal
convoluted tubule into the blood stream.

Secretion

Hydrogen and potassium ions are secreted from the blood into the distal convoluted tubule.

The nephron controls water by movement of sodium chloride in and out of the filtrate and the water
will follow sodium depending on the osmotic gradient. Water will move from where there is a lesser
concentration of sodium chloride to where there is a higher concentration of sodium chloride.

4. Collecting Duct
Reabsorption

Sodium chloride, calcium and water are reabsorbed from the collecting duct back into the blood
stream.

Excretion

Components of urine are water, sodium chloride, calcium, potassium, bicarbonate, creatinine and
urea.

Creatinine is neither reabsorbed from nor secreted into nephron after filtration.

For this reason, creatinine is used as a marker for glomerular filtration.

A high blood creatinine level will indicate a problem in glomerular filtration in the nephron.

Main components of the


Main components in urine
glomerular filtrate
Water, Glucose*, Amino acids*,
Water, Sodium chloride, Potassium,
Sodium chloride, Calcium,
Bicarbonate, Creatinine**, Urea,
Potassium, Bicarbonate, Creatinine,
Calcium#
urea
* Reabsorbed 100% back into the blood stream. ** Creatinine is neither reabsorbed nor secreted after filtration.
# The majority (99%) of filtered calcium is reabsorbed. But when in excess, more calcium will be excreted in
urine.
Regulation of Water Reabsorption
There are two main hormones that regulate the rate of excretion of water.

The first hormone is aldosterone which acts on the collecting duct and causes the body to retain
more water. Blood pressure increases when the body retains more water. This system is triggered
when there is low blood pressure or low sodium ion concentration in the blood. Aldosterone is part of
the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS).

The second hormone is antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which causes increase water reabsorption at the
collecting duct by increasing the water permeability of the collecting ducts. Water then moves back
into the blood by osmosis. More ADH is secreted when the body needs to retain more water and this
will lead to a concentrated urine.