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Evolution and Character of Urban Open Spaces and Green Networks Seminar Report Submitted to Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur By Sweta B (Roll No. 17AR60R46) DEPT. OF ARCHITECTURE & REGIONAL PLANNING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR September - 2017 Seminar Report 1 Background 1.1 Relevance of the Study 1.2 Aim 1.3 Objectives 1.4 Scope of work 2 Urban Open Spaces 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Evolution of Urban Open Spaces 2.3 Typology and Character of Urban Open Spaces 2.4 Characteristics of Urban Open Spaces 3 Urban Green Networks 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Components of Green Networks 3.3 Role of Green Networks 3.4 Classification of Landscapes based on Structural Characteristics Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 2 Seminar Report 3.5 Assessment and Planning of Green Networks 3.6 Case Study of Melbourne City, Victoria 3.7 Case Study of Black Creek Ravine, York University Campus, Toronto 4 Conclusion 5 Bibliography Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 3 Seminar Report List of Tables Table 1 Development of Open Areas through History .............................................................. 7 Table 2 Typology of Urban Open Spaces ................................................................................ 11 Table 3 Benefits of Green Networks ....................................................................................... 16 Table 4 Assessment Criteria .................................................................................................... 19 Table 5 Point Distribution of Assessment Criteria .................................................................. 20 List of Figures Figure 1 Classification of Open Spaces in Urban Areas ...................................................... 7 Figure 2 Open Space as Transport Facility .............................................................................. 12 Figure 3 Open Space as Plaza .................................................................................................. 12 Figure 4 Food Producing Open Space ..................................................................................... 13 Figure 5 Garden as Open Space ............................................................................................... 13 Figure 6 Incidental Open Space ............................................................................................... 13 Figure 7 Activity and Usage .................................................................................................... 14 Figure 8 Sociabilty ................................................................................................................... 14 Figure 9 Image and Comfort .................................................................................................... 14 Figure 10 Access and Relation ................................................................................................ 14 Figure 11 Dimensions of Urban Open Spaces ......................................................................... 15 Figure 12 Network at Neighbourhood Level ........................................................................... 18 Figure 13 Green Network Connectivity................................................................................... 21 Figure 14 Black Creek Ravine Open Space Network .............................................................. 22 Figure 16 Public Square as Activity Node ............................................................................... 23 Figure 15 View of the Public Parkland .................................................................................... 23 Figure 17 Greenway through the Ravine ................................................................................. 23 Figure 18 A Private Courtyard Space ...................................................................................... 23 Figure 19 Melbourne City Open Spaces and Gap Analysis .................................................... 23 Figure 20 Proposed Additional Major Open Spaces................................................................ 23 Figure 21 Proposed Additional Minor Open Spaces ............................................................... 23 Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 4 Seminar Report 1. BACKGROUND 1.1 RELEVANCE OF STUDY The Open Spaces in a landscape environment form an integral part of the urban scenario along with the more popular entities of residences, shops, factories, hospitals, theatres and roads. They impart a good significance and are a crucial aspect in the form of both functional and aesthetic purposes. In a normal everyday scene, more emphasis is being put into developing and improvising upon the design of the solid entities that occupy space whereas when it comes to the open spaces in this very context, not much attention is being paid to realize the sense of completion that it lends. At this break neck pace of urbanization, these open space entities have been neglected for long and from this arises a need to study its processes and functioning. The plausible role of the open spaces in establishing a much needed ecological link between the different habitat systems and acting as a substitute is the main focus behind this study. 1.2 AIM To clearly delineate upon the different facets of the open spaces in the context of urban spaces and elucidate the various social, ecological, economic, aesthetic and urban functions that these open and public spaces have, that make it a favourable component in design and planning. 1.3 OBJECTIVES To study the .configuration and functional aspects of open spaces and remark upon the relative overemphasis put upon structural entities such as buildings. To study the different inherent characteristics of open spaces marked by their evolution pattern and to study their contemporary effects. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 5 Seminar Report To study the aspect of greenway planning while remarking upon the procedural aspects involved in its selection. 1.4 SCOPE OF WORK The study is limited to socio ecological aspects with regard to the present and future concerns The applicability and implementation of strategies with regard to individualistic concerns and economic viability is beyond the scope of this study. 2. URBAN OPEN SPACES 2.1 INTRODUCTION Urban open spaces, for an extended period of time have carried a huge relevance and importance in the form of acting as crucial points that signify cultural, social and economic life and its evolution. An open urban space can be defined as any urban ground area that has no roofing and is irrespective of its accessibility to the public. These open spaces are all around us in the form of recreational parks, playgrounds, stadiums, walkways, coastal areas, gardens and cemeteries. An insight into the older times would lead us to believe that these open spaces were the central from of origination for all its allied entities and it represented the origination or evolution of the different structural and social roles that all the surrounding elements played. Its role has gathered greater significance now due to the artificial factors that have been serving to put the entire string that holds the ecology together, in jeopardy. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 6 Seminar Report Figure 1 Classification of Open Spaces in Urban Areas 2.2 EVOLUTION An elaboration of the comparative table depicting the urban history will prove that the open spaces have always assumed a crucial role in the greater scheme of things regarding the urban landscape layout. Table 1 Development of Open Areas through History PERIOD MAIN FUNCTIONS OF OPEN STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP OPEN PUBLIC AREAS OF OPEN BETWEEN BETWEEN THE PUBLIC PUBLIC OPEN AND CITY AND ITS AREAS AREAS CONSTRUCTED SURROUNDINGS URBAN AREAS GREEK Agora ( • Social • Amorphic • No determined • Close main city • Legal structure • Related ( on a square) • Administrative • Agora ( core ) is daily basis) • Trade the only • Religious determinant of • Cultural the urban fabric in which the city opens up Streets • Passage Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 7 Seminar Report PERIOD MAIN FUNCTIONS OF STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP OPEN OPEN PUBLIC OF OPEN BETWEEN OPEN BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AREAS PUBLIC AND CITY AND ITS AREAS AREAS CONSTRUCTED SURROUNDINGS URBAN AREAS ROMAN Forum • Social • Regular • Structurally • Close ( main • Legal quadrant determined • Related ( on a city • Administrative forms • Open areas daily basis) square) • Trade • In the ( forum and • Religious middle of streets) • Cultural the determine the settlement urban fabric at the intersection of the main streets Streets • Passage • Regular • Trading MIDDLE AGES Square • Social • Organic • Open surfaces • Close ( early and • Legal • Regular depending on • Related ( on a late • Administrative (planned) dominant daily basis) middle • Religious structure ages ) • Cultural • Together with dominant Markets • Trade structure (late • Social determining the middle • Legal urban fabric ages ) • Administrative • Cultural • Performances RENAISSANCE Square • Trade • Regular • Structurally • Less close • Social (planned) determined • Legal • Open areas • Administrative ( square and • Cultural streets ) • Performances terminate the • Military urban fabric Street • Passage Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 8 Seminar Report PERIOD MAIN OPEN FUNCTIONS OF STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP PUBLIC OPEN PUBLIC OF OPEN BETWEEN OPEN BETWEEN THE AREAS AREAS PUBLIC AREAS AND CITY AND ITS CONSTRUCTED SURROUNDINGS URBAN AREAS BAROQUE Avenue , • Trade • Regular • Structurally • Distant Boulevard , • Social (planned) determined Street • Open areas ( avenues, Square • Transport boulevards, route node streets, smaller • Presentation squares and • Performances parks ) • Military role determine the • Less important urban fabric social role Park • Social • Recreation • Spending time in greenery NINETEENT Boulevards • Trade • Planned • Together • Distant H CENTURY • Social ( regular of defining urban organic form) fabric Square • Social Park • Social • Recreation • Spending time in greenery TWENTIETH Park • Social • Planned • Together • Distant CENTURY • Recreational ( regular of defining urban • Residing in organic form) fabric greenery • Children’s game Square • Social • Trade • Performances (less often) • Cultural (less often ) Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 9 Seminar Report PERIOD MAIN OPEN FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP PUBLIC OF OPEN OF OPEN BETWEEN BETWEEN THE CITY AREAS PUBLIC PUBLIC OPEN AND AND ITS AREAS AREAS CONSTRUCTE SURROUNDINGS D URBAN AREAS TWENTIETH Children’s • Children’s • Planned • Together • Distant CENTURY playground game ( regular of defining urban organic fabric Sporting and • Sport form) recreational • Recreation areas Walkway • Social • Planned • Together • Distant • Recreation ( regular of defining urban al organic fabric • Walks form) Foreshore • Social zone • Recreation al • Children’s game Protective • Protection greenery Cemetery • Burial spaces 2.3 TYPOLOGY AND CHARACTER OF URBAN OPEN SPACES The typology chart categorized in the areas of form, scale and function depicts the interplay of these different categories and the product of variations among them. The comparison of the different elements and their variations with different elements can be made here. The different forms of open spaces that are depicted here are those of – Transport facilities, Streets, Plazas, Recreational Space, Incidental Space, Parks and gardens and Food Production sites. These different categories are compared in the scale factors of City, Intermediate and Residence. City scale refers to open spaces that are symbolic of institutions that have urban appeal and depictive of urban city life. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 10 Seminar Report The Intermediate scale refersto spaces that are a constricted area which commonly represents districts and neighborhood. The Residence scale refers to the smallest localized areas such as individual houses. Table 2 Typology of Urban Open Spaces SCALE City Intermediate Residence Harbors, Airport Transit Stations, Drvieways, Parking Transport Facilities and Train Station City Gate Areas Areas Parking Pedestrian Alleys, Streets Central Boulevards Street Space Paths Smaller Large Formal Plazas Neighbourhood Interior Courtyards Plazas Plazas Stadiums, Green Sports Facilities, Houseyard Recreational Space Belts, Beaches Playgrounds Playspace Natural Features Empty lots and Marginalized Space Incidental Space and Semi-Wild Transit Borders between Buildings Areas Institutional Major Formal Parks Parks and Gardens Gardens, Small Household Gardens and Garden Spaces Parks, Cemeteries Orchards, Grazing Commons, Kitchen gardens, Food Production Agricultural fields Community gardens Small Horticulture The topology categorization also utilizes the terms such as Grey Space and Green Space to provide a clearer picture. The Green Space are areas of vegetation and greenery while the grey spaces are more of urban buildings such as market place and transit spaces. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 11 Seminar Report GENERAL OBSERVATIONS: Transport Facilities: A major field that sees a large scale utilization of the open spaces is the transportation facilities sector in which goods and material are transferred from one place to another via different modes of transport through these open spaces. Streets : City level-These streets are constructed to rightly mirror the feel of the city life with apt representations of various political Figure 2 Open Space as and historical entities. A good deal of planning and design goes Transport Facility into these streets. Intermediate level- This is seen more as a grey space that holds equal representations of both the city level roads and the normal residential constructions. Residence level- These are categorized into two major divisions off Alley ways and pedestrian pathways wherein the former acts a means of transition from the local residence area to the major streets while the latter is seen as a functional requirement for daily commute and carries a more social appeal Plazas: Plazas can be defined as well developed open spaces by the municipal authorities to serves as a grounds for congregations and also venues for any marketing activities and fairs of all kinds. They Figure 3 Open Space as Plaza generally host a diverse series of activities and find significance as an urban market space. Recreational Space: Usage of open spaces as grounds for recreational activities is a more common practice which was widely practiced as it provided the much required respite from the quotidian concerns and also functioned as a gathering space. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 12 Seminar Report Incidental Space: Incidental space is seen as more of a unused open space that finds no immediate use and has no planned activities prescribed. This space is also called as marginalized space or amenity space as it is found on the margins. Parks and Gardens: The construction of parks was intended to bring about an aesthetic appeal to the Figure 4 Food Producing Open Space surrounding landscapes that were populated by buildings and structures, This development of gardens is also seen as a matter of opulence wherein the elitists took it up seriously to bring about an appealing nature to their residences. Food Production: A major utilization of the open spaced lands came in the form of food production areas. The Figure 5 Garden as Open Space urban times have seen both small scale and large scale food production in well maintained spaces that eventually proved to be financially viable sources.Even the earlier times witnessed a similar practice but on a much larger scale and diverse crop utilization. Figure 6 Incidental Open Space 2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN OPEN SPACES The urban open spaces are of grave importance for creating an interactive atmosphere among people from different spheres of life. They generally are in the presence of various activities and spirits of people. The characteristics may differ based on the socio-economic factors that are being followed in the period of their time. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 13 Seminar Report Dimensions of Public Open Spaces: Sociability – In an any community it is important that there is some interaction among people, the urban open spaces creates a window or a chance for the people of the society to interact and meet. Activity and Usage – The urban open spaces have the ability to attract groups of different people and various individuals through different hours and seasons which is one the most crucial factors in public space dynamics. For this dimension, the assessment is the level Figure 7 Activity and Usage and the amount of people who even refer to these places and people taking part in the activities in urban open spaces. Figure 8 Sociabilty Access and relation- Relations are most Figure 10 Access and Relation generally relevant to social connections, circulation quality and having access to the spaces and places which Tibbald refers to as visual and physical access which in turn affects the security and performance of the space. Figure 9 Image and Comfort Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 14 Seminar Report Figure 11 Dimensions of Urban Open Spaces Image and Comfort- Image depends on the quality of physical space in an organization and the mental comfort level of any space. Sustainability, being disparate and visual pleasure of the space is operational in making people attract to a particular place and their individual mental comfort. This feature letspeople select it for stopping, walking and living clustered life. 3. URBAN GREEN NETWORKS 3.1INTRODUCTION In a broader perspective , green networks are those spaces vividly relating to the connectivity of open spaces. These network systems involve the linking together of natural, semi natural and man-made open spaces to create a linkage system that could provide for functions and opportunities of physical exercise, improved accessibility within and through the system while serving the countryside with enriched biodiversity and improved quality of surrounding environment. They assist in the improvement of opportunities for public recreation , Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 15 Seminar Report provision of alternate movement patterns through the surrounding radius and also enrich the human experience through these spaces besides preserving natural ecological systems and their functional values. Appropriate design and planning of green network systems help create attractive scenes, landmark opportunities for places thereby improving the perceived value of the areas and providing a directed way through for future growth and development. Green network systems play a crucial role in urban ecology by means of provision for alternative approaches to address the ecological problems in urban areas. These spaces should integrate multi functional activities especially in high dense settlements to maximize the purpose of thee space. On the other hand , biodiversity becomes an indicator of environmental quality. Linking of these functional aspects with the ecological structure at the regional level enables economic growth development, protection of biodiversity thereby accommodating present and future needs of open spaces. For example a wildlife corridor system that could protect regional diversity should be of primary importance in the planning process as it serves as the skeletal framework of a regional greenway system. Such systems could further provide recreational opportunities, help mitigate community development patterns, protect regional character, and thereby health, safety, and welfare of the regional society. Thus this example signifies the importance of such systems or mundane approach towards open space planning that is done on a residual basis of undevelopable pockets. Some of the potentially wide-reaching benefits derived from green networks are shown in the table below Table 3 Benefits of Green Networks BENEFITS OF A GREEN DELIVERY OF BENIFITS NETWORK Improving the perceived Improving physical connections between places quality, identity and Reinforcing landscape character and strengthening local connectivity of places identity Influencing how settlements should grow in the future Stimulating the economy Providing attractive settings for business and residents Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 16 Seminar Report Increasing perceived property values and employment opportunities Adapting places to better Managing surface water to prevent flooding withstand the physical Providing shelter and protection from extreme weather effects of climate change Countering the ‘Heat Island’ effect of urban areas Mitigating environmental Reducing CO2 emissions through non-vehicular travel routes impact through encouraging Supplying locally sourced timber, biomass or other bio-fuels to sustainable lifestyles in replace fossil fuels terms of resource Providing carbon storage and sequestration in vegetation consumption and travel Reducing ‘food miles’ by providing local food growing facilities Providing recreational Reducing health problems through improved opportunities for opportunities and promoting physical activity healthier lifestyles Improving mental well-being by providing access to natural and attractive green spaces Providing opportunities for growing food and healthy eating Maintaining and enhancing Linking existing habitats or natural features bio-diversity Providing habitats and wildlife corridors for species movement Improving the wider Shelter planting for buildings and open spaces from the wind environmental performance Improving air quality through filtration of pollutants by trees of places in terms of micro- and other vegetation climate, recycling and reducing air and noise Providing for green waste recycling through composting pollution Providing green structures such as living walls, mass planting or mounding to attenuate noise Providing educational Providing engagement with nature to promote horticultural opportunities skills Creating opportunities for community participation/ volunteering Improving community Providing improved connections between places cohesion Creating space for interaction and social events Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 17 Seminar Report Managing surface water run- Providing above ground and inter-connected routes for water off Creating areas for flood attenuation or water storage Slowing water flow and improving bio-diversity value of water bodies 3.2 COMPONENTS OF GREEN NETWORKS The Green Networks are characterized by a set of components as discussed below: Patches - These are irregular land areas that have no form and include areas like natural woodlands, grasslands and wetlands. In the more urbanized scene, these patches can be found in the form of parks, cemeteries and gardens. Nodes and Links - These are the entities that serve as a means of connection between these scattered areas. Matrices – Matrices are an array of landscape elements that make up an ecology network and are more prominent in urban landscapes in the form of road networks with trees. Corridors - Corridors are linear spaces that serve to link the scattered patches and can be categorized into riparian corridors, linear parks, tree lines and parkways. 3.3 ROLE OF GREEN NETWORKS To elaborate upon the role played by the green networks, the following points can be made: • Serves as a connection between fragmented ecological bodies and helps develop and maintain ecological balance. • Serves as a means of transit network and even supports the existing pathway networks by functioning as areas where walkways can be constructed. • Serves as a convenient link between recreational spaces in urban landscapes and thus provides a low cost and low impact solution that has good viability. Figure 12 Network at Neighbourhood Level Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 18 Seminar Report 3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF LANDSCAPES BASED ON STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS: Scattered Patch Landscapes :Scattered patch landscapes are the ones that show a discontinuous nature of appearance over an extended area and are a representation of the variables that determine how the local ecology is sustained. The examples include the scattered oases in deserts, fields with scattered shrubbery and scattered school yards. Network landscapes: These landscapes are mainly identified by their characteristic of having a linkage structure wherein the variables such as their width, mesh size and node size determine its nature. Interdigitatedlandscapes:An interlock as like the fingers of both the hands is what defines a interdigitated structure and is characteristic of having a common boundary about the culmination part. Check board landscapes: Check board landscapes derive their name from the check board used to play chess as it has a similar resemblance in the sense that there are alternate blocks of two or more landscape elements with a fairly regular alternating crop fields. To summarize, the categorization of the landscapes based on their structural characteristics delineates upon the differences in spatial configuration of the above mentioned entities and explain the regulatory role played by these ecosystems on sustainable development of environment. 3.5 ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING OF GREEN NETWORKS Assessment of the open spaces involves the action of clearly studying the characteristics and making a list of the present status conditions. Table 4 Assessment Criteria Classification Assessment Size and shape Optimum size and configuration of existing or recreated patches and corridors for an urban environment. Connections to species- Completely isolated from species-rich areas. rich areas Limited connectivity to species-rich areas. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 19 Seminar Report High connectivity for species movement. Degree of edge Vegetation dominated with edge species. Some evidence of interior species. Optimal ratio of interior spaces to edge. Habitat Structure No evidence of a unified arrangement of habitat areas with non- existing buffer. Some assemblance of habitat areas with limited buffer. Optimal arrangement of remnant habitat patches and corridors with sufficient buffer. The existing open areas and the continuity of the designated area are legibly mapped and the open land is then assessed based on the impact that the built area in the land might have.Along with the built area, the landscape elements that make up the space are identified and the categorization is done. The final outcome is then utilized to arrange the spaces on a rank basis and also to provide a linkage while categorizing them as groups. Table 5 Point Distribution of Assessment Criteria Open space Connectivity criteria character 1 2 3 4 Total Hydrological - systems Planned green - spaces Transportation - corridors Geological - formations Urban forest lands - Agricultural fields - Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 20 Seminar Report Figure 13 Green Network Connectivity Based on this analysis the further development planning is done as per the priority outcomes. However this approach is not always practically viable. 3.66 CASE STUDY OF BLACK CREEK RAVINE, YORK UNIVERSITY, TORONTO PROJECT BRIEF: The Black Creek Ravine is one of the fundamental and character defining element of the York University Campus and is aligned on the western edge. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 21 Seminar Report Figure 14 Black Creek Ravine Open Space Network Objective: To enhance existing open spaces, create new ones as per usage requirement and connect all existing open space elements to arrive at a sustainable open space network , providing a diversity of spaces for recreation, relaxation and natural functions. Approach: To add to a vibrant character , a study was conducted on the qualities of the campus precincts so as to extend it into the site and thereby create a sense of place in terms of open spaces. The proposal talks about planning potential future multi use trail connections and paths through the site so as to minimize impact on the natural elements and resources. DETAILS: The proposed features include: A new trail connection to bridge over the Black Creek to provide pedestrian and bicycle access to the Black Creek Trail positioned on the west side of the Creek. Giving away with any further proposals of developing buildings, roads or infrastructural in the vicinity or within the Black Creek with concerns to protect its heritage character. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 22 Seminar Report An added layer of protection to this is given by the proposal and redevelopment of a public parkland that could act as a buffer to development. The Proposed Elements Include: Public Parkland : A public park was proposed at the western edge of the ravine to integrate with the existing network of open spaces that extend towards the north and south of the precinct area with connections to other amenities and recreational features. Concerns of providing amenities without disturbing existing natural features are addressed by a variety of means such as use of naturalized landscapes, low impact lighting, permeable paving etc. Paths and trails from here could lead to the surrounding development, and proposed multi use trail connection that further links to the Black Creek trail. All the hard landscape infrastructure is directed towards the eastern portion of the park . Squares : These are proposed considering their Figure 16 View of the Public Parkland importance as focal points and as centres of activity with in the site. They are focused on serving the local residents and university community. The proposed first significant square adjoining the Pond road is a focal point as it integrates the campus with the surrounding city. The second one on the southern part of Passy Crescent, services locally for the surrounding residential units. Streets Paths and Greenways : These elements act as connections between the larger open spaces with pedestrian focused infrastructure. The three major greenways include the Pond Road, Sentinel Road and Assiniboine Figure 15 Public Square as Activity Node Road as observed in Figure 15. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 23 Seminar Report Pond Road Greenway: Being one of the major entrance to the campus it serves the connectivity across the north end . Sentinel Road: This serves as the connecting corridor between the residential community on the south with the campus on the north and hence proposal for bicycle connectivity has Figure 17 Greenway through the Ravine been considered. Assiniboine Road: This was identified as a greenway for east west access, with more intimate experience in comparison to the others Private Courtyards and Greens : These are the smallest scale of open spaces in the network as they provide for the amenities of the local residents and also contributing to the sense of openness within the precinct. They provide opportunities for both soft and hard landscaped areas. Figure 18 A Private Courtyard Space Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 24 Seminar Report 3.7 CASE STUDY OF MELBOURNE CITY, VICTORIA The city of Melbourne, located in the traditional Kulin Nation ,in the state of Victoria is well known for its culture of conducting events and activities of social and cultural significance sign in the public spaces. Around 1842, the major natural open spaces were set aside with a vision of having a green belt of parks around the city. So, eventually these natural reserves became synonymous with the character of the city. Today Melbourne is regarded as one of the world's most livable cities. The city also has waterbodies flowing through such as the rivers of Yarra, Maribyrnong, Moone Ponds Creek. However with growth in settlement, modifications in the shape and alignment of natural reserves reserves have occured due to landuse changes, industrialization and needs of the population, resulting in degradation of natural reserves and resources. Recognizing this situation the government of Melbourne has decided on developing a strategy for the revival and and development of the open space network of the city. PROJECT BRIEF: Developed By:Thompson Thompson Berrill Landscape Design Pty Ltd, Environment & Land Management Pty Ltd Sites Identified: 153 Total Area: 555 hectares, ie 15% of municipality area Objective: To identify , locate and address the maintenance of hierarchy of open spaces and their even distribution so that they are at walkable distances (ie; 500m Figure 19 Melbourne City Open Spaces and Gap Analysis for municipality andd neighbourhood level open spaces and 300m for small and local open spaces) and easily accessible by the people. To solve barrier issues caused by major roads and railways that hinder the walkable wal character of these spaces Approach: Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 25 Seminar Report • Identification and mapping of the role and character of each open space based on its size and location. • Understanding of the role of existing open spaces, their deficiencies and considerations of future change through the 'Gap Analysis Diagram'. The Gap Analysis Diagram includes locations where significant population growth is expected and where there is lack of walkable access for the residents and workers ; aiming at addressing current and future gaps. • Proposing revival strategies for existing open spaces , connecting networks and new open spaces considering future needs. DETAILS: Open space per resident: 2012 (55.4m2) ; 2026 (33.7m2) Open space per head of population (resident + worker): 2012 (10.5m2) ; 2026 (7.2m2) • The proposal talks about development and addition of a diversity of open spaces catering to multiple uses. Figure 20 Proposed Additional Major Open Spaces • Majority of the open spaces are located in the north and south east of the city and the growth in population is predicted to be in the west and south with some growth in the northern part of the city, thus creating a need for more open spaces in the west and south. This situation also demands improvement in quantity, quality, diversity and natural essence of open spaces. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 26 Seminar Report Figure 21 Proposed Additional Minor Open Spaces • The strategy also considers climate change resulting in extreme weather conditions. In relevance to open spaces it directs to storms and rainfall that could result in floods and drought. Also the role of open spaces in mitigating existing urban heat island effect was recognised. • The strategy includes improvement in the design and function of existing open spaces based on priority with concerns of including natural features, character and biodiversity. • It also has proposals of setting aside land parcels based on assumed future requirements as part of future planning, ie negotiations with the Victorian government during the early planning stages for urban renewal areas. Thus the strategy for Open Space Network in the city were spread over a 15 year time frame, with detailed analysis and proposals precinct wise for which the city would work in partnership with the Victorian Government and the development industry Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 27 Seminar Report 4. CONCLUSION The concerns of protecting and enhancing natural resources and systems while linking the urban area for recreational use through planning are studied. Also the efforts or possible approaches to be made for the integration of urban areas into structural network as legally recognized instruments of planning and enhancing the urban quality of life is of primary focus. Sweta | 17AR60R46 | 28 Seminar Report 6 Bibliography Benjamin W. Stanley, B. L. (n.d.). Urban Open Spaces in Historical Perspective: A Transdisciplinary Typology and Analysis. Urban Geography. Carys Swanwick, N. D. (2003). Nature, Role and Value of Green Space in Towns and Cities: An Overview. Built Environment, 29(2), 94-106. Farzad Soltanian, A. M. (2015). Study of characteristics of urban public open spaces based on social interaction. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 4(3), 553- 564. Francis, M. (n.d.). Urban Open Spaces. In G. T. Ervin H. Zube, Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design. NewYork and London: Plenum Press. Garner, J. F. (1981). Planning for Systems of Open Space. The Town Planning Review, 253-256. Haifeng Li, W. C. (2015). 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