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Analysis of a High Power Factor Single Phase Boost

Rectifier

Muhamad Iskandar Bin Ismail


Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
e-mail: isron_87@yahoo.com
Abstract— This paper such as rectifiers, distort the capacitor as shown in Figure provides a simpler control
presents a single phase current drawn from the 1.It is most popular topology scheme, which requires only
boost rectifier with high system. In such cases, active by previous researcher [3-7]. one control loop to modulate
power factor and lower or passive power factor the on-time[4]. Furthermore,
total harmonic distortion. correction may be used to operating a boost converter
The purpose of this paper counteract the distortion and in discontinuous mode
is to operate the rectifier raise power factor. Usually, avoids the output diode
close to unity power factor the devices for correction of reverse recovery problem
and with low total power factor are at a central and alleviates the high
harmonic distortion by substation, spread out over a switching loss in continuous
using active power factor distribution system, or built mode operation [4].
correction. Type of active into power-consuming
power factor correction equipment. The purpose of this paper
used is boost converter Figure 1: Standard boost PFC is to propose a lower
technique. The converter An active power factor converter. harmonic reduction and the
and its mode of operation correction (active PFC) is a correction of power factor.
The circuit proposed is
are analyzed and discussed power electronic system that In the proposed method,
using Power MOSFET as
in this paper. The method controls the amount of only one active switch has
the main switch. A Power
of control is explained. The power drawn by a load in been used in order to
MOSFET is a specific type
feasibility of the converter order to obtain a power perform active current wave-
of metal oxide
is shown with simulation factor as close as possible to shaping by injected the error
semiconductor field-effect
from MATLAB unity. In most applications, from supply current to shape
transistor (MOSFET) which
SIMULINK and the active PFC controls the the pulsating supply current
designed to handle large
experimental results input current of the load so to a sinusoidal form and in-
amounts of power compared
obtained from a prototype that the current waveform is time phase with supply
to the other power
that been made. sinusoidal with the input voltage The proposed
semiconductor devices such
voltage. The purpose of concept has been simulated
as IGBT, and thyristor. Its
Keywords- Boost making the power factor as on MATLAB/SIMULINK
main advantages are high
rectifier; power-factor close to unity as possible is software. The simulation is
commutation speed and
correction; active power to make sure that the power presented.
good efficiency at low
factor; switch-mode factor corrected appear
voltages [3].The main reason II. METHODOLOGY
rectifiers; discontinuous purely resistive which mean
to used Power MOSFET in
conduction mode. that apparent power are A. Proposed circuit.
the circuit is because it can
equal to the real power. In
I. INTRODUCTION switch at very high speed. Fig.2 shows a circuit
this case, the voltage and
configuration of an AC to
In an electric power current are in phase and the
Single-phase diode bridge DC converter, where the
system, a load with low reactive power consumption
rectifiers now are designed proposed technique is
power factor draws more is zero. This enables the
with boost rectifier applied. The main circuit
current than a load with a most efficient delivery of
technique. This technique consists of a single
high power factor for the electrical power from the
has used a Pulse Width semiconductor power switch
same amount of useful power company to the
Modulation (PWM) method. which is MOSFET, a boost
power transferred. The consumer.
By using PWM method, it inductor, a single-phase
higher currents increase the will make the rectifier to rectifier, a diode, a filter
energy lost in the The type of active PFC
maintain a sinusoidal input capacitor and resistance. The
distribution system and it approach in this paper is
current at near unity power control circuit consists of
requires larger wires and Boost converter. For reasons
factor and to satisfy the two sensors which is voltage
other equipment. The cost of of simplicity and its
necessary harmonic sensor and current sensor, a
this problem will make the popularity, the boost
standards. There is two type comparator, a peripheral
electrical utilities charge a converter is used to improve
of operation for rectifier interface controller (PI) and
higher cost to industrial or the power factor. In boost
system. It is continuous drive circuit of the
commercial customers when circuit, the switching device
conduction mode (CCM) MOSFET. This controller
there is a low power factor. handles only a portion of the
and discontinuous was used for control and
output power and this
conduction mode(DCM).The synthesizes the injected
Linear loads with low property can be used to
circuit proposed are using current.
power factor such as increase the efficiency of the
DCM operation.DCM is
induction motors can be converter. Therefore, it
choose compared to CCM
corrected with a passive became a trend to implement
because of compared with
network of capacitors or an ac-dc converter by boost
the CCM approach, a
inductors. Non-linear loads, converter between a diode
converter operating in DCM
rectifier bridge and a dc-bus
inductor current will sum of the error (difference
diverts through the between the output and
C. Mode of controller
diode and reverse desired set-point) and the
operation
voltage of output integral of that value. There
voltage and input There is three part is three different component
voltage is impressed of system used for the implemented in the PI
across the inductor controller of proposed controller system in
causing a linear fall in circuit. It is current proposed circuit. It is PI,
an inductor current. sensor, PI controller comparator and carrier
and switching mode. signal. This is represented in
Energy stored in the
the block diagram as shown
inductor is used for
1) Current Sensor in Figure 5.
charging the output
capacitor and hence System
transfer the energy. This system consists
Because of this of four different
Figure 2: The proposed circuit process, output components that
voltage, Vo is higher includes current Figure 5: Block diagram of PI
than the input voltage, sensor, absolute value Controller
B. Mode of operation block, and reference
Vin. Fig 3(b) shows the
The mains AC input voltage and subtract. 3) Switching mode
equivalent circuit
voltage is filter by Figure 4 show the
when switched OFF.
inductor and rectified component of current There is a single switch
by Diode Bridge. After sensor system. operate in the proposed
During switched ON, circuit. Type of switch used
that, the rectified
the inductor current is is MOSFET. The PWM
voltage will go to the
linearly rise from Imin to technique is used to drive the
Boost converter, which
Imax. During switched switch or ON-OFF
mainly consists of an
OFF energy from operation. By PWM
inductor, a power
inductor and from technique, it will provide
MOSFET, a power Figure 4: Block diagram of
supply will transfer to Current Sensor system. gating signal to the
diode and a bulk
the load. Because of MOSFET and provide the
capacitor. When switch
that, the inductor The supply current, switching functions to
is turned “ON”, the compensate the distorted
current will linearly fall Is measured and sense
rectified AC Voltage supply current into a
from Imax to Imin. This by sensor and will fed
will through an sinusoidal form.
falling current is to absolute value
inductor and causing a
known as injection block. The absolute
linear rise in current.
current. value block is used to D. Analysis and design
During this period, the
current rise linearly produce only positive
from a minimum level waveform side since These sections explain
(Imin) to a maximum the proposed circuit is analysis of the output
level (Imax).At the designed used voltage between input
same time, a power unipolar switching. The voltage and the parameter
diode is reversed positive side waveform used for the technique. The
biased by the output will compare with calculation for determined
voltage and the load reference voltage by power factor has been
(a) using a subtractor. The shown.
current is supplied
entirely by the error produced from
the subtraction will fed 1) Relationship between
capacitor. Fig 3(a)
to PI controller. output voltage and input
shows the equivalent
voltage of the converter.
circuit when switched
ON. 2) PI controller
The relationship has been
In control engineering, a derived based on ON-OFF
During Turned “OFF” operation of the circuit.
PI Controller (proportional-
operation, the current (b) During Turn ON operation
integral controller) is a
in inductor cannot Figure 3: Equivalent circuit feedback controller which as shown in Figure 3(a), the
change of the system when
drives the plant to be voltage across the
instantaneously. The (a)Switching is “ON”
(b)Switching is “OFF” controlled with a weighted inductor VL becomes:
VdδTL =(Vo-Vd)(T-ton)L conclude that the amplitude Table 4: The effect of Kp and Ki for
output voltage and total harmonic
VL=LdiLdt=Vd of switching frequency does distortion
(1) (9) not affect the output voltage
but effect the harmonic Ki=1.2Kp Vo(V) THD (
Where Vd is the rectified Vo-VdTT-ton ,ton=δT, distortion. 180 63 9.87
input voltage, hence integral where δ is duty ratio 360 63 5.67
600 63 3.36
both side will becomes: (10) Table 2: The effect of amplitude of
switching frequency for 840 63 2.47
output voltage and 1080 63 2.14
ILminILmaxdiL=VdL0tondt Hence, harmonic distortion 1200 63 2.03

Vo=Vd(11-δ) Amplitude of Output Voltage,


switching frequency Vo(V) 3) Power factor
(2) 20 63
(11) 30 63 p.f.=1(1+THD2)
ILmax-ILmin=VdtonL 40 63 (13)
50 63
2) Analysis between 60 63
(3) output voltage and the 70 63 Where;
∆Il=VdδTL control parameter. p.f. = power factor
Gain is used to reduce the THD = total harmonic
(4) The relationship of the value of supply voltage in distortion
When Power MOSFET is output voltage has been order to do a subtraction
switched off for a time toff as E. Experimwental testing
figure out by increasing the process. The value of supply
shown in figure 3(b), the value of each parameter in will multiply with the gain
inductor current diverts controller system. The effect before going to the A laboratory prototype
through the diode and a has been study using subtractor. Table 3 show the was built simply to verify
effect the output voltage the operation of the
Switching Output Total Harmonic when change the value of proposed technique and to
frequency(KHz) voltage(Vo) Distortion, THD (%) gain. prove the concepts discussed
in this paper. The converter
Table 3: The effect of gain for was implemented with Li =
20 65 3.37 output voltage and total 1mH, Lb=2.77mH and Co =
30 63 3.48 harmonic distortion 1000μF.IRF1830G
50 63 3.10
100 63 3.10 Gain Vo(V)
300 63 2.2
500 63 1.82 1/20 63
1000 63 1.71 1/30 55
1/40 50
reverse voltage (Vo – Vd) is Simulation 1/50 45
impressed across the MATLAB/SIMULINK. 1/100 40
inductor causing a linear fall
in current IL. The inductor Table 1 show the effect of MOSFET were used as
voltage VL becomes: output voltage and total From table 3, it shows that switch and 1N4001 diodes
harmonic distortion when output voltage is reducing were used as the diodes. The
VL=Vd-Vout=LdiLdt varies the value of switching when the value of gain is operational amplifier (op
frequency. reduced. It obviously can say amp) UA741 is used for
(5) that output voltage is subtractor, PI controller and
Table 1: The effect of switching depending on the value of comparator circuit. Figure 5
frequency for output voltage and
input voltage. show the diagram of
ILmaxILmindiL=Vd- harmonic distortion
connection for doing the
VoLtonTdt
From table 1, it shows that Table 4 show the effect of experiment.
(6)
when value of switching the internal parameter of PI
ILmin-ILmax=(Vd-Vo)(T- frequency is increased, there controller (Kp and Ki) to the
ton)L is no change in output output voltage and total
(7) voltage. However, there is harmonic distortion (THD).
reduce in Total harmonic It can conclude that PI
ILmax-ILmin=(Vo-Vd)(T- Distortion (THD).While,
controller does not affect the
ton)L Table 2 show the effect of
(8) output voltage and total output voltage. It just affects
harmonic distortion when the THD.
Equation (4) = (8) thus varies the amplitude of
switching frequency. It can
of 0.605.Using the proposed
technique, the waveform is
now continuous. The THD
level reduces to 3.37% with
almost unity power factor
achieved.

Figure 5: Experiment set-up

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


In order to verify the Figure 10: MATLAB/SIMULINK
operational principles and Figure 8: MATLAB/SIMULINK
Result for Harmonic spectrum after
Result for Harmonic Spectrum
test the performance of the before
Implementation.THD=3.37%
proposed AC/DC converter, Figure 6: MATLAB/SIMULINK Implementation.THD=131.45%
the computer simulation is Result for Supply Current
and Voltage Waveform before
done by using MATLAB Implementation.
SIMULINK and tested
experimentally .The result
has been build based on
before the implementation
and after the implementation
of power factor correction.
The entire elements used in
simulation are listed in Table
5.

Table 5: List and the value of


parameters used in simulation Figure 9: MATLAB/SIMULINK
Result for Supply Current and
Parameter Value Voltage Waveform after
Supply voltage 40V(p-p) Implementation.
Output Voltage(Vo) 63V (a)
Input Inductor(Li) 1mH
Boost Inductor(Lb) 2.77mH
Output Capacitor 1000uF
Switching Frequency 20KHz

Figure 6 and 9 shows the


supply current before and
after implementation of the
proposed circuit. It show that
power factor correction
occur after implemented the
proposed technique. Figure
11 show the experimental
waveform for supply voltage
and supply current. While,
Figure 8 and 10 shows the
FFT analysis that show total
harmonic distortion for input Figure 9: MATLAB/SIMULINK (b)
current. Before the Figure 7: MATLAB/SIMULINK Result for Supply Current (I
Result for Supply Current (I supply*10) and Voltage Waveform
implementation, the total after Implementation
Figure 11: Experiment result
supply*10) and Voltage Waveform for supply voltage and
harmonic distortion (THD) before Implementation. supply current for (a) before
was found approximately at
131.45% with a power factor
implementation (b) after I. FUTURE WORK [10]H. A. C. Braga and D. technique,” IEEE Trans. Power
implementation AND Dambois, “A 3-kW unity- Electron., vol.14, pp. 209-217,
RECOMMENDATION power-factor rectifier based on Jan.1999.
Table 6: Table of input current a two-cell boost converter using
Harmonic for IEE STD 519 and For the future a new parallel connection
proposed circuit improvement of power
factor correction, EMI filter
Harmonic Harmonic Current isforrecommended.
IEEE This filter
Spectrum STD 519(%) reduces the harmonic
1 4
3 4 current, which means that
5 4 the non-linear device will
7 4 looks like a linear load and
9 4 will become high power
11 2 factor.
13 2
15 2
17 1.5
19 1.5 II. REFERENCE

[1] Electromagnetic Compability


Figure 12 shows the (EMC)-Part 3: Limits-Section
input current harmonic for Harmonic Current
Emissions (Equipment Input
spectrum with respect Current <= 16 per Phase),
to the IEEE STD 519-1992 IEC/EN 61000-3-2, 1995.
harmonic limits. It [2] IEEE Std 519-1992, “IEEE
Recommended Practices and
proves that the Requirements for Harmonic
proposed circuit Control in Electric Power
follows the IEEE STD Systems,” © Institute of
Electrical and Electronics
519-1992 limits. Engineers, Inc. 1993.
[3] Mark Edmunds, “Hard
switching vs. soft switching: A
Case Study,” Xantrex
Technology Inc.
Figure 12: Input current Harmonic
[4] Hussain S. Athab and P. K.
spectrum. Shadhu Khan, “A Cost
Table 7: Result for THD and power Effective Method of Reducing
factor before implementation and Total Harmonic Distortion
after implementation. (THD) in Single-Phase Boost
Rectifier,” PEDS 2007, pp.669-
Parameter Before Implementation
675, 2007.
Total Harmonic 131.45 [5] Rajesh Ghosh and G.Narayanan,
Distortion(THD) “A Single-phase Boost Rectifier
Power Factor(p.f) 0.605 System for Wide Range of
Load Variations,” IEEE Trans.
Power Electronic, vol.22, no.2,
pp.470-479, MARCH 2007.
IV. CONCLUSION [6] R.K.Tripathi,S. P. Das,and G.K.
Dubey, “Mixed-mode operation
A Single-phase AC-DC of boost switch-mode rectifier
Boost rectifier has been for wide range of load
presented in this paper. It variations,” IEEE Trans. Power
Electronic, vol. 17,no.6,pp.999-
features include near-unity 1009,NOVEMBER 2002.
power-factor operation and [7] Ching-Tsai Pan and Tsung-
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this paper, the modes of design of an AC to DC
Converter,” IEEE Trans. Power
operation of the converter Electronic, vol. 8,pp.501-
has been explained and 508,OCTOBER 1993.
analyzed, and the results of [8] Brigitte Hauke, “Basic
the analysis have been used Calculation of a Boost
Converter’s Power
to derive a design procedure. Stage,”SLVA372,
The rectifier work with near NOVEMBER 2009.
unity power factor and less [9] M.Saradar zadeh and
Harmonics distortion. The S.farhangi, “Dynamics and
THD Improvement in AC
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