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Rectifier

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia

40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

e-mail: isron_87@yahoo.com

Abstract— This paper such as rectifiers, distort the capacitor as shown in Figure provides a simpler control

presents a single phase current drawn from the 1.It is most popular topology scheme, which requires only

boost rectifier with high system. In such cases, active by previous researcher [3-7]. one control loop to modulate

power factor and lower or passive power factor the on-time[4]. Furthermore,

total harmonic distortion. correction may be used to operating a boost converter

The purpose of this paper counteract the distortion and in discontinuous mode

is to operate the rectifier raise power factor. Usually, avoids the output diode

close to unity power factor the devices for correction of reverse recovery problem

and with low total power factor are at a central and alleviates the high

harmonic distortion by substation, spread out over a switching loss in continuous

using active power factor distribution system, or built mode operation [4].

correction. Type of active into power-consuming

power factor correction equipment. The purpose of this paper

used is boost converter Figure 1: Standard boost PFC is to propose a lower

technique. The converter An active power factor converter. harmonic reduction and the

and its mode of operation correction (active PFC) is a correction of power factor.

The circuit proposed is

are analyzed and discussed power electronic system that In the proposed method,

using Power MOSFET as

in this paper. The method controls the amount of only one active switch has

the main switch. A Power

of control is explained. The power drawn by a load in been used in order to

MOSFET is a specific type

feasibility of the converter order to obtain a power perform active current wave-

of metal oxide

is shown with simulation factor as close as possible to shaping by injected the error

semiconductor field-effect

from MATLAB unity. In most applications, from supply current to shape

transistor (MOSFET) which

SIMULINK and the active PFC controls the the pulsating supply current

designed to handle large

experimental results input current of the load so to a sinusoidal form and in-

amounts of power compared

obtained from a prototype that the current waveform is time phase with supply

to the other power

that been made. sinusoidal with the input voltage The proposed

semiconductor devices such

voltage. The purpose of concept has been simulated

as IGBT, and thyristor. Its

Keywords- Boost making the power factor as on MATLAB/SIMULINK

main advantages are high

rectifier; power-factor close to unity as possible is software. The simulation is

commutation speed and

correction; active power to make sure that the power presented.

good efficiency at low

factor; switch-mode factor corrected appear

voltages [3].The main reason II. METHODOLOGY

rectifiers; discontinuous purely resistive which mean

to used Power MOSFET in

conduction mode. that apparent power are A. Proposed circuit.

the circuit is because it can

equal to the real power. In

I. INTRODUCTION switch at very high speed. Fig.2 shows a circuit

this case, the voltage and

configuration of an AC to

In an electric power current are in phase and the

Single-phase diode bridge DC converter, where the

system, a load with low reactive power consumption

rectifiers now are designed proposed technique is

power factor draws more is zero. This enables the

with boost rectifier applied. The main circuit

current than a load with a most efficient delivery of

technique. This technique consists of a single

high power factor for the electrical power from the

has used a Pulse Width semiconductor power switch

same amount of useful power company to the

Modulation (PWM) method. which is MOSFET, a boost

power transferred. The consumer.

By using PWM method, it inductor, a single-phase

higher currents increase the will make the rectifier to rectifier, a diode, a filter

energy lost in the The type of active PFC

maintain a sinusoidal input capacitor and resistance. The

distribution system and it approach in this paper is

current at near unity power control circuit consists of

requires larger wires and Boost converter. For reasons

factor and to satisfy the two sensors which is voltage

other equipment. The cost of of simplicity and its

necessary harmonic sensor and current sensor, a

this problem will make the popularity, the boost

standards. There is two type comparator, a peripheral

electrical utilities charge a converter is used to improve

of operation for rectifier interface controller (PI) and

higher cost to industrial or the power factor. In boost

system. It is continuous drive circuit of the

commercial customers when circuit, the switching device

conduction mode (CCM) MOSFET. This controller

there is a low power factor. handles only a portion of the

and discontinuous was used for control and

output power and this

conduction mode(DCM).The synthesizes the injected

Linear loads with low property can be used to

circuit proposed are using current.

power factor such as increase the efficiency of the

DCM operation.DCM is

induction motors can be converter. Therefore, it

choose compared to CCM

corrected with a passive became a trend to implement

because of compared with

network of capacitors or an ac-dc converter by boost

the CCM approach, a

inductors. Non-linear loads, converter between a diode

converter operating in DCM

rectifier bridge and a dc-bus

inductor current will sum of the error (difference

diverts through the between the output and

C. Mode of controller

diode and reverse desired set-point) and the

operation

voltage of output integral of that value. There

voltage and input There is three part is three different component

voltage is impressed of system used for the implemented in the PI

across the inductor controller of proposed controller system in

causing a linear fall in circuit. It is current proposed circuit. It is PI,

an inductor current. sensor, PI controller comparator and carrier

and switching mode. signal. This is represented in

Energy stored in the

the block diagram as shown

inductor is used for

1) Current Sensor in Figure 5.

charging the output

capacitor and hence System

transfer the energy. This system consists

Because of this of four different

Figure 2: The proposed circuit process, output components that

voltage, Vo is higher includes current Figure 5: Block diagram of PI

than the input voltage, sensor, absolute value Controller

B. Mode of operation block, and reference

Vin. Fig 3(b) shows the

The mains AC input voltage and subtract. 3) Switching mode

equivalent circuit

voltage is filter by Figure 4 show the

when switched OFF.

inductor and rectified component of current There is a single switch

by Diode Bridge. After sensor system. operate in the proposed

During switched ON, circuit. Type of switch used

that, the rectified

the inductor current is is MOSFET. The PWM

voltage will go to the

linearly rise from Imin to technique is used to drive the

Boost converter, which

Imax. During switched switch or ON-OFF

mainly consists of an

OFF energy from operation. By PWM

inductor, a power

inductor and from technique, it will provide

MOSFET, a power Figure 4: Block diagram of

supply will transfer to Current Sensor system. gating signal to the

diode and a bulk

the load. Because of MOSFET and provide the

capacitor. When switch

that, the inductor The supply current, switching functions to

is turned “ON”, the compensate the distorted

current will linearly fall Is measured and sense

rectified AC Voltage supply current into a

from Imax to Imin. This by sensor and will fed

will through an sinusoidal form.

falling current is to absolute value

inductor and causing a

known as injection block. The absolute

linear rise in current.

current. value block is used to D. Analysis and design

During this period, the

current rise linearly produce only positive

from a minimum level waveform side since These sections explain

(Imin) to a maximum the proposed circuit is analysis of the output

level (Imax).At the designed used voltage between input

same time, a power unipolar switching. The voltage and the parameter

diode is reversed positive side waveform used for the technique. The

biased by the output will compare with calculation for determined

voltage and the load reference voltage by power factor has been

(a) using a subtractor. The shown.

current is supplied

entirely by the error produced from

the subtraction will fed 1) Relationship between

capacitor. Fig 3(a)

to PI controller. output voltage and input

shows the equivalent

voltage of the converter.

circuit when switched

ON. 2) PI controller

The relationship has been

In control engineering, a derived based on ON-OFF

During Turned “OFF” operation of the circuit.

PI Controller (proportional-

operation, the current (b) During Turn ON operation

integral controller) is a

in inductor cannot Figure 3: Equivalent circuit feedback controller which as shown in Figure 3(a), the

change of the system when

drives the plant to be voltage across the

instantaneously. The (a)Switching is “ON”

(b)Switching is “OFF” controlled with a weighted inductor VL becomes:

VdδTL =(Vo-Vd)(T-ton)L conclude that the amplitude Table 4: The effect of Kp and Ki for

output voltage and total harmonic

VL=LdiLdt=Vd of switching frequency does distortion

(1) (9) not affect the output voltage

but effect the harmonic Ki=1.2Kp Vo(V) THD (

Where Vd is the rectified Vo-VdTT-ton ,ton=δT, distortion. 180 63 9.87

input voltage, hence integral where δ is duty ratio 360 63 5.67

600 63 3.36

both side will becomes: (10) Table 2: The effect of amplitude of

switching frequency for 840 63 2.47

output voltage and 1080 63 2.14

ILminILmaxdiL=VdL0tondt Hence, harmonic distortion 1200 63 2.03

switching frequency Vo(V) 3) Power factor

(2) 20 63

(11) 30 63 p.f.=1(1+THD2)

ILmax-ILmin=VdtonL 40 63 (13)

50 63

2) Analysis between 60 63

(3) output voltage and the 70 63 Where;

∆Il=VdδTL control parameter. p.f. = power factor

Gain is used to reduce the THD = total harmonic

(4) The relationship of the value of supply voltage in distortion

When Power MOSFET is output voltage has been order to do a subtraction

switched off for a time toff as E. Experimwental testing

figure out by increasing the process. The value of supply

shown in figure 3(b), the value of each parameter in will multiply with the gain

inductor current diverts controller system. The effect before going to the A laboratory prototype

through the diode and a has been study using subtractor. Table 3 show the was built simply to verify

effect the output voltage the operation of the

Switching Output Total Harmonic when change the value of proposed technique and to

frequency(KHz) voltage(Vo) Distortion, THD (%) gain. prove the concepts discussed

in this paper. The converter

Table 3: The effect of gain for was implemented with Li =

20 65 3.37 output voltage and total 1mH, Lb=2.77mH and Co =

30 63 3.48 harmonic distortion 1000μF.IRF1830G

50 63 3.10

100 63 3.10 Gain Vo(V)

300 63 2.2

500 63 1.82 1/20 63

1000 63 1.71 1/30 55

1/40 50

reverse voltage (Vo – Vd) is Simulation 1/50 45

impressed across the MATLAB/SIMULINK. 1/100 40

inductor causing a linear fall

in current IL. The inductor Table 1 show the effect of MOSFET were used as

voltage VL becomes: output voltage and total From table 3, it shows that switch and 1N4001 diodes

harmonic distortion when output voltage is reducing were used as the diodes. The

VL=Vd-Vout=LdiLdt varies the value of switching when the value of gain is operational amplifier (op

frequency. reduced. It obviously can say amp) UA741 is used for

(5) that output voltage is subtractor, PI controller and

Table 1: The effect of switching depending on the value of comparator circuit. Figure 5

frequency for output voltage and

input voltage. show the diagram of

ILmaxILmindiL=Vd- harmonic distortion

connection for doing the

VoLtonTdt

From table 1, it shows that Table 4 show the effect of experiment.

(6)

when value of switching the internal parameter of PI

ILmin-ILmax=(Vd-Vo)(T- frequency is increased, there controller (Kp and Ki) to the

ton)L is no change in output output voltage and total

(7) voltage. However, there is harmonic distortion (THD).

reduce in Total harmonic It can conclude that PI

ILmax-ILmin=(Vo-Vd)(T- Distortion (THD).While,

controller does not affect the

ton)L Table 2 show the effect of

(8) output voltage and total output voltage. It just affects

harmonic distortion when the THD.

Equation (4) = (8) thus varies the amplitude of

switching frequency. It can

of 0.605.Using the proposed

technique, the waveform is

now continuous. The THD

level reduces to 3.37% with

almost unity power factor

achieved.

In order to verify the Figure 10: MATLAB/SIMULINK

operational principles and Figure 8: MATLAB/SIMULINK

Result for Harmonic spectrum after

Result for Harmonic Spectrum

test the performance of the before

Implementation.THD=3.37%

proposed AC/DC converter, Figure 6: MATLAB/SIMULINK Implementation.THD=131.45%

the computer simulation is Result for Supply Current

and Voltage Waveform before

done by using MATLAB Implementation.

SIMULINK and tested

experimentally .The result

has been build based on

before the implementation

and after the implementation

of power factor correction.

The entire elements used in

simulation are listed in Table

5.

parameters used in simulation Figure 9: MATLAB/SIMULINK

Result for Supply Current and

Parameter Value Voltage Waveform after

Supply voltage 40V(p-p) Implementation.

Output Voltage(Vo) 63V (a)

Input Inductor(Li) 1mH

Boost Inductor(Lb) 2.77mH

Output Capacitor 1000uF

Switching Frequency 20KHz

supply current before and

after implementation of the

proposed circuit. It show that

power factor correction

occur after implemented the

proposed technique. Figure

11 show the experimental

waveform for supply voltage

and supply current. While,

Figure 8 and 10 shows the

FFT analysis that show total

harmonic distortion for input Figure 9: MATLAB/SIMULINK (b)

current. Before the Figure 7: MATLAB/SIMULINK Result for Supply Current (I

Result for Supply Current (I supply*10) and Voltage Waveform

implementation, the total after Implementation

Figure 11: Experiment result

supply*10) and Voltage Waveform for supply voltage and

harmonic distortion (THD) before Implementation. supply current for (a) before

was found approximately at

131.45% with a power factor

implementation (b) after I. FUTURE WORK [10]H. A. C. Braga and D. technique,” IEEE Trans. Power

implementation AND Dambois, “A 3-kW unity- Electron., vol.14, pp. 209-217,

RECOMMENDATION power-factor rectifier based on Jan.1999.

Table 6: Table of input current a two-cell boost converter using

Harmonic for IEE STD 519 and For the future a new parallel connection

proposed circuit improvement of power

factor correction, EMI filter

Harmonic Harmonic Current isforrecommended.

IEEE This filter

Spectrum STD 519(%) reduces the harmonic

1 4

3 4 current, which means that

5 4 the non-linear device will

7 4 looks like a linear load and

9 4 will become high power

11 2 factor.

13 2

15 2

17 1.5

19 1.5 II. REFERENCE

Figure 12 shows the (EMC)-Part 3: Limits-Section

input current harmonic for Harmonic Current

Emissions (Equipment Input

spectrum with respect Current <= 16 per Phase),

to the IEEE STD 519-1992 IEC/EN 61000-3-2, 1995.

harmonic limits. It [2] IEEE Std 519-1992, “IEEE

Recommended Practices and

proves that the Requirements for Harmonic

proposed circuit Control in Electric Power

follows the IEEE STD Systems,” © Institute of

Electrical and Electronics

519-1992 limits. Engineers, Inc. 1993.

[3] Mark Edmunds, “Hard

switching vs. soft switching: A

Case Study,” Xantrex

Technology Inc.

Figure 12: Input current Harmonic

[4] Hussain S. Athab and P. K.

spectrum. Shadhu Khan, “A Cost

Table 7: Result for THD and power Effective Method of Reducing

factor before implementation and Total Harmonic Distortion

after implementation. (THD) in Single-Phase Boost

Rectifier,” PEDS 2007, pp.669-

Parameter Before Implementation

675, 2007.

Total Harmonic 131.45 [5] Rajesh Ghosh and G.Narayanan,

Distortion(THD) “A Single-phase Boost Rectifier

Power Factor(p.f) 0.605 System for Wide Range of

Load Variations,” IEEE Trans.

Power Electronic, vol.22, no.2,

pp.470-479, MARCH 2007.

IV. CONCLUSION [6] R.K.Tripathi,S. P. Das,and G.K.

Dubey, “Mixed-mode operation

A Single-phase AC-DC of boost switch-mode rectifier

Boost rectifier has been for wide range of load

presented in this paper. It variations,” IEEE Trans. Power

Electronic, vol. 17,no.6,pp.999-

features include near-unity 1009,NOVEMBER 2002.

power-factor operation and [7] Ching-Tsai Pan and Tsung-

less Harmonic distortion. In Cheng Chen, “Modelling and

this paper, the modes of design of an AC to DC

Converter,” IEEE Trans. Power

operation of the converter Electronic, vol. 8,pp.501-

has been explained and 508,OCTOBER 1993.

analyzed, and the results of [8] Brigitte Hauke, “Basic

the analysis have been used Calculation of a Boost

Converter’s Power

to derive a design procedure. Stage,”SLVA372,

The rectifier work with near NOVEMBER 2009.

unity power factor and less [9] M.Saradar zadeh and

Harmonics distortion. The S.farhangi, “Dynamics and

THD Improvement in AC

proposed technique method programmable Power

has been verified by Supplies,” IEEE ISIE 2006,

computer Simulation study. pp.1149-1154, JULY 2006.

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