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Cooling Load Calculation

Department of Building Service and Process Engineering


Miklos Kassai PhD., assistant professor
Building ”D”, Room 124
Tel: 463-2024; e-mail: kassai@epgep.bme.hu
Introduction
FOR SUMMER CONDITIONS FOR WINTER CONDITIONS

COOLING LOAD CALCULATION HEAT LOAD CALCULATION


Heat gains from various sources Heat losses to the ambiance
Source: ausenergy.com 2
Introduction
The Purpose of HEAT LOAD CALCULATION to define sizing values
for the…

THE HEAT PRODUCER HEAT EMITTERS

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Source: komuves.blog.hu, gammert.de,
Introduction
The Purpose of COOLING LOAD CALCULATION to define sizing values
for the…

CHILLER ITEMS OF AIR


CONDITIONERS
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Source: unioklima.hu, lookncomment.net
Sources of Heat Gain

5
Source: pelletofenservice.at
Sources of Heat Gain

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Source: alex-plank.de
Sources of Heat Gain

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Source: holidaycheck.de
Components of Heat Gain

Source: www.slideshare.net 8
Components of Heat Gain
Definition

Cooling loads result from heat transfer processes through


the building envelope (external emelents) and from internal
sources and system components.

External: Walls, roofs, windows, partitions, ceiling, and floor


Internal: Lighting, people, machinery
Infiltration: Air leakage and moisture migration

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Definitions
Heat gain is classified

• by its mode of entry into the space and


• whether it is sensible or latent.

Sensible heat gain is added directly to


the conditioned space by conduction,
convection, and/or radiation.

Latent heat gain occurs when humidity


is added to the space
(e.g., from vapour emitted by occupants
and equipment).
Source: c2cis.com, mykitchenideas.xyz, sunlifemalaysia.com, treffpunkt-menschen-haushall.de 10
Definitions
Radiant Heat Gain

Radiant energy first must be absorbed by surfaces that enclose the space
(walls, floor, and ceiling) and the objects in the space (furniture, etc.).
When these surfaces and objects become warmer than the surrounding air,
some of them transfers heat to the air by convection.
The heat storage capacity of these surfaces and objects determines the
heat gain.

Source: solebich.de, architektur.mapolismagazin.com 11


Definitions
Space Cooling Load
This is the gain which must be removed from the space to maintain a
constant space air temperature.

The sum of all space instantaneous heat gains in any given time does not
necessary (or even frequently) equal the cooling load for the space at that
same time. Source: spiegel.de 12
Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe
Radiation: movements of infra red
rays through the glass, striking factor
of heat gain in summer.

Air infiltration: leakage of air through


unsealed gaps.

Convection: heat gain through air


that heats up through warmer glass.

Conduction: direct transfer of heat


through conductive materials.
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Source: miglas.com.au
Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe
Heat Gain Through Windows

RADIATION THROUGH
GLAZING

CONDUCTION THROUGH THE


GLAZING SPACER BARS

AIR LEAKAGE AROUND


OPENING LIGHTS AND FRAME

CONDUCTION THROUGH THE


Source: greenspec.co.uk
WINDOW FRAME 14
Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe
Sol-Air Temperature
Heat gain through exterior opaque surfaces is derived from solar radiation.

Sol-air temperature is the outdoor air temperature which gives the same rate
of heat entry into the surface as would the combination of incident solar
radiation, radiant energy exchange with the sky and other outdoor
surroundings, and convective heat exchange with outdoor air. 15
Source: solebich.de
Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe
Heat Flow into Sunlit Surfaces of the Building Envelope
The heat balance at a sunlit surface gives the heat flow into the surface:

Q
= αE t + ho (to − ts ) − ε∆R
A

where
α – absorptance of surface for solar radiation;
Et – total solar radiation incident on surface, W/(m2·K) ;
ho – coefficient of heat transfer by long-wave radiation
and convection at outer surface, W/(m2·K);
to – outdoor air temperature, °C;
ts – surface temperature, °C;
ε – hemispherical emittance of surface;
∆R – difference between long-wave radiation incident on
surface from sky and surroundings and radiation
emitted by blackbody at outdoor air temperature, W/m2 16
Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe
The rate of heat transfer can be expressed

Q
= ho (to − ts )
A

and from these equations the sol-air temperature:


αE t ε∆R
te = to + −
ho ho
Horizontal surfaces: they receive long-wave radiation from the sky only,
value of ∆R is about 63 W/m2, ε = 1 and ho = 17 W/(m2·K), the long-wave
correction term is about 4 K.

Vertical surfaces: they receive long-wave radiation from the ground and
surrounding buildings as well as from the sky, ∆R values are difficult to
determine. When solar radiation intensity is high, surfaces have a higher
temperature than the outdoor air, thus their long-wave radiation
compensates to the sky’s low emittance. This means ε∆R = 0 17
Fenestration Heat Gain
Total Fenestration Heat Gain

Q = Qdir + Qdiff + Qconductive

1. reflection on the outer pane,


2. absorption in the outer pane,
3. reflection on the inner pane,
4. absorption in the inner pane,
5. directly transmitted solar energy

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Fenestration Heat Gain
Parts of Fenestration Heat Gain: Direct Solar Heat Gain
Source: skymosity.com

Qdir = A ⋅ Edir ⋅ SHGC (θ ) ⋅ IAC

A – window area, [m2]


Edir – direct irradiance, [W/m2]
SHGC(θ) – direct solar heat gain coefficient
as a function of
incident angle θ, [-]
IAC – inside shading attenuation
coefficient, = 1.0 if no inside
shading device, [-] 19
Fenestration Heat Gain
Parts of Fenestration Heat Gain: Diffuse Solar Heat Gain
Source: geograph.org.uk

Qdiff = A ⋅ ( Ediff + Er ) ⋅ ( SHGC ) diff ⋅ IAC

A – window area, [m2]


Ediff – diffuse irradiance, [W/m2] (calculated value)
Er – ground-reflected irradiance, [W/m2]
(SHGC)diff – diffuse solar heat gain coefficient (also
referred to as hemispherical SHGC)
IAC – inside shading attenuation coefficient, = 1.0 if no inside
shading device 20
Fenestration Heat Gain
Parts of Fenestration Heat Gain: Conductive Heat Gain

Qc = U ⋅ A ⋅ (to − ti )

A – window area, m2
U – overall U-factor, W/m2K
to – outside temperature, °C
ti – inside temperature, °C

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Fenestration Heat Gain

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Shading
Internal Shading

Venetian blinds Verical blinds

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Source: ambitionblinds.co.uk, caribbeancoshutters.com,
Shading
External Shading

Shutters Roller shutter

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Source: en.wikipedia.org
External Shading
External venetians

Louvres

Shading
Overhang 25

Source: frederickdesignstudio.com, pentel-contracts.com, arnyekolastechnika.ewk.hu


Heat Gain through
Interior Surfaces

Heat transfer between adjacent


rooms:
Q = U ⋅ A ⋅ (t b − ti )
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Source: http://architectural3dmodeling.blogspot.hu/
Heat Gain through Internal Surfaces
Whenever a conditioned space is adjacent to a space with a
different temperature, heat transfer through the separating
physical section must be considered.

The heat transfer rate: Q = U ⋅ A ⋅ (t b − ti )

where
Q – heat transfer rate, W
U – coefficient of overall heat transfer between adjacent and
conditioned space, W/(m2·K)
A – area of separating section concerned, m2
tb – average air temperature in adjacent space, °C
ti – air temperature in conditioned space, °C 27
Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Occupants

Occupants:
• heat and
• moisture
are emitted by humans in
different states of activity.

Source: alfanyelvstudio.hu

Sensible and latent heat gains often comprise a large fraction of the total load.
The conversion of sensible heat gain from people to space cooling load is
affected by the thermal storage characteristics of that space because some
percentage of the sensible load is radiant energy.
Latent heat gains are considered instantaneous.
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Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Occupants

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Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Lighting

The primary source of heat from lighting comes from light-emitting elements,
or lamps, significant additional heat may be generated from associated parts
of light fixtures, house of lamps.

Instantaneous Heat Gain from Lighting


Generally, the instantaneous rate of heat gain from electric lighting may be
calculated from

Qel = W ⋅ Ful ⋅ Fsa

where
Qel – heat gain from electric lighting, W
W – total light wattage, W
Ful – lighting use factor
Fsa – lighting special allowance factor 30
Source: ipon.hu, meteonline.hu, toparuk.hu, webaruhaz.hu
Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Lighting Qel = W ⋅ Ful ⋅ Fsa
The total light wattage is obtained from the ratings of all lamps installed, both
for general illumination and for display use.

The lighting use factor is the ratio of wattage in use to total installed wattage.
For commercial applications such as stores, the use factor is generally 1.0.

The special allowance factor is for fluorescent fixtures and/or fixtures that are
either ventilated or installed so that only part of their heat goes to the
conditioned space.

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Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Electric Motors

Instantaneous heat gain from equipment operated by electric motors in a


conditioned space is calculated as:
P
Qem = ⋅ FUM ⋅ FLM
EM
where
Qem – heat equivalent of equipment operation, W
P – motor power rating, W
EM – motor efficiency
FUM – motor use factor
FLM – motor load factor

The motor use factor may be applied when motor use is known to be
intermittent with significant nonuse during all hours of operation (e.g.,
overhead door operator).
The motor load factor is the fraction of the rated load being delivered under
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the conditions of the cooling load estimate
Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Electric Appliances
In a cooling load estimate, heat gain from all appliances (electrical, gas, or
steam) should be taken into account.
Because of the variety of appliances, applications, schedules, use, and
installations, estimates can be very subjective.

Often, the only information available about heat gain from equipment is that
on its nameplate.
The sensible heat gain of an electric appliance is

Qs = qinput ⋅ FL

where
qinput – energy input
FL – ratio of sensible heat gain to the manufacturer’s
rated energy input.
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Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Infiltration Heat Gain

1. Total heat

Total heat gain corresponding to the change of a given standard


flow rate Qs through an enthalpy difference ∆h is

= 1.2 ∙ ∙ ∆ℎ
where

1.2 – density of dry air, kg/m3

– air flow rate through leakages of envelope of


buildings, l/s
∆h – enthalpy difference, kJ/kg

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Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Infiltration Heat Gain

2. Sensible heat

Sensible heat gain corresponding to the change of dry-bulb


temperature ∆t for given airflow (standard conditions) Qs is

= 1.2 ∙ 1.006 + 1.84 ∙ ∙∆


where

1.006 – specific heat of dry air, kJ/(kg·K)


x – humidity ratio, kg (water)/kg (air)
1.84 – specific heat of water vapour, kJ/(kg·K)
∆t – change of dry-bulb temperature, K
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Sources of Internal Heat Gain
Infiltration Heat Gain

3. Latent heat

Latent heat gain corresponding to the change of humidity ratio

= 1.2 ∙ 2500 ∙ ∙∆
where
2500 kJ/kg is the approximate heat content of 50% relative
humidity vapour,
∆x – the change of humidity ratio
∆t – change of dry-bulb temperature, K

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Latent Heat Gain from Moisture Diffusion

Diffusion of moisture through building materials is a natural phenomenon


that is always present.
Moisture transfer through walls is often neglected in comfort air
conditioning because the actual rate is quite small and the corresponding
latent heat gain is insignificant.

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Cooling Load Calculation Methods

There are various cooling calculation methods developed over the


years. These methods are briefly described below in chronological
order of development, along with the reason why they are or not
suitable to be used in this case.
The total equivalent temperature differential method with time
averaging (TETD/TA) which has been a highly reliable method of
load estimating since 1967. It is suitable only as a computer
application because of the need to calculate an extended profile of
hourly heat gain values from which the radiant components have
to be averaged over a time perceived to represent the general
mass of the building involved.

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Cooling Load Calculation Methods

The transfer function method (TFM) was originally designed in


1972 for energy analysis with emphasis on daily, monthly, and annual
energy use and, thus, is more oriented to average hourly cooling
loads than peak design loads. It requires many calculation steps
which make it very time consuming.

The cooling load temperature differential method with solar


cooling load factors (CLTD/SCL/CLF) was developed in 1975, by
simplifying the two-step methods described above into a single-step
technique that allows proceeding directly from raw data to cooling
load without the intermediate conversion of radiant heat gain to
cooling load. Since this method is simpler than the other two above it
since it does not require special software as the following two.

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Cooling Load Calculation Methods
The heat balance (HB) method in which the calculation
procedures and scientific principles are explained in equation
format. These equations are coded in a generic computer program
named Hbfort, released with Cooling and Heating Load Calculation
Principles (Pedersen et al. 1998), and linked to a user interface
program to allow input and output in either inch-pound or SI units.

The radiant time series (RTS) method is a new simplified


method for performing design cooling load calculations that is
derived from the heat balance (HB) method described above. It
effectively replaces all other simplified methods but while simple in
concept, it involves too many calculations to be used practically as
a manual method

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EN STANDARDS

- Sensible load calculation of a space (MSZ EN 15255)

- Latent load calculation of a space (MSZ EN 15243)

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Sensible load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15255)
The heat flow due to the solar radiation absorbed and the vault sky losses by the light
components (opaque and transparent; thickness ≤ 120 mm) :
l w
Φ sl = ∑ [ A ⋅ ( S f ⋅ I sr + qer ⋅ U / he )]k + ∑ [ A ⋅ ( S f 2 ⋅ lsr + qer ⋅ U / he )] j
k =1 j =1

where:
A - Area of surfaces [m2],

Sf - Solar factor of each opaque components [-],

Sf2 - The window secondary solar factor; [-],

I sr - Intensity of the solar radiation reaching the surfaces [W/m2],

qer - Heat load (convection part) [W/m2],

U - Thermal transmittance under steady state conditions [W/m2K],

he - surface heat transfer coefficient [W/m2K].

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Sensible load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15255)

The heat flow due to the solar radiation absorbed and the vault sky losses by the opaque heavy
component ( thickness >120 mm) is given by:
h
Φ sh = ∑ [ A ⋅ ( S f ⋅ I sr + q er ⋅ U / he )] y
y =1

The solar radiation reaching the surface of the building envelope components is given by:

I sr = f s ⋅ I D + I d + I r

where

fs - the sunlit factor due to external obstructions, derived from EN ISO 13791;
ID - the direct component of the solar radiation reaching the surface;
Id - the diffuse component of the solar radiation reaching the surface;
Ir - the reflected component of the solar radiation reaching the surface.

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Sensible load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15255)
Example to the instantaneous total solar radiation on the exposure of the wall (W/m2):

Hour Vertical west wall


W/m2
4:00 0
5:00 22
6:00 55
7:00 80
8:00 101
9:00 117
10:00 128
11:00 135
12:00 150
13:00 366
14:00 558
15:00 703
16:00 778
17:00 756
18:00 604
19:00 271
20:00 0

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Latent load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15243)

For the cooling coil condensation, a simple model is used. It assumes that one part of the air
passing through the coil is not treated, and that the other part leaves at the dew point
characteristics of the cooling coil temperature. This latter air flow is called here recirculated
air flow. The caculation of recirculated air flow requirements depend on the type of the water
control.

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Latent load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15243)
Recirculated air flow
Control 1. Nonvariable water flow:

In this case the cooled coil temperature is equal to the water inlet + 2K. The required
recirculated air flow depends on the sensible cooling need and the cooling coil temperature.

Qsens
q m, recirc =
c pa ⋅ ( 26 − θ sat )

where:

q m ,recirc - required recircuated air mass flow rate [kg/s],

Qsens - sensible cooling need [W],

c pa - mass heat of dry air [J/kg K],

θ sat - cooled coil temperature [°C].

Control 2. Variable water flow:

q m ,recirc = A f ⋅ 15 ⋅ ρ ai

where:

ρ ai - internal air density [kg/m3],


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Af - floor area [m2]
Latent load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15243)
On a given hour, 2 situations can occur:

1. At the start of the hour, the indoor humidity is higher than the saturation humidity for the
cooling coil. The condensation will occur, either during the whole hour either during one
part of it.

2. At the beginning of the hour, the indoor humidity is lower than the saturation humidity for
the cooling coil. The cooling coil will be dry at the beginning, but condensation can occur
before the end of the hour.

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Latent load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15243)
For a duration of t, indoor air humidity (at the end):

xi , fin = xi , start + A ⋅ (1 − e − B⋅t ) [kg/s]

A and B are calculated as follows:

If the cooling coil is wet:

Awet = ( xentr ⋅ q m + a i + q m ,recirc ⋅ x sat ) /( q m + q m ,recirc ) − x start


Bwet = (q m + q m ,recirc ) /(V ⋅ ρ ai )

If the cooling coil is dry:

Adry = ( xentr ⋅ q m + ai ) / q m − x start


Bdry = q m /(V ⋅ ρ ai )

xi - indoor humidity kg/kg dry air,


xentr - entering air humidity kg/kg dry air,
qm - entering air flow kg/s,
xstart - indoor humidity at the beginning kg/kg,
ai - internal humidity gains kg/s,
ρai - density of indoor air kg/m3,
xsat - saturated humidity at the cooling coil temperature kg/kg. 48
Latent load calculation of a space
(MSZ EN 15243)

Latent energy demand:

Qlat = 25001000 ⋅ q m ,recirc ( xi ,moy − x sat ) [W]

xi,moy is proportional with xi,fin according to the fact that the cooling coil is wet or dry at the
end of the hour.

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Hungarian Standard for calculation of cooling load
(MSZ-04.140/4)
Calculation of outdoor heat load:
Components of outdoor heat load:

Q& e = Q& F + Qü [W]

where:

Q& F - solar heat load through exterior building structures (wall, roof) into
the space,

Q& ü - solar heat load through windows into the space.

Solar heat load through exterior building structures (wall, roof):

Q& F = AF ⋅ k ⋅ ∆t ekv [W]

where:

AF - surface of wall or roof [m2]

 W 
k - thermal transmittance of the wall or roof  2 
m K 

∆t ekv - equivalent thermal difference [K ]

The equivalent thermal difference depends on the following parameters:


- laying of the exterior structures (walls, roof),
- quality of exterior surfaces (absortion and emission features of building envelope),
- thermal parameters of exterior surfaces (thermal transmittance), 50
- inside temperature.
Hungarian Standard for calculation of cooling load
(MSZ-04.140/4)
Solar heat load through windows:

Q& Ü = A Ü ⋅ [ NÜ ⋅ N Á ⋅ I SRG ⋅ Z + k Ü ⋅ (t e − t i )] [W]

ahol

AÜ - surface of windows [m 2 ]

NÜ - galzing factor (similar to SHGC coefficient – determine the size of direct


solar heat load that goes into the space) [-]

NÁ - shading factor [-]

I SRG - Intensity of solar radiant gain [W / m 2 ]

Z - reduction factor [-] (takes into account the heating capacity of building
envelope )

 W 
kÜ - thermal transmittance of the window  2 
m K 

te - outdoor air temperature [°C ]

ti - indoor air temperature [°C ]

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THANK YOU
FOR
YOUR ATTENTION
Department of Building Service and Process Engineering
Miklos Kassai PhD., assistant professor
Building ”D”, Room 124
Tel: 463-2024; e-mail: kassai@epgep.bme.hu 52