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FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL


MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

CONTENTS
1. DEFINITION OF WEIRS
2. FUNCTIONs OF WEIRS
2.1 Weirs as an element of dam

2.2 Weirs as an element of channel


3. TIPOS DE VERTEDEROS
4. CLASSIFICATION OF WEIRS
4.1 WEIR LEVELS DOWNSTREAM

4.1.1 Free Weirs

4.1.2 Submerged Weir


4.2 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF THE CREST

4.2.1 Sharpened-crested weir

4.2.2 Broad-crested weir

4.2.3 Ogee-shaped weir

4.3 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON END CONTRACTIONS

4.3.1 Contracted weir

4.3.2 Suppressed weir

4.4 WEIRS ACCORDING TO THE INCLINATION OF THE FACING

4.5 WEIRS ACCORDING TO THEIR FORM

5. RECTANGULAR WEIR
6. FRANCIS FORMULA
7. BAZIN FORMULA
8. KINDSVATER-CARTER FORMULA
9. REHBOCK FORMULA
10. TRIANGULAR WEIR
11. KEYSTONE WEIR
12. TYPE CIPOLLETTI WEIR
13. TYPE CREAGER WEIR

bibliography
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

HYDRAULIC WEIR
1. DEFINITION OF WEIR:
The Weir has been defined by Balloffet as '' an opening (or better, recess) open contour
in the wall of a warehouse or a barrier placed in a canal or river, and which trickles or
exceeds the liquid in the tank or flowing through the river or canal. ''

A weir is a concrete or masonry structure which is constructed across the open channel
(such as a river) to change its water flow characteristics. Weirs are constructed as an
obstruction to flow of water. These are commonly used to measure the volumetric rate
of water flow, prevent flooding and make rivers navigable..

2. FUNCTIONS OF WEIRS
2.1 Weirs as an element of dam

It has several purposes, among which stands out:

 Ensuring the safety of the hydraulic structure, by not allowing level rise,
upstream, above the maximum level (NAME by its acronym Maximum Water
Level Extraordinary)
 Ensure a level with little variation in an irrigation canal upstream. This type of
spillway called "duckbill" in form
 Become a part of a section gauging the river or stream .
 Dissipating the energy to return to the natural riverbed does not cause
damage. This is done by jumping, trampolines or bowls.

In a dam it is called landfill to the part of the structure that allows the evacuation of
water, either routinely or to control the level of water reservoir.

The next to the free surface of the reservoir water is generally discharged, as opposed to
the bottom discharge , which allows controlled waters off the deep layers of the
reservoir.

In earth dams spillway is disposed


outside the body of the dam for
safety reasons, pictured dam
Guadalhorce, Malaga ( Spain ).

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

2.2 Weirs as an element of channel

Weirs are used in conjunction with the floodgates to maintain a navigable river or to
provide the level required to navigation. In this case, the weir is built significantly longer
than the width of the river, forming a "U" or by diagonals perpendicularly to step.Since
the weir is the part where the water overflows, a long pass weir allows a greater amount
of water with a small increase in the depth of the spill. This is done in order to minimize
fluctuations in the level of the river upstream.

Weirs allow hydrologists a simple method to measure the flow in water flows. Known
geometry of the upper area of the landfill and the water level over the weir, it is known
that the liquid passes from slow to fast rate, and above the weir thick - walled, water
adopts the critical depth .
Weirs are widely used in rivers to maintain the water level and be exploited as lakes,
area navigation and recreation. Hydraulic mills often use dams to raise the water level
and exploit the leap to drive turbines.
Because a weirs increases the oxygen content of the water passing over the ridge, you
can generate a beneficial effect on the local ecology of the river. A dam artificially
reduces water velocity, which can increase sedimentation processes upstream; and an
increase erodibility downstream. The dam where the weirs is located, creating a gap
represents a barrier to migratory fish, which can not jump levels..

The weirs in Coburg


LakeVictoria
( Australia ) after a
flood

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

3. TYPES OF WEIRS
Weirs come in a wide range of shapes, forms and sizes, with the choice of type normally
driven by the fundamental purpose of the weir. The most commonly encountered types
of weir are illustrated in Figures 1.7a and 1.7b. Whereas some indication of the pros and
cons of each type are given in these two figures, it is inappropriate to go into detail,
because these vary depending on the function and setting of the weir, and on the
interests of the person making the assessment. For example, the Crump section
flat-vee weir is favoured by hydrometrists because of the accuracy and range of
flow measurement, but is disliked by fisheries officers because it can present a
barrier to fish migration. More detailed guidance is given in Part 2 of this guide.

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

4. CLASSIFICATION OF WEIRS
The weirs are classified accoriding:

4.1 WEIR LEVELS DOWNSTREAM

4.1.1 Free Weirs

The flow surfaces at the top and bottom of the nappe are exposed to the air and at
atmospheric pressure to get free jet condition (P>H)

P>H

4.1.2 Weir submerged

When the water level in the downstream side of a weir is above the upper surface of
the landfill, it is called submerged or drowned landfill, as shown in Fig
If the ratio h / H, ie submergence, is close to unity or when it is very small, usually
presents an undulating flow downstream.

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

0.2≤h/H≤0.8

4.2 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF THE CREST:

4.2.1 Vertedero de cresta afilada

 The crest of the weir is very sharp such that the water will springs clear of the
crest..
 The weir plate is bevelled at the crest edges to obtain necessary thickness. And weir
plate should be made of smooth metal which is free from rust and nicks.
 Flow over sharp-crested weir is similar as rectangular weir.

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

4.2.2 Broad-crested weir::

 These are constructed only in rectangular shape and are suitable for the larger flows.
 Head loss will be small in case of broad crested weir

4.2.3 Ogee-shaped weir:

 Generally ogee shaped weirs are provided for the spillway of a storage dam.

 The crest of the ogee weir is slightly rises and falls into parabolic form.

 Flow over ogee weir is also similar to flow over rectangular weir.

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

4.3 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON END CONTRACTIONS:

4.3.1 Contracted weir

The crest is cut in the form of notch and then it is similar to rectangular weir. Head loss
will occur in this type.

4.3.2 Suppressed weir

The crest is running all the way across the channel so head loss will be negligible.

4.4 WEIRS ACCORDING TO THE INCLINATION OF THE FACING

The facing of weirs is usually vertical but may be tilted up or water downstream. The
weir downstream decreases contraction. Consequently, for the same load H spending
increases with inclination toward downstream. If the inclination was toward upstream
happen otherwise.

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

4.5 WEIRS ACCORDING TO THEIR FORM

 rectangular weir  Circular weir


 triangular weir  Parabolic weir
 weir trapezoidal 

 Parábola semicubical weir  Hyperbolic weir


 Mixed weir  Proportional weir
 

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

5. RECTANGULAR WEIR
 It is a standard landfill. The top edge of the landfill can be sharp or narrow
ridge.

 In general, it is suitable for the flow channels larger.

Figure 1 Figure 2

5.1 Flow over rectangular weir

To find the discharge over rectangular weir, consider an elementary horizontal strip of water
thickness dh and length L at a depth h from the water surface (fig. 2)

 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑝𝑒 = 𝐿. 𝑑ℎ


 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = √2𝑔ℎ
 𝐷𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝 = 𝑑𝑞 = 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. 𝑑ℎ. √2𝑔ℎ

𝐻
 𝑄 = ∫0 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. 𝑑ℎ. √2𝑔ℎ
𝐻
 𝑄 = 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. √2𝑔 ∫0 ℎ1/2 𝑑ℎ
3
2
 𝑄 = 3 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. √2𝑔. 𝐻 2

Where:

 H = water height above the spillway crest

 L = Length of the dam

 C d = discharge coefficient due to friction and contraction nappa.


𝐻
𝑐𝑑 = 0.602 + 0.083
𝑃
 the discharge coefficient usually ranging from 0.60 to 0.62

 P=is the height of the weir plate

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

6. FRANCIS FORMULA
Francis Lam formula in the metric system is:
3⁄ 3⁄
𝑛𝐻 𝑣0 2 2 𝑣0 2 2
𝑄 = 1.84 (𝐿 − ) [(𝐻 + ) −( ) ]
10 2𝑔 2𝑔

3 3
Q This 𝑚 ⁄𝑠 in length L and H weir load meters, the approach speed in 𝑚 ⁄𝑠 𝑣0 , n is
assigned as the number of contractions (0,1,2). If the rate were negligible lateral
approach and not any contractions (n = 0) then Q = 1.84LH ^ (3/2).

The conditions of aplicación are:


𝐿
0.18𝑚 ≤ 𝐻 ≤ 0.5𝑚 0.6𝑚 ≤ 𝑃 ≤ 1.50𝑚 >3
𝐻

It can be achieved by calculating the expenditure to within ± 3%

7. BAZIN FORMULA
The discharge coefficients given by this formula are used in rectangular weirs whose
loads are between 0.1m and 0.60m and lengths between 0.5m and 2m. The threshold
should be between 0.20m and 2m.

For lateral weirs contractions coefficient C to be used in the general formula discharge
it is:

𝐵 − 𝐿 0.00405 𝐿 2 𝐻 2
𝑐 = [0.6075 − 0.045 + ] [1 + 0.55 ( ) ( ) ]
𝐵 𝐻 𝐵 𝐻+𝑃

To a weir without lateral contractions (B = L) the coefficient c to be used in the general


formula discharge is:

0.00405 𝐻 2
𝑐 = [0.6075 + ] [1 + 0.55 ( ) ]
𝐻 𝐻+𝑃

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

8. KINDSVATER-CARTER FORMULA
It is one of the most reliable formulas. It applies to all rectangular weirs with
contractions or without them. His expression is:

2 3
𝑄 = 𝐶𝑒 √2𝑔(𝐿 + 𝐾𝐿 )(𝐻 + 𝐾𝐻 ) ⁄2
3

As it can be seen instead of the length of the effective length landfill, which is the sum
of the length of the landfill plus 𝑲𝑳 value found from an expression obtained
experimentally and shown in Figure used. 𝑲𝑯 is a value equal to 0.001m, which is
added to the burden to establish the effective charge. 𝑪𝒆 is the coefficient of self-
discharge has the formula experimental origin and shown in Fig.

Chart to determine 𝑲𝑳

Among the requirements for proper application are the following. The H load should
be measured at a distance equal to 4 or 5 times the maximum load. The landfill is
properly to be thin-walled, the crest should be 1 to 2mm thick. The level of the free
surface downstream must be at least 6 cm below the crest of the spillway. The load
must be greater than 3cm. The threshold must be at least 10 cm, the length of the weir
and the channel width should be greater than 15 cm, the relationship between the load
and the height H P threshold must be less than than 2.5.

If the length of the landfill was equal to the width of the channel (L = B), then there
would contractions.

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

Coeficiente de descarga 𝑪𝒆

9. REHBOCK FORMULA

The 1929 Rehbock formula for discharge coefficient in thin-walled rectangular landfills
without contractions is:

3⁄
𝐻 0.00009 0.0011 2
𝐶 = [0.6035 + 0.0813 + ] [1 + ]
𝑃 𝑃 𝐻

H and P are in meters, the coefficient C is applied to the general formula discharge of a
rectangular weir.

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ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL
MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

10. TRIANGULAR WEIR

The triangular-notch,thin-plate weir is used widely for measuring the flow of liquids in
flumes and open channels. Simple in design and easily made from readily available
materials, it is inexpensive, convenient to use, and easy to maintain. In permanent or
portable form it is frequently used to measure the flow of water in laboratories and in
small, natural streams.

In its traditional form, the basic discharge equation is:


8 𝜃 5
𝑄 = 𝐶𝑒 √2𝑔 𝑡𝑎𝑛 ℎ2
15 2
 Q (m³/s) is flow over V - Notch weir.

 𝐶, can be found using the graphs.

 θ (grados) es el ángulo de la muesca.


 g es la aceleración de la gravedad (9,81 m / s²).

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

11. KEYSTONE WEIR

Spending a trapezoidal pourer like figure can be calculated assuming the sum of the
corresponding one rectangular with length b and the triangular ridge formed with the two
banks expenditure. This means the sum of the equations:

12. LANDFILL TYPE CIPOLLETTI


It is a landfill as its name indicates trapezoidal shape in its opening, also known as
landfill Cipolleti in his honor to its inventor, the Italian engineer Cesare Cipolleti.

Cipolleti try to determine a landfill to offset the decrease in flow due to lateral
contractions through the triangular portions of the landfill, with the advantage of
avoiding the correction in the calculations.

Has the outline of a regular trapezoid with slopes on the sides k = 1 (1 Horizontal and 4
vertical) and finds application as flume channels.

To calculate the flow is commonly used formula for Francis m3/ s.

The equation is valid if: a ≥ 2h; and ≥ 3h; w ≥ 3h and channel widths of 30 h to 60 h.

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

13. TYPE CREAGER WEIR


They are used to evacuate flows increased since the special shape of its crest allows
maximum discharge when compared with another form of landfills for equal loading
height of water.

ADVANTAGE

 Stable flow, vibration, without detachment or air intakes.


 Reduce the pressure on landfill (top of facing).
 The profile Creager is subject to almost no pressure at all points.

FLOW CALCULATION

It is calculated using the formula Francis in WEIRS:

𝑄 = 𝐶𝐿𝐻 3/2

Where

 Q = Design flow, m3 / s.
 C = Coefficient of the pourer.
 L = Length of the ridge, m.
 H = Design load, m.

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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

bibliography
 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES – DR.R.K. BANSAL -
2014

 BROAD-CRESTED AND SHARP-CRESTED WEIRS, BY: MONICA PRYCEL,


ERICK RITTER, AND CHRIS ROBERTS - 2010

 HIDRAULICA DE TUBERIAS Y CANALES – ARTURO ROCHA -


ACTUALIZADO

LINKOGRAFIA DE ARTICULOS EN INGLES

 http://theconstructor.org/water-resources/what-is-weir-types-flow-over-
weirs/11873/

 http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/weirs/disc
harge.php

 http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/weirs/disc
harge.php

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