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MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

CONTENTS

1. DEFINITION OF WEIRS

2. FUNCTIONs OF WEIRS

2.1 Weirs as an element of dam

3. TIPOS DE VERTEDEROS

4. CLASSIFICATION OF WEIRS

4.1 WEIR LEVELS DOWNSTREAM

4.2 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF THE CREST

5. RECTANGULAR WEIR

6. FRANCIS FORMULA

7. BAZIN FORMULA

8. KINDSVATER-CARTER FORMULA

9. REHBOCK FORMULA

10. TRIANGULAR WEIR

11. KEYSTONE WEIR

12. TYPE CIPOLLETTI WEIR

13. TYPE CREAGER WEIR

bibliography

MECANICA DE FLUIDOS II VERTEDEROS

2016 - II 1

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

HYDRAULIC WEIR

1. DEFINITION OF WEIR:

The Weir has been defined by Balloffet as '' an opening (or better, recess) open contour

in the wall of a warehouse or a barrier placed in a canal or river, and which trickles or

exceeds the liquid in the tank or flowing through the river or canal. ''

A weir is a concrete or masonry structure which is constructed across the open channel

(such as a river) to change its water flow characteristics. Weirs are constructed as an

obstruction to flow of water. These are commonly used to measure the volumetric rate

of water flow, prevent flooding and make rivers navigable..

2. FUNCTIONS OF WEIRS

2.1 Weirs as an element of dam

Ensuring the safety of the hydraulic structure, by not allowing level rise,

upstream, above the maximum level (NAME by its acronym Maximum Water

Level Extraordinary)

Ensure a level with little variation in an irrigation canal upstream. This type of

spillway called "duckbill" in form

Become a part of a section gauging the river or stream .

Dissipating the energy to return to the natural riverbed does not cause

damage. This is done by jumping, trampolines or bowls.

In a dam it is called landfill to the part of the structure that allows the evacuation of

water, either routinely or to control the level of water reservoir.

The next to the free surface of the reservoir water is generally discharged, as opposed to

the bottom discharge , which allows controlled waters off the deep layers of the

reservoir.

outside the body of the dam for

safety reasons, pictured dam

Guadalhorce, Malaga ( Spain ).

2016 - II 2

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

Weirs are used in conjunction with the floodgates to maintain a navigable river or to

provide the level required to navigation. In this case, the weir is built significantly longer

than the width of the river, forming a "U" or by diagonals perpendicularly to step.Since

the weir is the part where the water overflows, a long pass weir allows a greater amount

of water with a small increase in the depth of the spill. This is done in order to minimize

fluctuations in the level of the river upstream.

Weirs allow hydrologists a simple method to measure the flow in water flows. Known

geometry of the upper area of the landfill and the water level over the weir, it is known

that the liquid passes from slow to fast rate, and above the weir thick - walled, water

adopts the critical depth .

Weirs are widely used in rivers to maintain the water level and be exploited as lakes,

area navigation and recreation. Hydraulic mills often use dams to raise the water level

and exploit the leap to drive turbines.

Because a weirs increases the oxygen content of the water passing over the ridge, you

can generate a beneficial effect on the local ecology of the river. A dam artificially

reduces water velocity, which can increase sedimentation processes upstream; and an

increase erodibility downstream. The dam where the weirs is located, creating a gap

represents a barrier to migratory fish, which can not jump levels..

LakeVictoria

( Australia ) after a

flood

2016 - II 3

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

3. TYPES OF WEIRS

Weirs come in a wide range of shapes, forms and sizes, with the choice of type normally

driven by the fundamental purpose of the weir. The most commonly encountered types

of weir are illustrated in Figures 1.7a and 1.7b. Whereas some indication of the pros and

cons of each type are given in these two figures, it is inappropriate to go into detail,

because these vary depending on the function and setting of the weir, and on the

interests of the person making the assessment. For example, the Crump section

flat-vee weir is favoured by hydrometrists because of the accuracy and range of

flow measurement, but is disliked by fisheries officers because it can present a

barrier to fish migration. More detailed guidance is given in Part 2 of this guide.

2016 - II 4

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

2016 - II 5

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

4. CLASSIFICATION OF WEIRS

The weirs are classified accoriding:

The flow surfaces at the top and bottom of the nappe are exposed to the air and at

atmospheric pressure to get free jet condition (P>H)

P>H

When the water level in the downstream side of a weir is above the upper surface of

the landfill, it is called submerged or drowned landfill, as shown in Fig

If the ratio h / H, ie submergence, is close to unity or when it is very small, usually

presents an undulating flow downstream.

2016 - II 6

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

0.2≤h/H≤0.8

The crest of the weir is very sharp such that the water will springs clear of the

crest..

The weir plate is bevelled at the crest edges to obtain necessary thickness. And weir

plate should be made of smooth metal which is free from rust and nicks.

Flow over sharp-crested weir is similar as rectangular weir.

2016 - II 7

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

These are constructed only in rectangular shape and are suitable for the larger flows.

Head loss will be small in case of broad crested weir

Generally ogee shaped weirs are provided for the spillway of a storage dam.

The crest of the ogee weir is slightly rises and falls into parabolic form.

Flow over ogee weir is also similar to flow over rectangular weir.

2016 - II 8

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

The crest is cut in the form of notch and then it is similar to rectangular weir. Head loss

will occur in this type.

The crest is running all the way across the channel so head loss will be negligible.

The facing of weirs is usually vertical but may be tilted up or water downstream. The

weir downstream decreases contraction. Consequently, for the same load H spending

increases with inclination toward downstream. If the inclination was toward upstream

happen otherwise.

2016 - II 9

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

triangular weir Parabolic weir

weir trapezoidal

Mixed weir Proportional weir

2016 - II 10

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

5. RECTANGULAR WEIR

It is a standard landfill. The top edge of the landfill can be sharp or narrow

ridge.

Figure 1 Figure 2

To find the discharge over rectangular weir, consider an elementary horizontal strip of water

thickness dh and length L at a depth h from the water surface (fig. 2)

𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = √2𝑔ℎ

𝐷𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝 = 𝑑𝑞 = 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. 𝑑ℎ. √2𝑔ℎ

𝐻

𝑄 = ∫0 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. 𝑑ℎ. √2𝑔ℎ

𝐻

𝑄 = 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. √2𝑔 ∫0 ℎ1/2 𝑑ℎ

3

2

𝑄 = 3 𝑐𝑑 . 𝐿. √2𝑔. 𝐻 2

Where:

𝐻

𝑐𝑑 = 0.602 + 0.083

𝑃

the discharge coefficient usually ranging from 0.60 to 0.62

2016 - II 11

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

6. FRANCIS FORMULA

Francis Lam formula in the metric system is:

3⁄ 3⁄

𝑛𝐻 𝑣0 2 2 𝑣0 2 2

𝑄 = 1.84 (𝐿 − ) [(𝐻 + ) −( ) ]

10 2𝑔 2𝑔

3 3

Q This 𝑚 ⁄𝑠 in length L and H weir load meters, the approach speed in 𝑚 ⁄𝑠 𝑣0 , n is

assigned as the number of contractions (0,1,2). If the rate were negligible lateral

approach and not any contractions (n = 0) then Q = 1.84LH ^ (3/2).

𝐿

0.18𝑚 ≤ 𝐻 ≤ 0.5𝑚 0.6𝑚 ≤ 𝑃 ≤ 1.50𝑚 >3

𝐻

7. BAZIN FORMULA

The discharge coefficients given by this formula are used in rectangular weirs whose

loads are between 0.1m and 0.60m and lengths between 0.5m and 2m. The threshold

should be between 0.20m and 2m.

For lateral weirs contractions coefficient C to be used in the general formula discharge

it is:

𝐵 − 𝐿 0.00405 𝐿 2 𝐻 2

𝑐 = [0.6075 − 0.045 + ] [1 + 0.55 ( ) ( ) ]

𝐵 𝐻 𝐵 𝐻+𝑃

formula discharge is:

0.00405 𝐻 2

𝑐 = [0.6075 + ] [1 + 0.55 ( ) ]

𝐻 𝐻+𝑃

2016 - II 12

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

8. KINDSVATER-CARTER FORMULA

It is one of the most reliable formulas. It applies to all rectangular weirs with

contractions or without them. His expression is:

2 3

𝑄 = 𝐶𝑒 √2𝑔(𝐿 + 𝐾𝐿 )(𝐻 + 𝐾𝐻 ) ⁄2

3

As it can be seen instead of the length of the effective length landfill, which is the sum

of the length of the landfill plus 𝑲𝑳 value found from an expression obtained

experimentally and shown in Figure used. 𝑲𝑯 is a value equal to 0.001m, which is

added to the burden to establish the effective charge. 𝑪𝒆 is the coefficient of self-

discharge has the formula experimental origin and shown in Fig.

Chart to determine 𝑲𝑳

Among the requirements for proper application are the following. The H load should

be measured at a distance equal to 4 or 5 times the maximum load. The landfill is

properly to be thin-walled, the crest should be 1 to 2mm thick. The level of the free

surface downstream must be at least 6 cm below the crest of the spillway. The load

must be greater than 3cm. The threshold must be at least 10 cm, the length of the weir

and the channel width should be greater than 15 cm, the relationship between the load

and the height H P threshold must be less than than 2.5.

If the length of the landfill was equal to the width of the channel (L = B), then there

would contractions.

2016 - II 13

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

Coeficiente de descarga 𝑪𝒆

9. REHBOCK FORMULA

The 1929 Rehbock formula for discharge coefficient in thin-walled rectangular landfills

without contractions is:

3⁄

𝐻 0.00009 0.0011 2

𝐶 = [0.6035 + 0.0813 + ] [1 + ]

𝑃 𝑃 𝐻

H and P are in meters, the coefficient C is applied to the general formula discharge of a

rectangular weir.

2016 - II 14

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

The triangular-notch,thin-plate weir is used widely for measuring the flow of liquids in

flumes and open channels. Simple in design and easily made from readily available

materials, it is inexpensive, convenient to use, and easy to maintain. In permanent or

portable form it is frequently used to measure the flow of water in laboratories and in

small, natural streams.

8 𝜃 5

𝑄 = 𝐶𝑒 √2𝑔 𝑡𝑎𝑛 ℎ2

15 2

Q (m³/s) is flow over V - Notch weir.

g es la aceleración de la gravedad (9,81 m / s²).

2016 - II 15

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

Spending a trapezoidal pourer like figure can be calculated assuming the sum of the

corresponding one rectangular with length b and the triangular ridge formed with the two

banks expenditure. This means the sum of the equations:

It is a landfill as its name indicates trapezoidal shape in its opening, also known as

landfill Cipolleti in his honor to its inventor, the Italian engineer Cesare Cipolleti.

Cipolleti try to determine a landfill to offset the decrease in flow due to lateral

contractions through the triangular portions of the landfill, with the advantage of

avoiding the correction in the calculations.

Has the outline of a regular trapezoid with slopes on the sides k = 1 (1 Horizontal and 4

vertical) and finds application as flume channels.

The equation is valid if: a ≥ 2h; and ≥ 3h; w ≥ 3h and channel widths of 30 h to 60 h.

2016 - II 16

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

They are used to evacuate flows increased since the special shape of its crest allows

maximum discharge when compared with another form of landfills for equal loading

height of water.

ADVANTAGE

Reduce the pressure on landfill (top of facing).

The profile Creager is subject to almost no pressure at all points.

FLOW CALCULATION

𝑄 = 𝐶𝐿𝐻 3/2

Where

Q = Design flow, m3 / s.

C = Coefficient of the pourer.

L = Length of the ridge, m.

H = Design load, m.

2016 - II 17

FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO

ARQUITECTURA Y SISTEMAS ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL

MECÁNICA DE FLUIDOS II Ing. ARBULÚ RAMOS José

bibliography

FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES – DR.R.K. BANSAL -

2014

ERICK RITTER, AND CHRIS ROBERTS - 2010

ACTUALIZADO

http://theconstructor.org/water-resources/what-is-weir-types-flow-over-

weirs/11873/

http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/weirs/disc

harge.php

http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/weirs/disc

harge.php

2016 - II 18

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