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ROLE OF ETHICS IN STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP: CASE

STUDY OF A SELECTED NAMIBIAN GOVERNMENT


ORGANISATION

BY
AUSTER LINANGA LINANGA

STUDENT NUMBER: 21011063

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree

MASTER OF POLICING PRACTICE

AT

SOUTHERN BUSINESS SCHOOL

SUPERVISOR: DR PR VUMA

DATE: 24 NOVEMBER 2017


DECLARATION

I, Auster Linanga Linanga, declare that this research article is my own unaided work,
both in content and execution. All the resources I used for this study are cited and
referred accordingly in the reference list by means of a comprehensive referencing
system. Apart from normal guidance from my supervisors I received no assistance
except as stated in the acknowledgements. I declare that the content of this dissertation
has never before been used for any qualification at any tertiary institution.

Signature: ___________________

Date: ______________________

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My first and foremost sincere appreciation goes to Almighty God for giving me strength
to carry out this study. Further appreciation goes to my family and friends for being
there for me, and encouraging and inspiring me to work hard.

Secondly, my sincere gratitude to the Inspector General of the Namibian Police Force,
the Head of Training and Development Directorate, and Police Regional Commanders
of Kavango East, Omaheke and Zambezi regions for their unwavering support during
the research project. Similarly, I would like to extend appreciation to all police officers
who participated in the project by volunteering to be interviewed despite their busy daily
schedules. Further, I appreciate all the contributions from interviewees as it helped me
to complete this project successfully. To my research supervisor and Southern Business
School staff, thank you very much for your timely response and assistance. Your
guidance broadened my knowledge and skills on how to conduct research.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
ABSTRACT v
KEY CONCEPTS vii
1. CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH ARTICLE OVERVIEW, PROBLEM 1
STATEMENT AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 2
1.3 DEFINATION OF TERMS 3
1.4 CONCLUSION 4
2. CHAPTER 2: 5

2.1 INTRODUCTION 5

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

2.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 7

2.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 7

2.4.1 General Objective 7

2.4.2 Specific Objectives 7

2.5 EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION OF STUDY 7

2.6 RESEARCH DESIGN 8

2.7 RESEARCH APPROACH 8

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS 8

2.9 RESEARCH SETTING AND POPULATION 8

2.10 SAMPLING 9

2.11 RECORDING OF DATA 10

2.12 DATA ANALYSES 10

2.13 STRATEGIES EMPLOYED TO ENSURE QUALITY DATA 10

2.14 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 10

2.15 CONCLUSION 11

3. CHAPTER: 3 FINDINGS, INTERPRETATIONS, CONCLUSION AND 12


RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 INTRODUCTION 12

3.2 FINDINGS 12

3.2.1 Theme 1: Ethical practices applied in developing the organisations 12


strategic leadership plans.

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3.2.2 Theme 2: Role of strategic planning in leadership. 13

3.2.3 Theme 3: Knowledge and skills necessary to develop ethical leadership 14


strategies.
3.2.4 Theme 4:Ethical characteristics required of an ethical leader 15

3.2.5 Theme 5:Ethical roles of a strategic leader 16

3.3 INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS 19

3.4 CONCLUSION 21

3.5 LIMITATIONS 21

3.6 RECOMMENDATIONS 21

LIST OF REFERENCES 23

Annexure 1: Permission to conduct research: Southern Business School 26

Annexure 2: Permission to conduct research: Ministry of safety and 27


security
Annexure 3: Interview schedule 28

Annexure 4: Participant consent and Indemnity 31

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ABSTRACT

ORIENTATION
The organisation under review is mandated to ensure peace, safety and security
in Namibian. Rendering this noble service require ethical conduct. There is,
however, incompetence and unethical conduct in some management areas of
the organisation. This results in failure to set strategies for effective leadership.

RESEARCH PURPOSE
To determine the role that ethics plays in strategic leadership.
MOTIVATION
Safety and security is a desire for every nation and the prevalence of unethical
conduct in any protection unit such as the Namibian police raises concern. This
research was carried to determine the prevalence of unethical conduct within the
leadership of the Namibian police. A report published in the Namibian newspaper
of 12 October 2016 titled: “Ndeitunga shelves top cop appointment” insinuated
that, top police officers indulge in unethical activities such as fraud, favouritism
and nepotism. In the report, one senior police officer was alleged to have
pending criminal cases against him. It was also stated in the report that, the said
officer was appointedto the Republic of South Africa as police attaché. The
alleged cases included corruption and nepotism (Shinovene 2016:1).

RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD

The research was qualitative and used purposive sampling. Semi-structured


Interviews were conducted in three regions namely Kavango East, Omaheke
and Zambezi. The interviews involved those in supervisory positions as they
were believed to have knowledge of ethical leadership practices.

MAIN FINDINGS
The study found insufficient monitoring and implementation of formulated
strategies by those in supervisory position, thus leading to unethical conducts.
Evidence presented in this study point to lack of knowledge and understanding of
the role of ethics in strategic leadership. The organisation’s failure to adequately
train supervisors on ethical issues hampers accelerated performance and
attainment of mandated duties as stipulated in article 118 of the Namibian
Constitution.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Improved work performance is a result of implementation of well formulated
strategies. In the case of inadequate monitoring structures, human resource
development in the form of training is vital. A needs analysis is critical to ensure
training is focused on needy areas. Job descriptions and performance targets for
each job category need to be clearly outlined.

CONTRIBUTION
The study presents shortfalls within the organisation that leads to unethical
conducts by some supervisors. The implementation of the recommendations in
this study may better contribute to better understanding of the role ethics plays in
strategic leadership, and eventually enhance ethical policing in the organisation
of study.

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KEY CONCEPTS

Ethics, ethical leadership, ethical characteristics, strategic leadership, and


practices of ethical leaders

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Effective leadership in organisations is a result of proper implementation and
monitoring of required ethical code of conducts.Code of conducts also need to
be linked to systemic practices and procedures, based on legislation,
supported by a high-level leadership commitment and ongoing 'professional
ethics' training (Whitton, 2001:3). This study focused on one selected
Namibian government organisation (hereafter referred to as the ‘selected
organisation’ or organisation under review).Every organisation has code of
conducts, rules and regulations. Research focused on ethics indicates that an
ethical officer plays a pivotal role in driving the ethical environment within an
organisation.

Hendrick, Lloyd and Michelle Mey (2010:2) in their report on “An ethical model
to develop an ethical organisation” concur with Kay and Popkin (1998:337)
that, organisations that wish to improve their profitability need to enhance their
decision-making strategies by incorporating ethics into their decisions. Not all
leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, all managers are leaders (Robbins
et al, 2009:290).

While all leaders are assumed to have skills in positions they serve, not all are
prepared to identify what values their decisions are based on or to clarify the
values in an organisation under which they operate (Moorehouse, 2002:13).
Similarly, the selected organisation has personnel appointed in supervisory
roles who are not well versed with ethical leadership knowledge and skills.

It is imperative for a leader to possess ethical knowledge and skills in order to


effectively manage and lead a group of people or an organisation (Community
Tool Box, 2017:1). Hence, the two concepts ‘ethics’ and ‘leadership’ should go
hand in hand. Organisational leaders are expected to lead people within the
prescripts of societal ethics (Community Tool Box, 2017:1). Leadership is
about influencing people to achieve a common or shared goal. Ethical
leadership implies that such goals are achieved in a way that is fair and just to
all involved and all on which it has an impact (Daft, 2011).

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According to the African Policing Civilian Oversight Forum report available at
(https://apcof.org/country-data/namibia/) the organisation under study did not
properly adhere to certain conducts as required of its mandate. The
organisation’s mandate is to maintain peace, safety and security in the
Republic of Namibia. Hence there is a need to ensure a functional and
purposeful strategic planning and implementation process. Figure 1.1 below is
a framework at which this process can look at.

Figure 1. Framework for strategic planning and implementation processes


(College of Policing 2015).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


The problem for this research is that, the current leadership of the selected
organisation under study does not apply ethics in its leadership roles. This
may be the result of insufficient strategic planning and implementation process
which impacts significantly on the leaderships’ effective governance. Brown
and Trevino (2006:597) assert that ethical leaders are perceived as honest
and trustworthy. This is necessary for healthy working relationships and may
have a positive impact on work outcomes. They further add that, ethical
leaders are characterised as honest, caring, and principled individuals who
make fair and balanced decisions.
A report byNamRights (a non-governmental organisation for human rights in
Namibia) for 2014 states that there is a lack of ethics in the manner the

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organisation conducts its daily activities and this result in gross human rights
violations.

NamRights press statements dated 3 March 2014, 4 March 2014, 11 June


2014 and 24 June 2014 available on NamRights website.
(http://www.nshr.org.na/index.php?module=search&func=search) presents
some incidents of human rights violations that result in civil cases against the
selected organisation of study. It is the researcher’s opinion that a strategic
plan directs the ethics to manage an organisation. This study focused on
determining the role ethics play in setting up an ethically-oriented leadership in
the selected organisation.

1.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS


Ethics: refers to good and bad, the right and wrong conducts of one human
being towards another” (Josephson 2001). Josephson (2001) adds that ethics
involve two things; firstly, discerning right from wrong, and, secondly, the
commitment to do what is good and proper. For the purposes of this study,
ethics also refers to conduct, behaviour, norms, rules and values that are
inherently honest and just, shared and known by all employees in an
organisation (Josephson 2001).

Leadership: according to Robbins, Judge, Odendaal and Roodt (2009:290),


leadership is “the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of a
vision or set of goals”. However, leadership differs. Some leaders are
appointed in their positions based on merit. This is not always the case. There
are those that inappropriately occupy leadership positions and they are unable
to influence groups positively.

Ethical leadership: Ethical leadership includes both acting ethically and


setting the standard for others to do so as well. Leaders have the opportunity
to inspire others not only to do the right thing but to also consider the kind of
people they want to be. (Van Zyl, Dalglish, Du Plessis, Pietersen, Ngunjiri, and
Kablan, 2016:172). Hitt et al in Moorehouse (2002:13) states that effective
leadership is a consequence of ethical conduct.

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1.4 CONCLUSION
In this chapter is a presentation of the research problem and definitions of
concepts relevant to the research topic. In the next chapter focus in on the
Literature review and Research methodology.

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CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH ARTICLE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter will provide information from a number of sources namely
research articles, books and internet sources on the topic under study. Other
topics covered in this chapter are research questions, research objective,
research design, research approach, data collection methods, research setting
and population, sampling method, data analysis and ethical consideration.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW


Poor leadership practices hinder effective service delivery in organisations.
Ethical leadership requires leaders to lead in a way that takes into account the
responsibility to ensure competence and moral standards in organisations
(The Workplace Coach, 2013:1). Leaders of organisations need to be ethical
because of the influence they have on subordinates. Leaders need to show
positive attitudes towardstask completion and behave in an acceptable
manner (The Workplace Coach, 2013:1). Furthermore, leaders play a
significant role in ensuring effective organisational processes such as
transformation, culture and vision (The Workplace Coach, 2013:1). Kilcullen
and Kooristra (1999) as cited in Brimmer (2007:1) define organisational ethics
as a set of principles that guides the organisation’s everyday practices.

According to Mathooko (2013:1) organisational ethics involves guidelines,


ethical values, principles, rules and standards that help leaders to lead as
desired. Today the world has become one village due to globalisation,
liberalisation, technological changes and advancement hence it is important
for organisations to employ and retain ethical leaders in order to sustain
organisational systems Mathooko (2013:1).

Five principles of ethical leadership identified by Aristotle and adopted by


Donahue (2013) are respect, service, justice, honesty and building
community.Bill as cited in Subhasree (2009:114) suggests the following four
pillars of ethical leadership:
 Values – ethical leadership begins with understanding of and
commitment to our individual values.

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 Vision – is the ability to frame our actions, particularly in service to
others, within a real picture of what ought to be.
 Voice – claiming our voice is the process of articulating our vision to
others in authentic and convincing ways that motivate them to action.
 Virtue – understanding that we become what we practise. We foster
virtue by practising virtuous behaviour; striving to do what is right and
good.

According to Subhasree (2009:115) ethical leadership results in improved


public image of the organisation, restoration of investor confidence, prevention
and reduction of criminal penalties, preventing civil law suits of employees who
could not have their grievances met satisfactorily inside company, improved
employee retention, market leadership through improved customer satisfaction
and setting the example for others in the market.

The ability to formulate strategies that promote organisational service delivery


is attained through the adoption of accepted and recognised ethical codes that
govern the firm. Consistent with social learning theory, followers emulate
ethical leaders’ behaviours, because such leaders are attractive and credible
models who model normatively appropriate behaviours (Subhasree,
2009:115). Strategic leadership is the key to effective strategy implementation.
Hitt (1990) in Jooste and Fourie (2009:52) defines strategic leadership as “the
ability to anticipate, envision, and maintain flexibility and to empower others to
create strategic change as necessary”.

Strategic leadership is multifunctional and helps organisations to cope with


change. It requires the ability to accommodate and integrate both the internal
and external business environment of the organisation and to manage and
engage in complex information processing. Characteristics that positively
contribute to effective strategy implementation include ability to determine
strategic direction, establish balanced organisational controls, effectively
manage the organisation’s resource portfolio, sustain an effective
organisational culture, and emphasise ethical practices(Donahue 2016:1) .

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2.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research was set to answer the following research questions:
- What ethical practices are applied in developing the selected
organisation’s strategic leadership plans?
- How does strategic planning play a role in leadership?
- Do leaders or managers have the knowledge and skills necessary to
develop ethical leadership strategies?
- What ethical characteristics are required for a leader to become an
ethical leader?
- What are the ethical roles of a strategic leader?

2.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


The general and specific research objectives were:

2.4.1 General objective


The general objective of the research was to determine the role
that ethics plays in strategic leadership.

2.4.2 Specific objectives


- To determine the role of ethics in developing strategic plans
- To understand how strategic planning play a role in
leadership
- To analyse the knowledge and skills of the leadership in
relation to ethics in the selected organisation
- To determine whether the ethical characteristics ofstrategic
leaders in the selected organisation are clearly formulated
- To determine whether the roles of ethical leaders in the
selected organisation are clearly formulated

2.5 EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION OF STUDY


Ethics direct an organisation’s culture. Therefore, the findings and
recommendations made in this report could significantly contribute to good
organisational leadership. The application of the recommendations made
based on the findings could help transform organisational leaders from just
ordinary leaders into ethical leaders.

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2.6 RESEARCH DESIGN
This is a qualitative research using a case study design. The reason why a
case study was chosen is because it allows the researcher to describe the
processes of a single unit over a specific time frame. Such a unit include a
case of an individual, family, organisation or community. In this instance a
descriptive case study, also known as intrinsic case study was employed to
describe, analyse and interpret a particular phenomenon (De Voset al,
2011:321).Babbie (2001) cited by De Voset al. (2011:321) indicates that, “case
study researchers, in contrast to grounded theorists, seek to enter the field
with knowledge of the relevant literature before conducting the field research”.
The researcher needs to be present on the research need to interact with the
participants in the research setting.

2.7 RESEARCH APPROACH


The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of unethical leadership in
and the impact it has on job performance. The research was qualitative
approach because the researcher wanted to gain an understanding of the
importance which participants attach to the role of unethical leadership
position in the organisation.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHOD


Data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The interviews were first
recorded and then scribbled. The participants were informed in advance of the
day, time and venue of the interviews. Written permission was also obtained
from the Inspector general (Annexure 2). Participants also signed written
consent informing them of the purpose of the study (Annexure 4). The data
collection method used was interviews. The reason why interview was chosen
as data collection method is because the research wanted to obtain factual
and first hand information (English, Fielding, Howard & Vander Merwe,
2006:319).

2.9 RESEARCH SETTING AND POPULATION


The study was carried out in three regions namely Zambezi, Kavango East
and Omaheke. Ten participants from each policing precinct were interviewed.
The participants were:
 Deputy Regional Police Commander (Administration)
 Staff Officers (Administration and Operations)

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 Station Commanders
 Special Field Force Sub-divisional Heads
 Unit Commanders (Criminal Investigations; different Units)
 Unit Commanders (Community Affairs)
 Unity Commanders (Logistics)
 Unit Commanders (Field Training Officers)
 Charge Office Supervisors

Table .1 indicates the number of participants taken from the list above.

TABLE 1: Number of staff members and ranks interviewed


Rank Dep.Comm. C/Insp. Inspector W/O SGT
Number 03 05 07 09 06

2.10 SAMPLING
The sampling procedure used in the study was purposive sampling. This was
because the research was carried in a limited time frame and the researcher
only selected individuals who were most likely to give the right information.
Patton (2002:244) says there are no rules for sample size in qualitative inquiry.
Further on, De Voset al. (2011:391) describe sample size as “depending on
what we want to know, the purpose of the inquiry, what is at stake, what will be
useful, what will have credibility, and what can be done with available time and
resources”

According to Creswell (2007:125) “purposive sampling is used in qualitative


research and that participants and sites are selected that can purposefully
inform an understanding of the research problem of the study. De Vos et al.
(2011:392) quotes Grinnel & Unrau 2008:153, Monnette, Sullivan & DeJong
(2005:148) when referring to purposing sampling that “this type of sample is
based entirely on the judgement of the researcher, in that a sample is
composed of elements that contain the most characteristic, representative or
typical attributes of the population that serve the purpose of the study best”.

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Participants in this research were selected according to their positions and
places or work relevant to what was being studied. Only managers or persons
in supervisory position were interviewed.

2.11 RECORDING OF DATA


The data was collected by means of taking notes and audio recording. Audio
recordings were done with permission of the interviewee. No names of
participants were recorded on the scripts and interviewees were accorded
opportunity to peruse the notes to ensure that only correct data was obtained.
All data collected was safely preserved by the researcher, and later shredded
after the purpose for which it had been required lapsed.

2.12 DATA ANALYSIS


Qualitative data analysis is a process of inductive reasoning, thinking, and
theorising which certainly is far removed from structured, mechanical and
technical procedure to make inference from empirical data of social life (De
Vos et al, 2011:399). As direct communication by means of viva voce (verbal
communication or face to face communication) was used, it provided optimal
data collection.

2.13 STRATEGIES EMPLOYED TO ENSURE DATA QUALITY


The data collected and recorded was verified and sorted according to
categories. Only data relevant to the research questions was used. The
participants were given the opportunity to peruse the data to ensure that only
the accurate information was used for research purposes.

2.14 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS


The participants were ensured protection of their right to anonymity regarding
disclosure of information provided. Ethical clearance was obtained from
Southern Business School ethics committee (Annexure 1). Permission to
conduct study was also obtained from the organisation of study (Annexure 2).
Participants signed written consent (Annexure 4). Research ethics are
important because they cover confidentiality of information provided by the
participants, confidentiality of the identity of participants and correct
information. Participants were allowed to peruse script notes on data gathered
and were satisfied with the content thereof and adequate disclosure regarding
the aim of the study to the participants.

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2.15 CONCLUSION
This chapter gave an outline of some ethical leadership practices relevant to
the study. Research methodology and design was also presented. The next
chapter consist of the research findings, interpretations, conclusion and
recommendations.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATION.

3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents findings of the research. Interpretations, conclusions and
recommendations to research findings are made. . The research focused on
determining the role that ethics plays in strategic leadership.

3.2 FINDINGS
The findings are answers to the research questions given in Chapter 1. The
interview schedule used for the study is attached (Annexure 3). Staff members
who volunteered to take part in the interviews are referred to as ‘participants’ or
‘interviewees’.

The information is presented in five (5) themes based on the following research
questions;
- What ethical practices are applied in developing the selected
organisation’s strategic leadership plans?
- How does strategic planning play a role in leadership?
- Do leaders or managers have the knowledge and skills necessary to
develop ethical leadership strategies?
- What ethical characteristics are required for a leader to become an
ethical leader?
- What are the ethical roles of a strategic leader?

Theme 1: Ethical practices applied in developing the organisations


strategic leadership plans.
Majority of the participants knew about the organisation’s mandate as provided
for in Article 118 of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia. Some
participants made reference to the Police Act 19 of 1990 as amended.
Moreover, the Inspector General Directives, Police Regulations and Standing
Orders provide acceptable practices of leadership for the organisation under
study. Only commissioned officers showed awareness of the National Strategic
Plan that directs Police organisation conduct.

Participants also felt that,study strategic leadership plans have to be guided by


the constitution of the Republic of Namibia, The Police Act 19 of 1990 as

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amended, the National Strategic Plan on Safety and Security, Inspector General
Directives and Police Regulations and standing orders. The participant’s views
on ethical characteristics are that, the organisation under review need to comply
with international treaties on policing-related matters. These treaties are
incorporated in the National Strategic Plan; therefore they form part of the
ethical practices in developing the organisation’s strategic plans.

Theme 2: Role of strategic planning in leadership.


Sub-theme: Mission and vision statements in strategic planning.
The study found that some supervisors who superficially understood the
vision, mission and values of the organisation could not give detailed meaning
and purpose of such statements. Two non-commissioned officers- Sergeants
were able to state the vision and mission of the organisation word by word.
The vision and mission of the organisation under study are;
Vision - to protect and serve all people in Namibia.

Mission - to render the necessary quality service as laid down in the Police
act, with due consideration for the fundamental human rights and freedoms,
without compromising in upholding the tenets of law and order, safety and
security of all persons.

The vision and mission statements also guided the formulation of the
organisation’s strategic plans.

Sub-theme:Strategic plan implementation.


Majority of non-commissioned officers were unaware of the National Strategic
Plan that directs policing practices. They also said that the National Strategic
Plan document was not accessed nor made available to other members of the
police force except those in management positions. One Commissioned
Officer stated that: “If such National Strategic plan existed, then there were no
checks and balances by either the organisation or by outsider stakeholders to
oversee its implementation”. Though one deputy commissioner acknowledged
the existence of strategic operational plans, there was no confirmation as to
whether such plans are in accordance with the National Strategic Plan.

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Sub-theme: Causes of failure to implement strategies.
Participants felt there was lack of monitors (follow ups and feedback) to
ensure strategy implementation. Lack of resources (funds and equipments),
poor communication channels, and unclear instructions as well as lack of
coordination among structures of the organisation featured in responses as
that contribute to failure to implement strategies.

Theme 3: Knowledge and skills necessary to develop ethical leadership


strategies.
Sub-theme: Training of supervisors.
A total of 23 out of 30 supervisors cited lack of knowledge about their job
descriptions upon appointment. Apart from supervision and management
courses attended by some, they claimed that no other courses or inductions
were presented to them to enhance job knowledge in their respective work.
One of the Station Commanders in confirmed not to have been inducted on
how to manage a station. Similar responses from other unit commanders
showed discontent about lack of trainings to foster supervisory roles.

About 17 of the research participants indicated that they had not attended
Supervision and Management courses, despite having been promoted to
senior ranks. Participants also felt there was some impartiality in the selection
of staff members who attended staff developmental courses. Only supervisors
who were not part of the Charge Office personnel attended supervisory
training. Supervisors who attended supervisory training did not directly handle
public complaints but performed administrative duties.

Some participants were of the opinion that, if Charge Office personnel were to
attend supervisory training, it could result in better service delivery. It was also
found that three(3) out of four(4) Charge Office shift supervisors did not
attended any development courses.Field Training Officers alluded to limited or
lack of resources such as training aids and funding. Those who attended
management developmenttraining were satisfied with the training curricula of
courses presented. They maintained that the volume of subject content
presented was relevant and suitable, given the period of trainingoffered. They
were adamant that poor performance and conduct of some supervisors could

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not be attributed to lack of training, instead had to do with lack of commitment
by the individual.

The organisation of study provides training to staff through its’ four (4) Training
Centres that offer Basic and Advanced courses in supervision and
management. Further funding is sourced from stakeholders such as other
Namibian government institutions and other Non-governmental organisations.

Sub-theme: How are leadership skills assessed or evaluated?


According to research participant the selection of supervisors are based on
work experience, diligence and discipline. There is no appraisal system to
monitor staff performance; instead staffs are assessed by observation based
on a number of personal achievements as recommended by their supervisors.
The above approach is seen as that promotes favouritism as it was arguably
recited by most research participants.

Theme 4: Ethical characteristics required of an ethical leader


Sub-theme: How are supervisors selected/ identified?
Most of the participants agreed in common response to that; supervisors are
identified and promoted into positions based on work experience, discipline
and meticulousness. However, some participants hinted on favouritism in the
selection process. According to interviewees, some supervisors are deployed
in fields in which they were not trained. One such instance was the transfer of
some heads of divisions, notably in Criminal Investigations units. Although
rotation of supervisors is acceptable within the organisation, the deployment of
personnel in fields they are not specialised is – according to the interviewees –
a factor contributing to poor performance owing to the fact that such
transferred supervisors have to acquaint themselves with the practices of their
new portfolios first.

Interviewees stated that inexperienced supervisors affected subordinates


negatively, as subordinates expected to receive instructions that would
assuage the problems faced. The placement of some supervisors in higher
positions than what they could handle is allegedly - according to interviewees -
that contribute to subordinates frustration and poor performance. Also

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identified by participants is that, less educated and inexperienced supervisors
placed in positions such as Station, Unit and Section commanders point to
lack of knowledge and skills necessary to plan according to the organisations
objectives.

Sub theme: Requirements of a leader.


As alluded to in the selection of a leader; the requirements for one to be a
supervisor in the organisation of study are to be hard working, posses
knowledge and skills of the work, diligence, discipline and good
communication, according to summarised research participants responses.
Further on, most participants stated that, a leader should be someone who at
least posses academic achievements in fields of management at institutions of
higher learning. Participants expressed dissatisfaction in regard to some
supervisor’s behaviours, which according to them was “unethical”.

24 out of 30 participants interviewed cited that, there is a need to address the


aspect of unethical behaviours of some supervisors within the organisation of
study. Participants claimed that, increase in misconduct and criminal offences
by some supervisors is said to be a result of abuse of office privileges within
the organisation of study. Instances that point to abuse of authority as drawn
from participant’s responses are; being drunk at work, absence from work, and
not complying with senior supervisors’ instructions. Also, use of foul language
towards subordinates, theft, bribery, assault (especially gender-based
violence) and murder form part of examples given by research participants.

Sub-theme: Appraisals to monitor performance of supervisors.


About 14 Interviewees stated that lack of monitoring instruments to evaluate
work performance impacted negatively on the organisation. According to the
participants, the probation appraisals of personnel after completion of basic
policing training, is the only known appraisal in the organisation of study.
Research participants are of the opinion that, staff appraisal if introduced will
be of advantage to the organisation, in that it will be means to motivate staff to
work and also help in the vetting process when appointing supervisors.

The organisation under review during December 2016 introduced a


Performance Agreement document that has to be adhered to by all

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supervisors. However, the targets of performance are determined by the
individual. Most commissioned officers interviewed expressed concern
regarding the absence of appraisals and that, the Performance agreement
was like an undertaking.

Theme 5: Ethical roles of a strategic leader.

Sub theme: Protecting the image of the organisation.


As in accordance with the findings under Theme 2, participants gave varied
responses. About 14 supervisors were of the opinion that the organisation’s
reputation in terms of leadership practices was on par with some law
enforcement agencies in Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Participants felt this was because of good leadership and eventually uplifting
the organisation’s good reputation.

On the other hand, others felt some of the supervisors were not promoting the
organisation mandate fairly. They cited instances of corruption within the
organisation such as incidents of bribery involving senior police officers and
other juniors. This according to one participant it portrays a bad image of the
organisation in view of the public it serves, resulting in lack of trust.

Sub theme: Leader and subordinate retention.


Most participants said poor communication abilities by some staff members
within the organisation under study was depriving them of better rapport
between the supervisor and subordinate. This was because supervisors did
not hold regular meetings to share the organisation’s plans and priorities. In
some cases staff members are paraded and informed of operations or
changes, but not enough time is accorded for them to raise questions or
suggestions. As a result participants felt they were not adequately involved in
the plans and other contributions to planned operations. Some Divisions and
Units Usually have morning meetings; however, such meetings mostly discuss
the activities or assignments of the day. Other matters related to staff
transfers, nominations and recommendations for courses, and dissemination
of correspondences with directives from National Headquarters hardly other
officers were not covered in such meetings.

17
Some participants, particularly non-commissioned officers, complained of not
receiving information timely. They stated that one had to be well-connected to
receive information. Those not linked to seniors in the organisation often
received information long after a date or event has lapsed.

Sub theme: Organisation strategy implementation.


Prevalent in responses from the participant was that some supervisors do not
understand their roles as leaders of departments. This manifests in feedback,
that some supervisors have no access to National Strategy Plan on safety and
security. A participant during interviews remarked that “it is business as usual,
as long as the day’s task is done”- this was in reference to whether there is set
objectives for the unit where he is deployed. 23 research participants cited
lack of training as being the contributing to poor communication, which is
eventually to say uninformed leadership. Arguably, according to about 4
research participants, the organisation of study is operating according to set
strategy, because some plans were implemented.

Participants were concerned that the organisation under review was not
monitored by outside independent institutions to ensure that it adhered to its
own set ethical practices. The Namibian government has established
institutions that are responsible for protection of human rights and guard
against property and corruption, i.e. the Ombudsman, the Anti-Corruption
Commission, the Legal Assistance Centre and some other non-governmental
organisations, such as Namibia Institute for Democracy and NamRights. Such
institutions are, however, not directly responsible for monitoring the activities
of the organisation under review. Participants did concede that these
organisations get involved when persons’ rights were infringed and reported,
however strategy implementation is not scrutinised.

Further revelation is that, the organisation under review has within its
establishment a directorate responsible for enforcing discipline among
members, redressing wrongs and investigating complaints against the police –
this includes criminal cases, departmental matters and disputes among the
police officials known as Internal Investigations Directorate (IID). The IID
reports its findings within the organisation’s hierarchy.

18
3.3 INTERPRETATIONS

This part presents the short summary of the themes as presented in 3.1

Ethical practices applied in developing the organisation’s strategic


leadership plans.
Ethics directs organisational behaviour or practices, as such the Constitution
of the Republic of Namibia, the Police act 19 of 1990 as amended, national
strategic plan on safety and security, Police regulations and standing orders
were identified as ethical practices to which the organisation should comply to.
However, to some extent these are not well adhered to, there is lack of
monitoring the implementation of strategy.

The role of strategic planning in leadership.

As presented in the findings, the fact that most supervisors are unable to recite
the vision and mission statements is proof that point to inability to understand
their role of making plans for the organisation. The vision and mission
statements are what sets the organisations goals, hence are the basis for
strategic planning. It is proven through this study that most supervisors do not
understand the need for strategy planning and even when strategies are
formulated there is evidence of failure in implementing such plans.

It is daunting that, some supervisors are not well conversant with the
organisations ethical codes as this point to incompetence in leading.
Organisation ethical practices are drawn from relevant legislations that govern
or authorises its mandate, as such supervisors out to align the strategieswith
the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, The Namibian Police Force Act 19
of 1990 including all regulations and standing orders, and National Strategic
Plan on safety and security.

Knowledge and skills needed for developing ethical leadership


strategies.
Prevalent in the organisation of study as revealed by the study is lack of
training for supervisors, especially training in specialised portfolios.
The majority of supervisors in all ranks have not attended the supervision and
management training and staff officer’s course for commissioned officers. As
such, supervisors lack knowledge and skills needed to plan properly resulting
in unethical actions applied. Although training is perceived relevant for

19
leadership transformation, failure to ensure that a supervisor undergoes
training is proof that supervisors lack knowledge and skills as would be
required of leader.

Ethical characteristics required of an ethical leader.


The study revealed that work experience, discipline and meticulousness are
prerequisite for promotions into ranks within the organisation of study. The
requirements hereafter, are in accordance the promotions policy as provided
for in the Administration manual Chapter 7 of the organisation of study.
Despite such requirements there are no definite procedure directing how
persons are identified.There are no set characteristics other than what are
made available on job descriptions. And job descriptions and performance
agreements are drawn by individual persons, thus compromising on
performance.

There seem to be no vetting or tests done before appointment of supervisors,


in most instances commendations are dependent on the recommending
panels’ discretion. An informed leader has capability to handle challenges of
her/his portfolio, to that supervisors should be persons who are well trained
and educated to be able to lead successfully, unlike according to the research
finding that a number of supervisors are not trained and lack qualifications
from institutions of higher education. The absence of requirements and
procedures for identifying supervisors leads to unethical conduct.

Ethical roles of a strategic leader


A leader is thought to be a principled person who should stand guard in
promoting the image and interests of the organisation. The persistent reports
of corruption committed by some officers within the organisation of study
foretell how unethical are some of the leaders, hence placing it in disrepute by
the client it serves. Not only do the members of the public complain about poor
service, but unethical conduct by supervisors leads to poor retention between
them and their subordinates. Lack of meetings and or other platforms of where
staffs present their ideas on the organisational plans leads to subordinates
feeling left out and isolated, hence risk misunderstandings in carrying out
tasks – resulting in unethical conducts. The absence of an independent
institution to monitor the affairs of the organisation of study is -according to

20
research participants – that leads to some officers conducting themselves
unethically, as little is done to reprimand culprits.

3.4 CONCLUSION
The study covered research objectives and unearthed some of the problems
affecting the organisation under review in terms of ethics and leadership
practices. Strategies should not be just content documented; they should be
implemented for the organisation to yield desired results. Cashman (2008:83)
is of the opinion that “Leadership is not about sitting in your office and
dreaming up strategy; it is about touching the organisation through personal
presence and relationship”. For leaders to excel in the quest to achieve set
objectives they need to be well-versed with the requirements that define the
required conduct in the organisation.

Some problems regarding ethics and leadership in the organisation under


review result from non-compliance with directives as required. Failure to
implement strategies is unethical and derails plans. Leaders who can’t plan
cannot lead successfully. Ethical leadership is a process of doing what is right
in terms of the organisations’ objectives. Leaders at all levels set the ethical
tone for subordinates in their units either by omission or commission and have
significant impact on how their subordinates act and perform (Barnes & Doty,
2010:90)

3.5 LIMITATIONS

Limitations are described as “matters and occurrences that arise in a study


which are out of the researchers’ control. To some extent limitation may affect
the conclusion and generalisation of the research findings (Simon & Goes,
2013). The study hence focused on the role of ethics in strategic leadership,
and only employees of the selected organisation of study that occupy
leadership positions were interviewed.

3.6. RECOMMENDATIONS
The views expressed in this study are meant to shed more light on the issues
that were found to be not consistent with ethical leadership in the organisation
under review. Facts identified and presented as requiring remedy, as
discussed in the study, should not be seen as challenging the current

21
leadership of the organisation, but rather aimed at drawing the leadership’s
attention to prevailing obstacles within the system that should be addressed
for the organisation to be more ethically-oriented.

It is thus recommended that the organisation of study should conduct needs


assessment and ensure providing training according to the needs. The
organisation’s leadership need to make sure strategies are implemented,
provide supervision and management training to all staff in leadership
positions, consider appointing and deploying personnel according to
specialisation, good character and qualification in positions as per
requirements, introduce an appraisal system that will serve as a tool to monitor
work performance and develop job descriptions for each job category. There is
need to engage in transparent, fair and caring conducts by supervisors, hence
they should increase communication so as to have retention of their
subordinates. Further research on the topic would be of significant value.

22
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25
ANNEXURE 1: PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH: SOUTHERN BUSINESS
SCHOOL

26
ANNEXURE 2: PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH: MINISTRY OF SAFETY
AND SECURITY

27
ANNEXURE 3: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
1. What ethical practices are applied in developing the organisation strategic leadership
plans?
1.1. Ethical standards that directs the organisation mandate
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

2. How does strategic planning play a role in leadership?


2.1. Considering the mission and vision statements in strategic planning.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2.2. Strategic plan implementation
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2.3. Causes of failure to implement strategies
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

3. Do leaders or managers have the knowledge and skills necessary to develop ethical
leadership strategies?
3.1. Trainings conducted aimed at enhancing knowledge and skills of
supervisor/leaders
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

28
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
3.2. Who provides training?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
3.3. How are leadership skills assessed or evaluated?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4. What ethical characteristics are required for a leader to become an ethical leader?
4.1. How are leaders selected/ identified?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

4.2. Any requirements?


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
4.3. Any performance appraisals?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

29
5. What are the roles of a strategic leader?
5.1. Protecting the image of the organisation.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
5.2. Leader and subordinate retention
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
5.3. Organisations’ strategy implementation
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6. Additional comments
6.1. ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

6.2. ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

30
ANNEXURE 4: PARTICIPANT CONSENT AND INDEMNITY

I hereby agree to voluntarily participate in the research/study and that my


involvement shall conform to the following decree;

- That my identity shall not be disclosed to any third party

- That I may withdraw from participating at any time

- That I will respond to questions in a manner presenting my understanding of


the case

- That I am not induced by the researcher in any manner to participate in this


exercise

- That I have been briefed by the researcher regarding the study/topic

- That I am assured to have access to information, and that I may make


changes to the scripts.

31