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Kuliah Pencemaran Udara

MODEL GAUSS UNTUK DISPERSI

PENCEMAR UDARA
DISPERSION
 Dispersion of the waste gases leads to the dilution of
the pollutants in the atmosphere. Self-purification
mechanisms of atmospheric air also assists the
process.
 Tall stacks emit gas into the upper layer of the
atmosphere and lower the ground concentration of
the pollutants.
 The method is commonly used, cheap and easily
applicable.
 By selecting the proper location of stacks through the
use of different models for dispersion, it is possible to
significantly reduce the concentration of waste gases
in the atmosphere.
DISPERSION
 Any particulate matter contained in the dispersed
gases have a tendency to settle down to the
ground level.
 The location of the industrial source may prohibit
dispersion as an option.
 Plume rise can significantly vary with ambient
temperature, stability conditions, molecular
weight, and exit velocity of the stack gases.
 The models of atmospheric dispersion are rarely
accurate. They should only be used for estimation
and comparative analysis.
SISTEM KOORDINAT DISTRIBUSI GAUSS ARAH
HORIZONTAL DAN VERTIKAL
PLUME RISE

 Several plume rise equations are available.

Briggs used the following equations to calculate
the plume rise:
 Where
 Δh = plume rise, m
 F = buoyancy flux, m4/s3 = 3.7 x 10-5QH

 u = wind speed, m/s

 x* = downward distance, m

 Xf = distance of transition from first stage of rise to

the second stage of rise, m
 QH = heat emission rate, kcal/s
 If the term QH is not available, the term F may
be estimated by
F = (g/π)q(Ts - T)/Ts
 where
g = gravity term 9.8 m/s2
 q= stack gas volumetric flowrate, m3/s (actual
conditions)
 Ts,T = stack gas and ambient air temperature, K,
respectively
 Many more plume rise equations may be found
in the literature. The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) is mandated to use Brigg's
equations to calculate plume rise. In past
years, industry has often chosen to use the
Holland or Davidson-Bryant equation.
 The Holland equation is :
 where
 d= inside stack diameter, m
 vs = stack exit velocity, m/s
 u = wind speed, m/s
 P = atmospheric pressure, mbar
 Ts,T = stack gas and ambient temperature,
respectively, K
 ΔT=Ts - T
 Δh = plume rise, m
 The Davidson-Bryant equation is
THE GAUSSIAN EQUATION
 The short term model for stacks uses the steady-state Gaussian
plume equation for a continuous elevated source.
 For each source and each hour, the origin of the source's coordinate
system is placed at the ground surface at the base of the stack.
 The x axis is positive in the downwind direction, the y axis is
crosswind (normal) to the x axis and the z axis extends vertically.
 The fixed receptor locations are converted to each source's
coordinate system for each hourly concentration calculation.
 The hourly concentrations calculated for each source at each
receptor are summed to obtain the total concentration produced at
each receptor by the combined source emissions.
 For a steady-state Gaussian plume, the hourly concentration at
downwind distance x (meters) and crosswind distance y
(meters) is given by:

 where:
 Q = pollutant emission rate (mass per unit time)
 K = a scaling coefficient to convert calculated concentrations to desired
units (default value of 1 x 106 for Q in g/s and concentration in
μg/m3)
 V = vertical term (See Section 1.1.6)
 D = decay term (See Section 1.1.7)
 σy , σz = standard deviation of lateral and vertical concentration
distribution (m) (See Section 1.1.5)
 us = mean wind speed (m/s) at release height
 The origin is at ground level or beneath the point
of emission, with the x axis extending horizontally
in the direction of the mean wind.
 The y axis is in the horizontal plane perpendicular
to the x axis, and the z axis extends vertically.
 The plume travels along or parallel to the x axis (in
the mean wind direction).
 The concentration, C, of gas or aerosol at (x,y, z)
from a continuous source with an effective height,
He, is given by:
MODELING
 Untuk memprediksi pencemaran udara
 Model Gauss  distribusi konsentrasi
 Rumus menghitung C gas atau aerosol (<20 u) pada
permukaan tanah arah downwind (x):

 Di mana: C = konsentrasi polutan, g/m3

 m = laju emisi polutan, g/s
 = kecepatan angin rata-rata, m/s
 z = standar deviasi konsentrasi flume arah
horizontal
 y = standar deviasi konsentrasi flume arah vertikal
 H = tinggi efektif cerobonhg, m
 X = jarak downwind sepanjang centerline flume dari
titik sumber, m
 Y = jarak crosswind dari centerline flume, m
 The assumptions made in the development of the above
equation are:
 the plume spread has a Gaussian (normal) distribution in
both the horizontal and vertical planes, with standard
deviations of plume concentration distribution in the
horizontal and vertical directions of av, and oz, respectively;
 uniform emission rate of pollutants, m;
 total reflection of the plume at ground z = 0 conditions; and
 the plume moves downstream (horizontally in the x
direction) with mean wind spead, u. Although any consistent
set of units may be used, the cgs system is preferred.
 For concentrations calculated at ground level (z
= 0), the equation simplifies to

 If the concentration is to be calculated along

the centerline of the plume (y = 0), further
simplification gives
 The plume rise model examines a range of
stability classes and wind speeds to identify the
"worst case" meteorological conditions
 Table. Stability Categories
 Note that A, B, C refer to daytime with unstable
conditions; D refers to overcast or neutral conditions
at night or during the day; E and F refer to night time
stable conditions and are based on the amount of
cloud cover.
TABLE. PARAMETERS USED TO CALCULATE PASQUILL-GIFFORD FY
TABLE 3.3 PARAMETERS USED TO CALCULATE PASQUILL-GIFFORD FZ
 Figure Dispersion coefficients, y direction
 Figure. Dispersion Coefficient, z direction
 Wind speed at elevation from known wind
speed and elevation

 where
u = wind speed at height h, (m/s)
 u0 = wind speed at anemometer level h0, (m/s)

 n = coefficient, approximately 1/7

TECHNICAL DATA AND COMPUTATION RESULTS FOR EFFECTIVE
STACK HEIGHT AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY
Parameter Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4
site condition
emission velocity rate m/s 17.51 38.23 19.90 36.76

wind speed m/s 31.10; 31.10; 31.10; 31.10;

10; 3 10; 3 10; 3 10; 3

air temperature K 298.13 298.13 298.13 298.13

stack height m 45.00 45.00 45.00 45.00

plume rise
Δh pada u = 31.2 m/s m 6.50 28.22 9.21 26.67
Δh pada u = 10 m/s m 18.07 43.20 21.08 41.43

efective stack height m 45 + Δh 45 + Δh 45 + Δh 45 + Δh

atmospheric
stability neutral type D or B D or B D or B D or B
EMISSION LOAD FROM DATA ANALYSIS RESULT FOR
DISPERSION GAUSSIAN MODEL INPUT

SO2 in exhaust g/s 0 0 241.87 241.47

Carbon
monoxide (CO) g/s 58.07 122.91 65.99 118.19

Nitrogen Dioxide
(NOx) g/s 71.42 151.18 395.93 709.15
case Plant Operating in combined cycle full

case Plant Operating in simple cycle GT full

TABLE. QUALITY OF GROUND QUALITY FROM GAS EMISSION

Parameter unit
1 2 3 4 ard

Dioxide (SO2) mg/m3 0 0 366.54 204.30 750

Nitrogen Oxide
mg/m3 123 123 600 600 850
(NOx)

Carbon Monoxide
mg/m3 100 100 100 100 -
(CO)
x CO SO2 NOx x CO SO2 NOx
(km) (μg/Nm3) (μg/Nm3) (μg/Nm3) (km) (μg/Nm3) (μg/Nm3) (μg/Nm3)

4.1 21.76794836 0 26.77457648 10.1 3.752689288 0 4.615807824

 Dispersion model CO and NOx on centerline, u = 3 m/s
1.00
400.00

365.00

0.00 270.00

180.00

90.00

-1.00 0.00

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
1.00
200.00

150.00

0.00 115.00

75.00

35.00

-1.00 0.00

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
LINE SOURCE APPLICATION
 A six-story hospital building is located 300 m east and
downwind from an expressway. The expressway runs north-
south and the wind is from the west at 4 m/s. It is 5:30 in
the afternoon on an overcast day. The measured traffic flow
is 8000 vehicles per hour during this rush hour and the
average vehicle, traveling at an average speed of 40mph, is
expected to emit 0.02 g/s of total hydrocarbons.
Concentrations at the hospital are required as part of a risk
assessment study. How much lower, in percent, will the
hydrocarbon concentration be on top of the building (where
the elderly patients are housed) as compared with the
concentration estimated at ground level? Assume a standard
floor to be 3.5 m in height
 q = source strength per unit distance, g/(s •
m)
 HQ = effective stack or discharge height, m

 oz = vertical dispersion coefficients, m

LINE SOURCE APPLICATION
 Concentrations from infinite line sources, when
the wind is not perpendicular to the line, can
also be approximated.
 If the angle between the wind direction and the
line source is Φ.

 This equation should not be used when Φ is

less than 45°.
 A power plant burns 12 tons of 2.5% sulfur
content coal per hour. The effective stack
height is 120 m and the wind speed is 2m/s. At
one hour before sunrise, the sky is clear. A
dispersion study requires information on the
approximate distance of the maximum
concentration under these conditions. {Hint:
Calculate concentrations for downward
distances of 0.1, 1.0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 50 and
70 km.)
 Model Line Source, 2 way
 Kelompok I : 2 way sejajar, angin tegak lurus
 Kelompok II: 2 way tdk sejajar, angin tegak lurus
salah satu jalan
 Kelompok III : sama dengan kelompok I, angin tidak
tegak lurus jalan
 Kelompok IV : sama dengan kelompok II, angin
tidak tegak lurus jalan
 Inputan (variabel) : data angin, data lalu