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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M M

F F Remarks
1. This method is a gasket load calculation.
2. This paper counts the gasket load in terms of force per unit
length of circumference, as this approach is usual in the circular plate
a theory.
3. For calculation of the reaction on free-to-rotate edge, the
circular plate theory gives results that are quite insensitive vs. variations
G G
of plate rigidity.

The theory assumes that the flange is a circular plate.

F
∑ Fbolts
bolts

H G0 = is the gasket load for the case no pressure, no


2π a
HG0 HG0 external loads.
a

No pressure, no external loads

Fpressure
F bolts
H G ( p) = H G0 −
2π a
is the gasket load for the case internal pressure, no external loads.
HG (p) Fpressure HG (p) Fpressure = π a 2 p
and
ap
G=2a H G ( p) = H G 0 −
2
Internal pressure, no external loads
Remark: A pressure load is decreasing the gasket reaction.

F
F bolts
F
H G ( F) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (F) HG(F)
is the gasket load for the case no pressure, external tensile force.
Remarks: - A tensile force F > 0 is decreasing the gasket load.
G=2a - A compressive force F < 0 is increasing the gasket load.

No pressure, external tensile force

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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M
A bending moment is changing the gasket load, but H G ( M ) is variable
F bolts along the gasket circumference.
The gasket load can be described by the following model, based on the
theory of circular plates.
maxHG (M) minH G(M)

G=2a
M -p
No pressure, external bending moment p

a -V
V
(Vmax) (Vmin)
G

ds=adθ

θ
a cosθ G=2a

pa
V= cos θ is the evaluation of the edge reaction
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following the circular plate theory
(see “Theory of Plates and Shells” by S. Timoshenko and S.
Woinowsky-Krieger, Second edition, 1959, paragraph 63
“Circular Plates under Linearly Varying Loads)
and
π
2
 pa  πa 3 p
M=4 
 ∫4
cos θ  (a cos θ) adθ =
 4
0
is the moment equation.

It results:
4M
p= 3
πa
pa 4 M a M
Vmax = = =
4 πa 3 4 πa 2
M
H G ( M ) = H G0 + Vmax cos θ = H G 0 + cos θ
πa 2
M
min H G ( M ) = H G0 −
θ πa 2
is the minimum gasket load for the case no pressure,
external bending moment.
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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

THE FOLLOWING EQUIVALENCES CAN BE WRITTEN:

F
The minimum gasket load is
M
M F
min H G (M , F ) = H G 0 − 2 −
F πa 2πa
bolts

The maximum gasket load is


M F
max HG(M,F) min H G(M,F) max H G (M , F ) = H G 0 + 2 −
πa 2πa

G=2a

No pressure, external bending moment


and external tensile force

IS EQUIVALENT WITH

Feq The equivalence is considered in terms


of “tensile force that gives the reaction on
F bolts gasket equal to the minimum gasket load given
by the external loads”:

HG (Feq ) HG (Feq ) min H G ( M , F ) = H G ( Feq ) or

 M F  Feq
H G0 −  2 +  = H G0 −
G=2a
 πa 2πa  2πa
That means:
Feq M F
No pressure, equivalent tensile force = 2+ , i.e.
2 πa πa 2 πa
2M 4M
Feq = F + =F+
a G
Remark: This equivalence is conservative made
and is really true just for a point, not for the entire gasket
IS EQUIVALENT WITH circumference.

Feq pressure

F bolts The equivalence is considered in terms of “pressure that


gives the same effect as Feq ”, i.e.
p eq πa 2 = Feq
HG (peq ) HG (peq )
1  2M  F 2M 4 F 16M
2  = 2 + 3
or p eq = F+ = +
πa  a  πa πa a=
G πG 2 πG 3
2
G=2a
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Equivalent pressure, no external loads
Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

GASKET LOAD LIMITS

Fpressure
Feq pressure For the tensile loaded part of the flange, the minimum
gasket load is:
F bolts
Fpressure + Feq pressure πa 2 (p + peq )
H G (peq ,p) = H G 0 − = HG0 −
2π a 2π a
HG (peq ,p) HG (peq ,p)

This load must be limited to the value corresponding to


G=2a
the rating pressure.
Internal pressure, equivalent pressure

versus the limit given by the rating pressure

FRATING pressure

F bolts
πa 2 p RATING
H G ( p RATING ) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (pRATING ) HG (pRATING )

G=2a

The gasket tightness condition means to accept for the gasket load only values that are greater than the
value corresponding to the rating pressure.
The condition H G ( p eq , p) ≥ H G ( p RATING ) means p + p eq ≤ p RATING .

For the compressed loaded part of the flange, the maximum gasket load is:
M F
max H G ( M , F ) = H G0 + 2 − , where F > 0 is a tensile force, F < 0 is a compressive force.
πa 2 πa
1 M F 
This load gives a compressive stress for the gasket:  H G0 + 2 −  that may be limited to a
b πa 2 πa 
maximum stress on the gasket. This condition is not covered by limiting p + p eq ≤ p RATING .

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