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Kellogg forces/pressure equivalence

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M M

F F Remarks

1. This method is a gasket load calculation.

2. This paper counts the gasket load in terms of force per unit

length of circumference, as this approach is usual in the circular plate

a theory.

3. For calculation of the reaction on free-to-rotate edge, the

circular plate theory gives results that are quite insensitive vs. variations

G G

of plate rigidity.

F

∑ Fbolts

bolts

2π a

HG0 HG0 external loads.

a

Fpressure

F bolts

H G ( p) = H G0 −

2π a

is the gasket load for the case internal pressure, no external loads.

HG (p) Fpressure HG (p) Fpressure = π a 2 p

and

ap

G=2a H G ( p) = H G 0 −

2

Internal pressure, no external loads

Remark: A pressure load is decreasing the gasket reaction.

F

F bolts

F

H G ( F) = H G0 −

2π a

HG (F) HG(F)

is the gasket load for the case no pressure, external tensile force.

Remarks: - A tensile force F > 0 is decreasing the gasket load.

G=2a - A compressive force F < 0 is increasing the gasket load.

-1-

Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M

A bending moment is changing the gasket load, but H G ( M ) is variable

F bolts along the gasket circumference.

The gasket load can be described by the following model, based on the

theory of circular plates.

maxHG (M) minH G(M)

G=2a

M -p

No pressure, external bending moment p

a -V

V

(Vmax) (Vmin)

G

ds=adθ

dθ

θ

a cosθ G=2a

pa

V= cos θ is the evaluation of the edge reaction

4

following the circular plate theory

(see “Theory of Plates and Shells” by S. Timoshenko and S.

Woinowsky-Krieger, Second edition, 1959, paragraph 63

“Circular Plates under Linearly Varying Loads)

and

π

2

pa πa 3 p

M=4

∫4

cos θ (a cos θ) adθ =

4

0

is the moment equation.

It results:

4M

p= 3

πa

pa 4 M a M

Vmax = = =

4 πa 3 4 πa 2

M

H G ( M ) = H G0 + Vmax cos θ = H G 0 + cos θ

πa 2

M

min H G ( M ) = H G0 −

θ πa 2

is the minimum gasket load for the case no pressure,

external bending moment.

-2-

Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

F

The minimum gasket load is

M

M F

min H G (M , F ) = H G 0 − 2 −

F πa 2πa

bolts

M F

max HG(M,F) min H G(M,F) max H G (M , F ) = H G 0 + 2 −

πa 2πa

G=2a

and external tensile force

IS EQUIVALENT WITH

of “tensile force that gives the reaction on

F bolts gasket equal to the minimum gasket load given

by the external loads”:

M F Feq

H G0 − 2 + = H G0 −

G=2a

πa 2πa 2πa

That means:

Feq M F

No pressure, equivalent tensile force = 2+ , i.e.

2 πa πa 2 πa

2M 4M

Feq = F + =F+

a G

Remark: This equivalence is conservative made

and is really true just for a point, not for the entire gasket

IS EQUIVALENT WITH circumference.

Feq pressure

gives the same effect as Feq ”, i.e.

p eq πa 2 = Feq

HG (peq ) HG (peq )

1 2M F 2M 4 F 16M

2 = 2 + 3

or p eq = F+ = +

πa a πa πa a=

G πG 2 πG 3

2

G=2a

-3-

Equivalent pressure, no external loads

Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

Fpressure

Feq pressure For the tensile loaded part of the flange, the minimum

gasket load is:

F bolts

Fpressure + Feq pressure πa 2 (p + peq )

H G (peq ,p) = H G 0 − = HG0 −

2π a 2π a

HG (peq ,p) HG (peq ,p)

G=2a

the rating pressure.

Internal pressure, equivalent pressure

FRATING pressure

F bolts

πa 2 p RATING

H G ( p RATING ) = H G0 −

2π a

HG (pRATING ) HG (pRATING )

G=2a

The gasket tightness condition means to accept for the gasket load only values that are greater than the

value corresponding to the rating pressure.

The condition H G ( p eq , p) ≥ H G ( p RATING ) means p + p eq ≤ p RATING .

For the compressed loaded part of the flange, the maximum gasket load is:

M F

max H G ( M , F ) = H G0 + 2 − , where F > 0 is a tensile force, F < 0 is a compressive force.

πa 2 πa

1 M F

This load gives a compressive stress for the gasket: H G0 + 2 − that may be limited to a

b πa 2 πa

maximum stress on the gasket. This condition is not covered by limiting p + p eq ≤ p RATING .

-4-

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