You are on page 1of 22

Chapter-1

Course Description
This course covers the principles of heat and mass transfer. The contents include
conductive and convective heat transfer; radiation heat transfer; process heat
exchangers; diffusion mass transfer; Two-film theory; Gas scrubbers.

Prerequisites
MECH 310 Thermodynamics-1
CHEN 311 Introduction to Fluids Engineering

Lectures
MTWR
11:30-12:40
FS-1 ROOM 206

Prof. Joseph Zeaiter, FS1 403, ext 3548 (Office Hrs: MW 2-3PM)

Textbook
Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman and
Lavine, 6th / 7th edition, Wiley.
Course Topics
• Conduction
• Convective heat transfer (free and forced)
• Heat & Mass Transfer coefficients correlations for internal and
external flow conditions
• Heat exchanger design and analysis, LMTD, effectiveness and NTU
method
• Radiation heat transfer, radiation intensity, blackbody radiation,
Kirchhoff’s law
• Diffusion mass transfer, Fick’s law
• Diffusion with and without chemical reactions
• Convective mass transfer, two-film theory
• Gas scrubbers

Grading
Homework and Attendance 10%
3 Exams (30% each)
Learning Outcomes
• Evaluate and explain the role of conduction, convection and radiation heat
transfer schemes
• Ability to solve conduction heat transfer problems
• Understand the fundamentals of the relationship between fluid flow,
convection heat transfer and mass transfer
• Calculate heat and mass transfer convection coefficients
• Design heat exchangers using LMTD and NTU-ε methods
• Select materials and design heat exchangers to optimize heat transfer
• Understand the basic concepts of radiation heat transfer to include both
black body radiation and gray body radiation
• Analyze mass transfer in gas-liquid unit operations
• What is heat transfer?
Heat transfer is thermal energy in transit due to a temperature
difference.

• What is mass transfer?


Mass transfer is the transport of one or more components of a mixture,
of fluid or solid material, within a phase or over the phase boundary,
due to a concentration difference
Modes of Heat Transfer
Conduction: Heat transfer in a solid or a stationary fluid (gas or
liquid) due to the random motion of atoms, molecules and /or
electrons.
Modes of Heat Transfer
Convection: Heat transfer due to the combined influence of bulk and
random motion for fluid flow over a surface.
Modes of Heat Transfer
Radiation: Energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves
(or photons).

• Conduction and convection require the presence of temperature


variations in a material medium.

• Although radiation originates from matter, its transport does not


require a material medium and occurs most efficiently in a vacuum.
Heat Transfer Rates: Conduction
General (vector) form of Fourier’s Law:

q  k T

Heat flux Thermal conductivity Temperature gradient


W/m 2
W/m  K °C/m or K/m
Application to one-dimensional, steady conduction across a
plane wall of constant thermal conductivity:

dT T T
qx  k  k 2 1
dx L
T1  T2
qx  k (1.2)
L

Heat rate (W): qx  qx  A


Conduction Example:

• Show the direction of the heat flux


• Calculate the heat flux across the wall and the heat transfer rate
Ans:
- 2833W/m2, 1700W
Heat Transfer Rates: Convection
Relation of convection to flow over a surface and development
of velocity and thermal boundary layers:

Newton’s law of cooling:

q  h Ts  T  (1.3a)

h : Convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m2  K)


Convection Modes:
Q1-20 (7th)

Convection Example:
A wall has inner and outer surface temperatures of 22 and 10oC
respectively. The interior air temperatures are 26 and 10oC
respectively. The inner and outer convection heat transfer
coefficients are 5 and 20 W/m2.K
Given that the wall is 25cm 50cm , calculate the heat flux and the
heat rate from:
- Interior air to the wall
- Wall to exterior air
Is the wall under steady-state conditions?
Suppose the inner wall temperature remained unchanged, at what
outer wall temperature is steady state reached?

Ans:
-20W/m2, 2.5 W
- 0 W/m2, 0 W
- No
- 11oC
Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation
Heat transfer at a gas/surface interface involves radiation
emission from the surface and may also involve the
absorption of radiation incident from the surroundings
(irradiation from Tsur , G ), as well as convection  if Ts  T  .
Energy outflow due to emission:
E   Eb   Ts4 (1.5)
E : Emissive power  W/m2 
 : Surface emissivity  0    1
Eb : Emissive power of a blackbody (the perfect emitter)
 : Stefan-Boltzmann constant  5.67×10-8 W/m2  K 4 

Energy absorption due to irradiation:


Gabs   G
Gabs :Absorbed incident radiation(W/m2 ) Reflected and transmitted
 : Surface absorptivity  0    1 rays have no effect on the
G : Irradiation  W/m2  thermal energy

G  Gsur   Tsur
4
Example 1.9 p39

Radiation Example:

The coating on a plate is cured by exposure to an IR lamp, it absorbs 80% of the


irradiation from the lamp. The coating has an emissivity of 0.5
It is also exposed to air at 20oC, and a large surrounding at 30oC.
-Calculate the cure temperature of the plate if the heat transfer coefficient in
the air is 15W/m2K

Ans:
104oC
Radiation Example:

An un-insulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and walls are at 25oC.
The outside diameter of the pipe is 70mm, and its surface temperature and emissivity are
200oC and 0.8
- Calculate the surface emissive power and irradiation
- What is the heat loss from the pipe per unit length (q’) if the heat transfer coeff.
is 15W/m2.K

Ans:
-2270 W/m2, 447 W/m2
- 998W/m
Modes of Mass Transfer

Diffusion Mass Transfer : From Fick’s law (mass transfer analog y to Fourier’s law),
J A  CDABxA
Binary diffusion coefficient or mass diffusivity (m2/s)

Convection Mass Transfer : Mass transfer from a flowing fluid to the surface of another
substance, or between two substances depends on the properties of the materials involved
and the concentration difference.

N/A = Kc ΔC
Mass transfer coefficient (m/s)
Summary
- Studied chemistry at Washington State University and Clemson University.
- Chemical engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
- Master's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Sydney, finishing with the
highest results in his class.
- He was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1983.
- During his time in Sydney, he earned a living as a bouncer in a nightclub. While preparing for
the move to Boston, he was spotted in the nightclub he worked at in Sydney and was hired by
Grace Jones as a bodyguard, and he moved with her to New York City.
Problems

- Find convection heat transfer coefficient

Ans: 375 W/m2.K


Problems

- Both spheres have same diameter and same temperature change!

Ans: 132 J/Kg.K


Q1-52(7th)

Problems
Q 1-39(6th)

(assume no heat loss for this part of the Q)


- Find air flow through hair drier fan
- Find total heat loss
Ans: 0.0199kg/sec or 0.0181 m3/s
- 5.97 W