BIOSTATISTICS lab
SINGLE MEAN: Inference About A Population Mean with unknown standard deviation
with known standard deviation
- Data Analysis Plus’ Z-test: mean
- Data Analysis Plus’ t-test: Mean
x−µ
t = x −µ σ
for an estimation of σ, the Chi-square test for variance may be applied
s n
- Data Analysis Plus’ Chi-Square Test: Variance χ ^{2}
=
( ^{n}^{−}^{1} _{2} ) ^{s} ^{2} , df = n – 1
σ
z=
n
TWO MEANS (Independent): Inference About the Difference of Two Independent Population Means
In Performing t-test for Two Independent Population Means, always begin with FTEST (testing the ratio of two
variances), unless the relationship of two variances are assumed
..
(Data Analysis’ F-test Two Sample for Variances)
F = ^{s} s ^{1}^{2} _{2}_{2} ,
where
s1> s2
*If computed F < critical value of F, then variances are equal. Otherwise, unequal
2 |
|||
s |
|||
Note that Input Range1 must contain the data with greater variance ( |
_{1} |
). |
TWO MEANS (Paired): Inference About the Difference of Paired or Two Dependent Population Means - Data Analysis’ ttest: Paired Two Sample for Means
MORE THAN TWO MEANS: Inference About the Difference of More Than Two Means
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
- tests whether significant difference exists in the means of independent groups of data
- Data Analysis’ ANOVA: Single Factor
- assumes normally distributed data and equal variances
o
Use Data Analysis Plus’ Chi-square Test for Normality to test whether the population is from a normal distribution
o
use Data Analysis Plus’ Bartlett’s Test to test whether variances are equal
Friedman’s One-Way ANOVA - tests whether there’s a significant difference in the means of dependent groups - Data Analysis’ Plus’ Friedman’s Test
ANOVA for Repeated Measures
- used for time-dependent factors - works like extension of paired t-test
Kruskal Wallis – One Way ANOVA
- to test whether significant difference exists in the means of independent groups of data
MULTIVARIATE ANOVA (MANOVA)
- used for multi-factor dependent factors and with one or more independent factors
- does not assume normally distributed data, and constancy of variance
- Data Analysis’ Plus’ Kruskal-Wallis Test
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
- used when one or more variables were not controlled (called “covariates”)
Two-factor ANOVA
MULTIVARIATE ANCOVA - used for multi-factor dependent groups
with covariates
- tests whether significant difference exists in the means of more than one independent groups of data
if significant difference in the means exist, perform Post-Hoc Analysis (Data Analysis Plus’ Multiple Comparisons) The Data Analysis’ Plus use Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. Other statisticians use Tukey’s HSD, or Duncan’s Test if each of the group has to be compared to a particular group (usually, the control group), use the Dunnett’s Test.
EXAMPLES:
1. The American Medical Association conducts surveys of its member each year. A sample of physicians is selected and asked to report the amount of time each devotes to patient care each week. The results for the 1997 survey are stored in med- time.xls. Can we infer that the mean amount of time devoted to patient care per week by all physicians exceeds 45 hours? Test at α = 0.05. (Adapted from the American Medical Association, Socioeconomic Characteristics of Medical Practice 1997/1998 and the statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Table 190)
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
Decision: ___________
___________________________________
2. The number of Internet Users is rapidly increasing. A recent survey reveals that there are about 30 Million Internet users in North America. Suppose that a survey of 200 of these people asked them to report the number of hours they spent per day. Results are in internettime.xls. Is there a reason to believe that the 30 Million users in North America spend 6.5 hours in internet surfing per day? Test at α = 0.05.
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
Decision: ___________
___________________________________
3. Recent Studies seem to indicate that using a cell phone while driving is dangerous. One reason for this is that a driver’s reaction times may slow while he or she is talking on the phone. Researchers at Miami University measured the reaction times of a sample of drivers who owned a car phone and the other half was not on the phone. The reaction times are stored in file phonereaction.xls. Can you conclude that the reaction times for drivers using cell phones are slower? Test at 95% confidence interval.
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
Decision:
___________
___________________________________
4. The president of Tastee, Inc., a baby-food producer, claims that her company’s product is superior to that of her leading competitor, because babies gain weight faster with her product. To test the claim, a survey was undertaken. Mothers of newborn babies were asked which baby food they intended to feed their babies. Those who responded Tastee or the leading competitor were asked to keep track of their babies’ weight gains over the next two months. There were 15 mothers who indicated that they would feed their babies Tastee and 25 responded that they would feed their babies the product of the leading competitor. Each baby’s weight gain (in ounces) was recorded and stored in file babygain.xls. Can we conclude, using weight gain as our criterion, that Tastee baby food is indeed superior? Test at α = 0.05.
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
Decision: ___________
___________________________________
5. Most people exercise in order to lose weight. To determine whether exercising vigorously twice a week would provide weight loss, weight (in lbs) of 50 samples were recorded at the beginning and at the end of a particular week. Results are in exerciseweek.xls. Can we infer at 0.05 level of significance that exercising twice a week provides significant weight loss?
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
Decision: ___________
___________________________________
6. There is a bewildering number of breakfast cereals on the market. Each company produces several different products in the belief that there are distinct markets. Results are in cereals.xls. Determine at α = 0.05 whether there are differences between the ages of the consumers on four cereals.
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
Decision:
___________
___________________________________
7. A group of laboratory experts believes that the sodium intake of all their patients has a mean greater than 8.5 mg. From a group of randomly selected 20 patients, the results are in sodium.xls. Is there a reason to believe that their hypothesis is correct? Test at α = 0.05 using σ ^{2} = 7 mg ^{2} if it is a good variance estimation. Otherwise, use s ^{2} in performing the test.
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
Decision: ___________
___________________________________
8. Teenagers are engaged in various daily activities that 8-hrs of sleeping is not already taken seriously. 15 random students were asked regarding the daily number of hours they spend on watching tv, listening to radio, surfing the internet, studying and sleeping. Data are in dailyhrs.xls. Is there a significant difference in the mean number of hours of the five daily activities? Test at α=0.05.
Hypotheses:
Ho:
________________________________________________________________________________
Ha:
________________________________________________________________________________
Statistical Test to Use: __________________________
Test Statistic:
__________
Critical Value: ____________
p-value:
___________
Conclusion:
Decision: ___________
___________________________________