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Kompetensi Dasar

3.1 Menganalisis berbagai tingkat keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia beserta ancaman dan pelestariannya beserta
ancaman dan pelestariannya

4.2 Menyajikan hasil observasi berbagai tingkat keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia dan usulan upaya pelestariannya

Indikator

1. Menganalisis dampak dari kerusakan keanekaragaman hayati terhadap kehidupan manusia


Contoh statement : kepunahan suatu spesies tertentu tidak akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan manusia

2. Mengidentifikasi berbagai kenekaragaman hayati yang ada di dunia


Contoh statement :semua spesies flora fauna dll didunia sudah ditemukan
3. Menganalisis hubungan antar makhluk hidup (spesies) dalam ekosistem
Contoh statement : spesies/individu hidup berdampingan dalam suatu ekosistem karena memiliki kebutuhan
hidup/sumber makanan yang sama
4. Menganalisis dampak atau ancaman terhadap kenakeragaman hayati
5. Menjelaskan peranan tumbuhan bagi makhluk hidup lain
Contoh : tumbuhan bergantung pada manusia

1. Losing a species will not affect humans.

In this case, rather the opposite is true. Losing a species WILL affect humans because all species
are connected one way or another. Whether it be through the food chain or how some of their
actions affect the environment we live in, losing a species will affect humans in the short or long
term. For instance, most of our food and medicine originate from biological resources of the Earth
that are powered by other species, including decomposers.
2. All species have been discovered.

Up to now, scientists have discovered around 2 million species of animals, microbes, and plants on
Earth but they still believe there are millions more to be discovered and each year, new species are
being discovered. The most popular type of species to be discovered are insects, which have a
high degree in biodiversity. Regardless of a similar physical appearance to another species, new
ones are found by looking at their genetic code and identifying the differences between this newly-
found species and the one it is similar to. If you would like to learn about some of the newly found
species here is an article from Discovery listing the Top 10 New Species of 2015.
Populations coexist

3. Species coexists in ecosystems because of their similar needs.

Rather than coexisting, species actually compete for their similar needs. Seeing as resources are
limited, competition must be in play for those resources that are needed by different species.
Sometimes, species might resort to feeding on each other in order to get the nutrients they need.
So then why would one think species coexist? Although many different species live in different
environments and some might be predators or prey, that all have similar adaptations and
environmental needs and therefore live in the same environment regardless of needing the same
or different resources. Therefore, species will not coexist because of similar resource needs but
rather because of similar adaptations and -environmental needs.
Misconception #1 – Species have always gone extinct so we do not need to worry about a few
animals or plants disappearing. It is true that extinction is a natural process but it is the rate of extinctions
that is of major concern. According to the UN Environment Programme, the Earth is in the midst of a mass
extinction of life. Scientists estimate that 150-200 species of plant, insect, bird and mammal become extinct
every 24 hours. This is nearly 1,000 times the "natural" or "background" rate.

Misconception #2 – Losing a species does not affect humans. Do you remember the game Ker-
Plunk? The game consists of a clear plastic tube, 30 thin sticks, and 32 marbles. The idea is to pull out as
many sticks as you can without letting any marbles fall to the bottom. Well, imagine we are one of the
marbles. How many species are holding us up? Plants and phytoplankton produce our breathable air. Our
food and medicine come from the rich biological resources of the Earth. Decomposers like bacteria and
fungi help to produce soil so we can grow our food. Worms and arthropods process this soil. Bees, wasps,
birds, and bats pollinate plants. Some types of phytoplankton are responsible for a chemicalsubstance
called DMS that forms clouds over our oceans. This affects our weather and global climate.

Misconception #3 – Environmental news is all bad news! Absolutely not! Global networks of youth from
the Ottawa-based Biodiversitymatters.org and theGYBN are actively involved with the Convention on
Biological Diversity. In 2010, world organizations and governments met in Nagoya, Japan to discuss
solutions to the biodiversity crisis. Youth presented an Accord on Biodiversity to present their ideas and
fears. There is another gathering of the COP-MOP in Hyderabad, India this October. It is important to
stress that many species have been brought back from near extinction by dedicated biologists and
committed individuals. Some successes include the Bison, the Chatham Island Black Robin, the Mauritius
Kestrel, the Pink Pigeon, and the Echo Parakeet to name a few.

Misconception #4 – Evolution will replace any missing species. Evolution will replace species, but it
takes a very long time. It has been suggested that it could take 30 million years for nature to heal itself from
the effects of humans on our biological heritage. A species can take hundreds of thousands of years to
branch off from its parent group to form a new species.

Misconception #5 – All species have been discovered. Not even close! The total global estimate of
species range from 100 million to as low as 5 million with new species discovered every year. About 1.3
species have been cataloged in a central database to date. Each year, researchers report more than
15,000 new species. Not all of these life forms are small. In 2011, a new cetacean (called the Burrunan
dolphin) was discovered in Australian waters. If you think that new species are only discovered in remote
areas, consider the new species of frog announced in 2012 living within New York City!

Misconception #6 – There is nothing I can do to protect the Earth’s biodiversity. Habitat loss is the
number one cause of extinction. The very best way to protect our biological heritage is to adopt green
spaces in your community. A wonderful example of this is the Macoun Marsh Biodiversity Project in
Ottawa’s Beechwood Cemetery, Canada’s National Cemetery. Teachers and students from St-Laurent
Academy Elementary and Junior High have become stewards of this space and have recorded almost 1400
species in this urban ecosystem. This initiative has grown into a Biodiversity Alliance of local schools with a
three-part Mentorship Program for students.
Misconception #3 – Once a species is on the endangered species list, it never comes off. Incorrect! Protections
under the U.S. Endangered Species Act have led to the recovery of several species or populations of species, including
the gray whale, the bald eagle, the brown pelican, and the gray wolf.
Misconception #4 – Pollution is the greatest threat to biodiversity. Actually, habitat loss is the greatest threat to
biodiversity. With 7 billion humans on the planet, we take up a lot of space and we’re changing a lot of habitat to
new uses.

MISCONCEPTIONS
Plants

STUDENTS MAY THINK… INSTEAD OF THINKING…

Plants are dependent on


Humans (and all other animals) are dependent on plants.
humans.

Plants cannot defend Plants have a range of defenses including external structures (sap, hairs,
themselves against herbivores. thorns, wax) and chemicals that either reduce digestibility or are toxic.
Students may have many other misconceptions about plants. For more information, please see “Common
Misconceptions about Plants” in our March 2009 issue.
Food Chains and Webs

STUDENTS MAY THINK… INSTEAD OF THINKING…

Food webs most accurately depict the flow of energy within an


Food webs are interpreted as simple
ecosystem. They depict a complex set of relationships that is not
food chains.
easily simplified to a food chain.

Organisms higher in a food web eat Organisms higher in a food chain eat some, but not necessarily all,
everything that is lower in the food web. of the organisms below them in the food web.

There are more herbivores than There are more herbivores than carnivores because of the
carnivores because people keep and decreasing amount of energy available at each level of the food
breed herbivores. web.

Food chains involve predator and prey,


Producers are an essential part of all food chains and webs.
but not producers.

Decomposers break down dead organisms, returning nutrients to


Decomposers release some energy that
the soil so they can be used by plants. Some decomposers are
is cycled back to plants.
eaten by carnivores.

Carnivores have more energy or power While some carnivores may be larger and require more food than
than herbivores do. some herbivores, they do not have more energy or power.

Although some carnivores may be big and ferocious and some


Carnivores are big or ferocious, or both.
herbivores small and passive, there is a great diversity among each
Herbivores are small and passive.
group of organisms.
Predator/Prey Populations and Relationships

STUDENTS MAY THINK… INSTEAD OF THINKING…

Prey populations tend to be larger than


Predator and prey populations are similar in size.
predator populations.

The relative sizes of predator and prey populations have no The sizes of predator and prey populations
bearing on the size of the other. influence each other.
Ecosystems

STUDENTS MAY THINK… INSTEAD OF THINKING…

Varying the population size of a species may All organisms are important within an ecosystem. Varying a
not affect an ecosystem because some species’ population size may not affect all other species equally,
organisms are not important. but it will affect the ecosystem as a whole.

Ecosystems are not a functioning whole but Ecosystems include not just the organisms but also the
simply a collection of organisms. interactions between organisms and between the organisms and
their physical environment.

Ecosystems change as a result of natural hazards,


Ecosystems change little over time.
environmental changes, and human activity.

Species coexist in ecosystems because of Within an ecosystem, species compete for resources and feed
their compatible needs and behaviors; they on one another. Species live in the same ecosystem because of
need to get along. similar adaptations and environmental needs.
Ecological Adaptations

STUDENTS MAY THINK… INSTEAD OF THINKING…

Traits are developed by individuals in response to the Traits are developed across generations in response to
needs of the individual. environmental demands.