You are on page 1of 11

Theory of recognition, theory of

double inheritance and biology


philosophy epistemology:
A sociopolitical quilombola community in the Amazon
Marajoara.1
Edson Rogério Nascimento Cruz (Brazil)2 Federal University of Pará - UFPA

This work develops from the following question: Can sibility of reconciliation from authors such as Pierre
sociology understand and explain a certain social phe- Bourdieu to defend the compatibility between expla-
nomenon under review? To handle this challenge we nation and understanding within social analysis. In
use the theory of recognition and theory of dual in- this sense, this paper aims to demonstrate how cultu-
heritance. The empirical part was secured by the data ral factors can influence social movements for recog-
obtained from the quilombola communities of the nition of rights to facilitate the dialogue between
Marajó archipelago, in the Brazilian Amazon, who are social and natural sciences. Where the cultural value
going through a process of struggle for recognition of system refers to morality, a common theme in recog-
socio-territorial rights. This is the context in which nition of the theory of Axel Honneth, and the theory
our research is situated. The efforts so far undertaken of dual heritage, are drawn by Peter Richerson and
have demonstrated how the so-called evolution of the Robert Boyd. Hence the emphasis is on the epistemo-
normative mind of human beings is noticeable in the logical relevance of philosophy of biology to social
political behavior of social actors of the evidenced studies.That is, the cultural aspect, political behaviour
communities. component of individuals, is considered under a dou-
ble determination; social and biological. Methodolo-
Keywords: Culture, Theory of dual inheritance, gically, we sought to develop a literature whose
recognition theory. empirical relevance will be expressed - descriptively -
through the illustrated quilombo issue here by the col-
lective action of an Amazonian community marajoara
object of research/dissertation titled Recognition, iden-
Introduction tity and socio-territorial rights: the political aspects of
Established for much longer, the natural sciences in- young people in a quilombo community marajoara Ama-
fluenced the social sciences at the time when the latter zon (in progress). Far from exhausting the subject, the
appeared. Later, they started discussions about the work presented here aims to provoke further reflec-
specificity of each of these two areas of scientific tion on an interdisciplinary approach that not only
knowledge. For authors such as Wilhelm Dilthey, the involve different areas of the human sciences, but also
natural sciences explain natural phenomena, while the the natural sciences, in order to promote stronger so-
humanities understand individual and social aspects cial analysis.
of life of human beings. This antinomy found a pos-

isa.e-Forum
© 2017 The Author(s)
© 2017 ISA (Editorial Arrangement of isa.e-Forum)

1
E dson Rogério Nascim ento C r uz

Social Sciences and Natural Sciences: translation)4. Besides these names, the authors point
Scientific Sociology Specificity, dual out others who were identified as pioneers of sociolo-
inheritance theory and recognition gical thought: Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and
theory Karl Marx. Then immediately appears the list of the
main developers of sociology: Émile Durkheim, Fer-
This section aims to address, through a bibliographic dinand Tönnies, Gabriel Tarde, Georg Simmel, Max
summary, the process of formation of scientific socio- Weber, Vilfredo Pareto, Pitirim A. Sorokin, Talcolt
logy specificity3. over time. We start from the unders- Parson and Robert K. Merton.5
tanding that sociology was only established in the Not being our intention to explore each of the
modern era, in a context triggered by two great revo- contributions of these thinkers, something that would
lutions - the French and the Industrial divert us from the purpose initially demarcated, we
revolutions. And it came at a time when natural will from here take Durkheim as a reference in our
science and some areas of the social sciences were es- discussion. This is because Durkheim ‘is considered
tablished. Our argument will orbit around three big by many scholars [as] the founder of sociology... as an
names of this area of knowledge, namely: Émile independent science from other social sciences’. (La-
Durkheim, Wilhelm Dilthey and Pierre katos & Marconi 2008: 48, our translation).6 Before
Bourdieu. The choice of these names is justified by Durkheim social thought was influenced by the na-
rupturous character that each is in relation to its pre- tural sciences. To illustrate, Bottomore (1973) notes
decessor - in the case of Durkheim, disruption in re- that one of the elements of modern sociology would
lation to the prevailing thought that preceded it - have been the ‘social survey’, which was based on two
which in practice, each of these episodes of break, sources. First, ‘the growing conviction that the met-
matched the beginning of a new epistemological pers- hods of the natural sciences should and could be ex-
pective within social thought. tended to the study of human affairs, that human
It is worth remembering, however, that we cannot phenomena could be classified and measured’, and se-
ignore the fact that the search for an understanding cond ‘was the concern with poverty’ (Bottomore
of human behaviour in society has been a constant 1973: 18, our translation).7 Examples of this period
since the dawn of humanity. How we understand re- are the works of Condorcet, proposing the so-
ligious and mythical elaborations form classic exam- called social mathematics; and Quételet with social phy-
ples of these first attempts of understanding the social sics. Bottomore (1973: 21) continues:
environment. We remember also those more elaborate
efforts of social thought that, even if they do not pos- In the eighteenth century, the social sciences were
considered, in general, according to the physical
sess the status of science, served as the matrix for this model. In the nineteenth century, sociology was
kind of knowledge. From this period we can highlight shaped by biology. This is evidenced by the wide-
the works of Kautilya, Aristotle and Ibn Kaldun, for spread conception of society as an organism, and the
attempts to formulate general laws of social
example. evolution. (our translation)8
However, it was only on the threshold of moder-
nity that sociological thinking was forged and deve- This paradigm that points to the rapprochement
loped in the following decades. According to Lakatos between the methods of the natural sciences and the
& Marconi (2008), in the 18th century, figures like humanities, reflected in Durkheim’s argumentation:
Montesquieu, David Hume, Adam Smith, Jean-Jac-
In the study of social life, one of the concerns of
ques Rouseau; and furthermore, Charles Fourier, Durkheim was to assess which method would do it in
Saint Simon, Robert Owen, Pierre-Joseph Proud- a scientific way, overcoming the shortcomings of
hon; finally, Hegel, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert common sense. It concludes that it should resemble
adopted by the natural sciences, but by no means be
Mathus drew up ‘valuable works in the field of poli- your decal, because the facts that sociology examines
tics, economics and sociology’. (Lakatos 1990: 41, our belong to the social realm and have peculiarities that

2
Theor y of recognition, theor y of double inheritance and biolog y
philosophy epistem olog y

distinguish them from natural phenomena. Such a Dilthey is a titan that resists complete absorption of
method should be strictly sociological. Based on it, human studies in a unified approach by the principles
social scientists would investigate possible relation- of positivism. He says no to this, supports the speci-
ships of cause and effect and regularities with a view ficity of scientific and human philosophical studies,
to the discovery of laws and even ‘rules of action for emphasising that human understand (verstehen) and
the future’, noting strictly defined the natural sciences explain (erklären). (Franco 2012:
phenomena. (Quintanero 2002: 72-73, our transla- 15, our translation)13
tion)9
It is noticed immediately that Dilthey defends the
The above passage makes clear that Durkheim en- non-incorporation of the Human Sciences Natural
visioned the realisation of a method of sociology, alt- Sciences. But that does not mean he campaigns for
hough it mirrored the methodology of the natural the removal of the two. Instead, he speaks in defense
sciences. While we cannot neglect the influence of or- of the relationship between both, protecting the fact
ganicism10 that Albert Schäffle had on his that ‘human studies also use other methods and reach
thinking, both Schäffle and Durkheim however did different results’. (Bottomore 1973: 57, our transla-
not see that methodological analogy nothing more tion)14. For Dilthey comprehension means understan-
than as a ‘metaphor’: ding through the sense: ;This is because only the
human makes sense for the man.’ (Machado Neto &
According to Durkheim, one of the most important Machado Neto 1983: 4, our translation)15. Further-
contributions of Schäffle for social thought is that this
author has defined a morphological analysis model more, in Diltheyian thought:
very useful for the main structural components of dif-
ferent types of companies. In doing so, Schäffle The methodology of the natural sciences would have
widely used organic analogies, comparing the various a negative effect on the other because makes use hy-
parts of society to the organs and tissues of the pothetical understandings (or ‘hypostatised’), the nat-
body. This process is, according to Durkheim, per- ural sciences posicionariam the objects of the
fectly valid because Schäffle had not intended to infer humanities as cause the objects of nature, interpreting
directly the properties of the social organisation of or- them as given on its mere appearance
ganic life. On the contrary, Schäffle insists that the and duration. Thus, the natural sciences
use of biological concepts is only a ‘metaphor’ that (positive) would exert an ‘abstractive’ action on the
helps to facilitate the sociological analysis. (Giddens, knowledge of human. Such action would result from
2005: 111, our translation)11 hypothetical-positive deals from the natural sciences,
and this deal offers the risk of distortion of the
Durkheim himself in The Division of Social Work human experience on the agenda of sciences that ad-
[1999], after addressing the distinction between social dress this issue. (Kahlmeyer-Mertens 2012: 223, our
solidarity, leads us to this understanding when he translation)16
wrote: ‘The same law [governing the mechanical soli- Given the above, it is not hard to see the difference
darity and organic solidarity] chairs the biological de- between Dilthey thought and Durkheimian ideas in
velopment’. (p. 175, our translation)12. Not by chance relation to the theoretical and methodological mar-
the corresponding topic in this section is entitled Ana- kers of Social Sciences and/or the Humanities. We
logy between this development of social types and organic now introduce to our discussion, another exponent
types in the animal kingdom. of this argument, Pierre Bourdieu.
As stated above, we take Durkheim as an initial re- Bourdieu follows a relatively opposite way to Dilt-
ference in our brief journey of the scientific specificity hey. While that was favourable to the distance of Hu-
of sociology because he is considered the first to create manities and Natural Sciences, that came support
its own methodology to this area of knowledge. This reconciliation between the two. Bourdieu is among
does not imply that his ideas have not been challen- the supporters of compatibility between explanation
ged. And it is on this issue that we now turn. The aut- and understanding within social analysis. As the
hor chosen to illustrate such critique will be Wilhelm French author asserts: ‘Against old diltheyana distinc-
Dilthey. tion, it must be said to understand and explain are the
same’. (Bourdieu 2008: 700, our translation).17 This

3
E dson Rogério Nascim ento C r uz

paper aims to demonstrate that human and natural Robert Boyd (2012: 4) as follows:
sciences are not necessarily set apart when it comes to
social analysis. If Bourdieu argues that understanding I hypothesise that this new social world, created by
rapid cultural adaptation, led to the genetic evolution
and explanation are the same, we believe they can be of new, derived social instincts. Cultural evolution
combined. created large cooperative groups. Such environments
One way to make this proposal viable is to return favoured the evolution of a suite of new social in-
stincts suited to life in such groups including a psy-
attention to how the co-evolution gene-culture in- chology which ‘expects’ life to be structured by moral
fluences human behaviour. This is where the philo- norms, and that is designed to learn and internalise
sophy of biology18 emerges, especially if we take such norms.
as a parameter one of its aspects - the theory of dual One of the points on this topic treated by Abrantes
heritage employed by Robert Boyd and Peter Richer- and Almeida (2012) involves the so-called moral com-
son. Regarding the thought of these authors, Karla munity and symbolic markers. They call attention to
Chediak (2008: 54-55) says the following: how the evolution of innate psychology made indivi-
duals increasingly able to identify the symbolic mar-
Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson, who are dedicated kers of the group to which they belonged. As Boyd,
to the study of human evolution, believe that what
occurs is a human co-evolution gene-culture, where Henrich and Richerson (2010) also argue, this is the
culture is not under the control of the gene, since very psychological capacity of human beings. Moreo-
both interact. Although culture is not unique ver, this dynamic identification of markers reveals how
to the human species, their cumulative character is a
specificity of our species. (our translation)19
symbolic markers form moral communities. A moral
community is a social group culturally composed of
It is noted in the above quote that the thought of moral norms whose sense of belonging is indicated by
Boyd, Henrich and Richerson sheds light on how cul- the so-called symbolic markers, ie the symbols that
ture and genetics are interdependent factors in the characterise the group. This is how symbolic markings
evolutionary process of human behaviour. Such evo- enable the formation of the identity of its mem-
lution differs from the evolution of other species of bers: ‘This symbolic network of cultural variants is at
animals, precisely because we carry traces of a genetic the origin of human regulatory systems, such as law,
inheritance and others. In the words of the authors: religion and morality.’ (Boyd, Henrich & Richerson
‘The use of socially learned information (culture) is 2010: 23, our translation).20
central to human adaptations. We investigate the hy- Such a conception is not far from the reality of
pothesis that the process of cultural evolution has quilombo communities in Marajó archipelago, in the
played an active, leading role in the evolution of Brazilian Amazon, as they are endowed with a parti-
genes’. (Boyd, Henrich & Richerson 2010: 1). In this cular legal system. Cardoso (2010) and Cardoso,
sense, Abrantes and Almeida (2012) show how the Schmitz and Mota (2011) address these regulatory
theory of dual heritage advocates the idea that culture systems as a local constitution and as local legal prac-
influenced the formation and evolution of the human tices, respectively. The core of such understanding is
mind, deriving from it our moral and legal sense. It is the land use planning according to local values:
from this point that we intend to follow from now
on. The local legal practices ‘are tangles of fruits of vari-
ous constitutive legal orders of the social world and
Abrantes and Almeida (2012) operate on the as- interpretations that subjects produce from the conflu-
sumption that we are able to act as standards because ence of these various orders, aiming to define their so-
of the regulation of typical institutions of human so- cial relationships, whether internal to the community,
with the state or other groups social with
ciety - such as law, religion and morality - and take which they have relations.’ (Cardoso, Schmitz &
the theory of dual heritage to highlight the prepon- Mota 2011: 3, our translation)21
derance of culture in the development of human psy-
chology. This proposition was originally forwarded by

4
Theor y of recognition, theor y of double inheritance and biolog y
philosophy epistem olog y

The local constitution, in turn, brings to the term This analysis, by approaching the principles of
‘constitution’, an understanding: the struggle for recognition of rights, draws attention
to the reaction of a collectivity in a situation that dis-
The intrinsic notions of rights and place were built to regards their rights which are not guaranteed by the
organise territory and social relations. The anthropo-
logical literature on quilombo communities, be it the state. Disrespect and/or a sense of injustice in the legal
result of expert research or academic research in the framework proves a case of deprivation of rights: ‘The
strict sense, provides clues to the complexity of their reactions caused by the feeling of injustice should be
own legal systems of each quilombo group in Brazil.’
(Cardoso 2010: 16, our translation)22
seen as the trigger par excellence of the struggle for re-
cognition.’ (Saavedra & Sobottka 2008: 15, our trans-
Guided by this, Cardoso (2010) notes that the lation).25
Maroons Marajó communities are committed to re- For Honneth, the legal sphere - or the right - is
cover territories lost over time. As indicated by Car- just one of the recognised spheres and there, beyond
doso (2008), the community was ‘the focus of it, two others: love or intimate sphere, and solidarity,
dispersion’ that started the other communities of des- or sphere of social esteem. Briefly, the theory of re-
cendants; those subjects who were enslaved in the Ma- cognition by Honneth adopts three forms of recogni-
rajó region. Although the author’s research came from tion that are possible: love, law, and solidarity. These
the Bairro Alto community, but, for example, we can three forms of recognition correspond respectively to
also remember what occurred in the Cauldron com- three forms of disrespect: rape, deprivation of rights,
munity, another quilombo marajoara community, and degradation. The damage from disrespectful ex-
which - according to the data obtained - is experien- periences is solved when there is recognition. To re-
cing a recent process of demographic density caused medy the damage caused by violation, recognition
by the establishment of new residents coming from comes in the form of self-confidence; to remedy the
the outside of the community; something that allo- damage caused by deprivation of rights, recognition
wed us to compare how the native inhabitants tend comes in the form of self-respect; to remedy the da-
to rule the territory according to their ancestral stan- mage caused by degradation, recognition comes in the
dards generally grounded in kinship, and how the new form of self-esteem.
residents who have settled disregard these rules. This Stemming from the above discussion, we suggest
contrast helps us here in the perception of the tradi- that identity based on the symbolic markers that cons-
tional layout of quilombo communities in their terri- titute a moral community and the human capacity to
tories. assimilate the moral/legal rules and act according to
In that sense, Cardoso (2010: 16) demonstrates them, the fruits of development of normative mind
how the confrontation by socio-territorial rights according to the mind Boyd and Richerson allow dia-
‘seems to be based on the feeling of (in)justice on the logue between the theory of dual heritage and the
grounds of exploitation of their ancestors as slaves, the theory of recognition. It is the collective identity of
expropriation of their lands and the invisibility situa- the members of a community that from their symbo-
tion still suffering’ (our translation)23. The author lic markers assumes the prominent political instru-
goes on to assert: ment role in the struggle for recognition of rights
waged by individuals when they feel wronged, that
The feeling of (in) justice present in the quilombo which is explained by the evolution of the normative
communities have intimate relationship with what
Geertz (1997) called local legal sensitivity, i.e. the mind.
sense of justice itself every society, in the case of Therefore, we argue that the theory of dual heri-
quilombo communities, the feeling of (in)justice, tage complements the theory of recognition because
which is characterised by disruption of the local legal
system caused by agents external to the group. (ibid.,
together, they provide a new approach towards un-
emphasis added, our translation)24 derstanding and explaining political behaviour of
human beings. This potentially enriches social

5
E dson Rogério Nascim ento C r uz

research. If on the one hand, Honneth speaks of dis- earth, that is to say, the quilombo communities seek
respect and the need for collective semantics able to recognition of rights, especially territorial ones. Thus,
interpret individual disappointment as something besides the historical and the territorial already men-
that affects the community; on the other, the theory tioned, they often trigger other elements such as, for
of dual heritage goes in search of the evolution of example, identity and ethnicity. These are features
human behaviour through the coevolution gene-cul- that make the theory of recognition a privileged re-
ture. Therefore, the relevance of the interaction of source to study the political activity of these commu-
these two theories emerges from the fact that they seek nities. As theories of social movements form our
to further contemplate the complexity of human so- parameter of inquiry, dated modernity and lacking
cial life. To take one example, let us recollect the case the ability to retreat to more distant periods, and con-
of the supposed consensus on the theory of social mo- sidering that the quilombo communities are symbolic
vements today. and historically linked to the quilombos of the slave
Heribert Schmitz (2014) argues that there is a cer- period are constrains. The possible need for a resear-
tain consensus on what is meant by social move- cher to go back in time to examine the historical qui-
ments. This consensus is expressed in its definition lombos and the impact of the slavery period in
of Predominant Contemporary Theory of Social Mo- Brazil in our times, for example, is presented as the
vements (TCPMS), a theoretical combination invol- first obstacle to the use of the theories of social move-
ving the Political Process Theory and the Theory of ments in this context.
New Social Movements, where ‘the social movements Other obstacles are observed by Regiane Oliveira
are seen as an interaction a certain length of a network Lucas Garcez (2014: 7). Based on the thought of Axel
of groups and organisations that want, through pro- Honneth, the author states that the recognition of the
test, carry out or prevent social change.’ (Schmmitz theory advances on two points underexplored by the
2014: 1, our translation)26. Schmitz adopts the defi- theory of social movements: ‘First, search in the dis-
nition of social movement developed by Rucht respect experiences the explanation about how the mo-
(1994): vements arise. Second, from the notion of collective
semantics this provides elements to explain how
A social movement is an action system that com- such collective actions are possible.’ (our transla-
pounds networking groups and organisations with a
certain duration supported by a collective identity tion)28. Therefore, the theory allows honnethiana
they want to conduct, prevent or undo a social where theories of social movements are not enough. It
change through protest - if necessary by the use of achieves the factors that motivate individuals to act
force. (Rucht 1994: 76-77 cited in Schmitz 2014: 2,
our translation)27
collectively, factors that go beyond the rationally cal-
culated motivations and, therefore, which are consis-
For Schmitz (2014), the concept of social move- tent with the cultural and/or evaluative elements of
ments presented by Rucht limits its application to a human behaviour.
historical context and modernity, i.e. to understand
that phenomenon is a product of that time. This As Honneth proposes recognition is vital for the sub-
point is interesting because it allows us to argue about ject. Fight for it is not a matter of calculation, but of
the precedence of the theory of the recognition regar- necessity. Fight is for self-realisation. If, for this, you
need to resort to tactics and strategies, nothing should
ding the theories on social movements when applied prevent. Nevertheless, connecting experiences and
to studies on the quilombo communities. Although instituting a collective semantics would be the first
the quilombos of the past are not to beconfused with step. Thus, the recognition of the theory sheds light
on the understanding of how social movements are
contemporary quilombo communities, the two repre- made possible without resorting to rationalist expla-
sentations are historically linked. nations. Without the construction of the sense of a
The quilombo mobilization revolves around the community, without understanding something in

6
Theor y of recognition, theor y of double inheritance and biolog y
philosophy epistem olog y

common that binds the subject, engagement and ac- Final considerations
tion do not exist. (Garcez 2014: 17, our translation)29
This work has focused on the debate involving un-
As we have seen earlier, this is the key idea of the derstanding and explaining in the field of social ana-
thinking of Honneth, where disrespect motivates ac- lysis. After a brief historical overview about this area
tion soon after the formation of an identity. Here are of knowledge, we demonstrate that this claim is fea-
some of his words that further illustrates. sible. Therefore, we use the approximation of the
theory of recognition of Axel Honneth and the theory
Feelings of injury [...] can only become the motiva- of dual heritage of Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson
tional basis of collective resistance when the subject is
able to articulate them in an inter - subjective inter- with subsequent application of them in a concrete
pretation framework that shows them as typical of an case, the political action of the quilombo communi-
entire group; in this sense, the emergence of social ties marajoara Amazon. Although preliminary, this
movements social depends on the existence of a col-
lective semantics that allows an interpretation of per-
essay has considered the challenge of developing such
sonal disappointment of experience as something that a discussion. As Almeida (2013: 245) asserts:
not only affects the individual self but also a circle of
many other subjects. (Honneth 2003: 258, our trans- Social theory has rejected in the past decades, the the-
lation)30 oretical approaches that intend to explain human be-
haviour from biology. There were several reasons for
It is important to note that this recognition of the this to happen. Foremost among these is the fact that
theory highlighted here does not mean the rejection many of the biological theories do not give culture a
significant role in explaining human behaviour. (our
of the theory of social movements for the study of translation)32
quilombo communities. The theory possesses a cer-
tain primacy to allow access to certain subjective as- For the purpose of more full-bodied social analy-
pects of human action that go beyond calculation and sis, we believe it is necessary to continue to promote
rationality, such as the experiences of disrespect and the the interaction between the approaches of social
formation of collective semantics. We can verify this theory and other disciplinary knowledge, like those
fact in studies of diachronic order, for example. In this of the natural sciences. It was no accident that
sense, we can say that the theory of dual heritage Marcel Mauss (2003: 237) in Sociology and Anthropo-
moves through a field where the theory of the recog- logy said: ‘Whether we study special facts or general
nition actually has not. However, in our view, it does facts, the background is always the complete
not mean it is indifferent to it. Thus, we can infer that man deal’ (our translation).33
the cultural approach to the quilombo issue in mara-
joara Amazon familiarises the theory of Boyd and Ri-
cherson with Honneth’s theory, distanced from Notes
rational choice theory, for example. Finally, consider 1 Text originally published in the annals of the XXX
the following excerpt: ‘rational choice theorists intro- Congress of the Latin American Sociology Associa-
duce the notion of “rational belief ” without taking tion, 2015, with the title “TEORIA DO RECO-
into full account the cultural context in which people NHECIMENTO, TEORIA DA DUPLA
find it affects what they consider to be or not a con- HERANÇA E A EPISTEMOLOGIA DA FILOSO-
viction founded on reason.’ (Baert 1997: 9, our trans- FIA DA BIOLOGIA NO CONTEXTO DA MO-
lation).31 BILIZAÇÃO SOCIOPOLÍTICA DE UMA
COMUNIDADE QUILOMBOLA NA AMAZÔ-
NIA MARAJOARA”. Available in: <http://sociolo-
gia-alas.org/congreso-xxx/ponencias/>.
2Social Scientist Graduated at Federal University of

7
E dson Rogério Nascim ento C r uz

Pará (UFPA); Master in Sociology by the Postgraduate com vistas à descoberta de leis e mesmo de ‘regras de
Program in Sociology and Anthropology (PPGSA / ação para o futuro’, observando fenômenos rigorosa-
UFPA); Member of the Afro-Amazonian Studies mente definidos.”
Group (GEAM / IFCH-UFPA). 10In general, Organicism refers to the theory that ana-

3In this work, although we seek to address the scien- lysed society as if she were a living organism. It is com-
tific specificity of sociology, it will not always be this monly associated with positivist thought.
term that is used to refer to this area of 11In the original: “Segundo Durkheim, uma das con-

knowledge. We will also use ‘Humanities’ or ‘Social tribuições mais importantes de Schäffle para o pensa-
Sciences’ to contemplate on this. We will concentrate mento social consiste no facto de esse autor ter
on the polarisation of the Natural Sciences and Hu- definido um modelo de análise morfológica muito útil
manities. Thus, we believe that will not compromise dos principais componentes estruturais de diferentes
on the understanding of our argument. formas de sociedades. Ao fazê-lo, Schäffle utiliza lar-
4In the original: “[...] obras de grande valor no campo gamente as analogias orgânicas, comparando as várias
da política, economia e sociologia.” partes da sociedade aos órgãos e tecidos do corpo. Esse
5While we must recognise that many others have con- processo é, segundo Durkheim, perfeitamente válido,
tributed to the formation and development of socio- pois Schäffle não pretende deduzir directamente as
logy and social thought as a whole, the names propriedades da organização social das da vida orgâ-
mentioned above are the ones that commonly appear nica. Pelo contrário, Schäffle insiste em que o recurso
in the literature. a conceitos biológicos não passa de uma ‘metáfora’
6In the original: “[...] é considerado por muitos estu- que contribui para facilitar a análise sociológica.”
diosos o fundador da sociologia como ciência inde- 12In the original: “A mesma lei [que rege a solidarie-

pendente das demais Ciências Sociais.” dade mecânica e a solidariedade orgânica] preside o de-
7In the original: “[...] a crescente convicção de que os senvolvimento biológico.”
métodos das Ciências Naturais deviam e podiam ser 13In the original: “Dilthey é um titã que resiste à com-

estendidos ao estudo das questões humanas, que os pleta absorção dos estudos humanos em uma aborda-
fenômenos humanos podiam ser classificados e medi- gem unificada pelos princípios do positivismo. Ele diz
dos”, o segundo “[...] foi a preocupação com a pobreza não a isto, sustenta a especificidade dos estudos cien-
[...].” tíficos e filosóficos do humano, destacando que as hu-
8In the original: “No século XVIII, as Ciências Sociais manas compreendem (verstehen) e as ciências naturais
eram consideradas, em geral, segundo o modelo da fí- explicam (erklären).”
sica. No século XIX, a sociologia modelou-se pela Bio- 14In the original: “[...] os estudos humanos usam tam-

logia. Isso se evidencia pela concepção amplamente bém outros métodos e chegam a resultados diferen-
difundida da sociedade como organismo, e pelas ten- tes.”
tativas de formular leis gerais de evolução social.” 15In the original: “Isto porque somente o humano faz

9In the original: “No estudo da vida social, uma das sentido para o homem.”
preocupações de Durkheim era avaliar qual método 16In the original: “[...] a metodologia das ciências na-

permitiria fazê-lo de maneira científica, superando as turais exerceria um efeito negativo sobre as outras, isso
deficiências do senso comum. Conclui que ele deveria porque, por valer-se de compreensões hipotéticas (ou
assemelhar-se ao adotado pelas ciências naturais, mas ainda, ‘hipostasiadas’), as ciências naturais posiciona-
nem por isso ser o seu decalque, porque os fatos que riam os objetos das ciências humanas tal como fazem
a Sociologia examina pertencem ao reino social e têm com os objetos da natureza, interpretando-os como
peculiaridades que os distinguem dos fenômenos da dados em sua mera aparência e duração. Desse modo,
natureza. Tal método deveria ser estritamente socio- as ciências naturais (positivas) exerceriam uma ação
lógico. Com base nele, os cientistas sociais investiga- ‘abstrativa’ sobre o conhecimento acerca do humano.
riam possíveis relações de causa e efeito e regularidades Tal ação seria decorrente da lida hipotético-positiva

8
Theor y of recognition, theor y of double inheritance and biolog y
philosophy epistem olog y

das ciências naturais, e tal lida oferece o risco de des- 24 In the original: “O sentimento de (in) justiça pre-
caracterização da experiência humana na pauta das sente nas comunidades quilombolas tem íntima rela-
ciências que dela se ocupa.” ção com o que Geertz (1997) denominou de
17In the original: “Contra a velha distinção sensibilidade jurídica local”, ou seja, o sentimento de
diltheyana, é preciso ser dito que compreender e ex- justiça próprio a cada sociedade, no caso das comu-
plicar são a mesma coisa.” nidades quilombolas, o sentimento de (in) justiça, que
18“The philosophy of biology, seen as a subfield of se caracteriza pelo rompimento do ordenamento ju-
philosophy of science, only constituted and became rídico local de que são vítimas por agentes externos
(relatively) autonomous in the last decades of the ao grupo.”
twentieth century, particularly in Anglo-Saxon coun- 25In the original: “As reações provocadas pelo senti-

tries. We can point out the year 1970 as the miles- mento de injustiça devem ser vistas como o estopim
tone. In that decade, some philosophers of science par excellence da luta por reconhecimento.”
began to dedicate itself specifically to reflect on bio- 26In the original: “[...] os movimentos sociais são vis-

logy”. (Abrantes 2011: 11) tos como uma interação de certa duração de uma rede
19In the original: “Os antropólogos Robert Boyd e de grupos e organizações que pretendem, por meio de
Peter Richerson, que se dedicam ao estudo da evolu- protesto, realizar ou impedir mudanças sociais.”
ção humana, acreditam que o que ocorre é uma co- 27In the original: “Um movimento social é um sistema

evolução humana gene-cultura, em que a cultura não de ação de redes compostos de grupos e organizações
está sob o controle do gene, pois ambos interagem. com uma certa duração amparado por uma identi-
Embora a cultura não seja exclusividade da espécie hu- dade coletiva que pretendem realizar, evitar ou desfa-
mana, o seu caráter cumulativo é uma especificidade zer uma mudança social por meio de protesto – se
da nossa espécie.” necessário até pelo uso da força.”
20In the original: “Essa rede simbólica de variantes 28In the original: “Primeiro, busca nas experiências de

culturais está na origem dos sistemas normativos hu- desrespeito a explicação sobre porque os movimentos
manos, como o direito, a religião e a moral.” surgem. Segundo, a partir da noção de semântica co-
21In the original: “As práticas jurídicas locais ‘são fru- letiva fornece elementos para explicar como tais ações
tos de entrelaçamentos de várias ordens jurídicas cons- coletivas se tornam possíveis.”
titutivas do mundo social e de interpretações que os 29In the original: “Conforme propõe Honneth, o re-

sujeitos produzem a partir da confluência destas várias conhecimento é elemento vital para os sujeitos. Lutar
ordens, objetivando definir suas relações sociais, sejam por ele não é uma questão de cálculo, mas de necessi-
internas à comunidade, com o Estado ou com outros dade. Luta-se por autorrealização. Se, para isso, for
grupos sociais com os quais mantêm relações’”. preciso lançar mão de táticas e estratégias, nada os im-
22In the original: “[…] as noções intrínsecas de direito pede. Mas conectar experiências e instituir uma se-
local e seu ordenamento, os quais foram construídos mântica coletiva seria o primeiro passo. Assim, a
para organizar o território e as relações sociais. A lite- Teoria do Reconhecimento lança luz à compreensão
ratura antropológica sobre comunidades quilombolas, sobre como os movimentos sociais se fazem possíveis
seja fruto de pesquisas periciais ou acadêmicas strictu sem recorrer a explicações racionalistas. Sem a cons-
sensu, fornece pistas sobre a complexidade dos orde- trução do sentido de uma coletividade, sem a com-
namentos jurídicos próprios a cada grupo quilombola preensão do algo em comum que liga os sujeitos, o
pelo Brasil […].” engajamento e a ação inexistem.”
23In the original: “[...] parece estar baseado no senti- 30In the original: “Sentimentos de lesão [...] só podem

mento de (in) justiça em razão da exploração de seus tornar-se a base motivacional de resistência coletiva
antepassados como escravos, da expropriação de seus quando o sujeito é capaz de articulá-los num quadro
territórios e da situação de invisibilidade que ainda de interpretação intersubjetiva que os comprova como
sofrem.” típicos de um grupo inteiro, nesse sentido, o surgi-

9
E dson Rogério Nascim ento C r uz

mento de movimentos sociais depende da existência http://uchv.princeton.edu/workshops/DHVP/B


de uma semântica coletiva que permite interpretar as oyd.pdf.
experiências de desapontamento pessoal como algo Boyd, R., Henrichc, J., & Richerson, P.. (2010).
Gene-culture coevolution in the age of genomics.
que afeta não só o eu individual mas também um Available at:
círculo de muitos outros sujeitos.” http://www.pnas.org/content/107/Supple-
31In the original: “[...] os teóricos da escolha racional ment_2/8985.full.pdf.
introduzem a noção de ‘convicção racional’ sem levar Bourdieu, P. ( 2008). A miséria do mundo. Petrópo-
em conta inteiramente que o contexto cultural no lis, RJ: Vozes.
Cardoso, L. F. C. e. (2008). A constituição local: di-
qual as pessoas se encontram afeta o que elas consi- reito e território na comunidade de Bairro Alto,
deram ser ou não uma convicção fundada na razão.” na Ilha de Marajó – Pará. (Tese de doutora-
32In the original: “A teoria social tem rejeitado, nas mento não publicada), Universidade Federal de
últimas décadas, as abordagens teóricas que preten- Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina.
dam explicar o comportamento humano a partir da _________________________. (2010). A CONS-
TITUIÇÃO LOCAL: Direito e território qui-
biologia. Foram várias as razões para que isso ocor- lombola na Comunidade de Bairro Alto, Ilha de
resse. Entre elas, destaca-se a circunstância de que Marajó – PA. Available at: <http://acervo.nova-
muitas das teorias biológicas não atribuem à cultura cartografiasocial.com.br:8088/xmlui/bitstream/h
um papel relevante para explicar o comportamento andle/738738/1389/artigo%20-%20a%20cons-
humano.” titui%E7%E3o%20-%20ufpa.pdf?sequence=1>.
33In the original: “Quer estudemos fatos especiais ou
Cardoso, L. F. C. e; Schmitz, H. S.; Mota, & D. M.
da. (2011). Direitos entrelaçados: Práticas jurídi-
fatos gerais, no fundo é sempre com o homem com- cas e território quilombola na Ilha do Marajó –
pleto que lidamos.” PA. Available at:
<http://ojs.c3sl.ufpr.br/ojs/index.php/campos/ar
ticle/viewFile/22373/14696>.
References Chediak, K. de A. ( 2008). Filosofia da biologia. Rio
de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed..
Abrantes, Paulo Cesar. Filosofia da biologia.
Durkheim, É. (1999). Da divisão do trabalho so-
(2011).Porto Alegre: Artmed.
cial. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.
Abrantes, Paulo César Coelho; ALMEIDA, Fábio
Franco, S. de G. (2012). “Dilthey: compreensão e
Portela Lopes de. (2012). A TEORIA DA
explicação” e possíveis implicações para o mé-
DUPLA HERANÇA E A EVOLUÇÃO DA MO-
todo clínico. Available at:
RALIDADE. Available at:
<http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1415-
<https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/prin-
47142012000100002&script=sci_arttext >.
cipia/article/view/1808-1711.2012v16n1p1>.
Garcêz, R. L. de O. (2014). Teoria do Reconheci-
Almeida, Fábio Portela Lopes de. (2013). AS ORI-
mento: uma teoria dos movimentos sociais?.
GENS EVOLUTIVAS DA COOPERAÇÃO HU-
Available at:
MANA E SUAS IMPLICAÇÕES PARA
<http://www.sndd2014.eventos.dype.com.br/ar-
ATEORIA DO DIREITO. Available at:
quivo/download?ID_ARQUIVO=4148>.
<http://direitosp.fgv.br/sites/direitosp.fgv.br/files
Geertz, C. (1997). O saber local: novos ensaios em
/artigo-Edicao-revista/09-rev17_243-268_-
antropologia interpretativa. Petrópolis: Vozes
_fabio_portela_lopes_de_almeida.pdf>.
Giddens, A. (2005). Capitalismo e moderna teoria
Baert, P. (1997). ALGUMAS LIMITAÇÕES DAS
social. Lisboa: Presença.
EXPLICAÇÕES DA ESCOLHA RACIONAL
Honneth, A. (2003). Luta por reconhecimento: a gra-
NA CIÊNCIA POLÍTICA E NA SOCIOLOGIA.
mática moral dos conflitos sociais. São Paulo.
Available at:
Kahlmeyer-Mertens, R. S. (2012). DILTHEY, Wi-
<http://www.anpocs.org/portal/index.php?op-
lhelm. Introdução às ciências humanas – tenta-
tion=com_content&view=article&id=202:rbcs-
tiva de uma fundamentação para o estudo da
35&catid=69:rbcs&Itemid=399>.
sociedade e da história. Trad. De Marco Antônio
Bottomore, T. B. (1973). Introdução à sociologia.
Casanova. Rio de Janeiro: Forense Universitária,
Brasília: Zahar.
2010. Resenhas Revista Veritas. v. 57, n. 3. Avai-
Boyd, R. (2012). Cultural adaptation, norms, and
lable at:
the evolution of human cooperation. Available at:

10
Theor y of recognition, theor y of double inheritance and biolog y
philosophy epistem olog y

<http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php ção à teoria do reconhecimento de Axel Honneth.


/veritas/article/view/11549>. Civitas Porto Alegre, v. 8, n. 1, p. 9-18, jan.-abr.
Lakatos, E. M. (1990). Sociologia geral. 6. ed. rev. e Available at:
ampl. - Sao Paulo : Atlas. <http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/742/742115310
Machado Neto, A. L.; Machado Neto, Z. (1983). 02.pdf>.
Sociologia básica. São Paulo: Saraiva. Schimtz, H.. Teorias de movimentos sociais em per-
Mauss, M. (2003). Sociologia e antropologia. São spectiva comparada. Debate o discusión en teoría
Paulo: Cosac Naify. social. GT 20: Sociedad civil: protestas y movi-
Quintanero, T. (2002). Um toque de clássicos: Marx, mientos sociales, [2014?]. Available at:
Durkheim e Weber. Belo Horizonte: UFMG. <http://actacientifica.servicioit.cl/biblioteca/gt/G
Saavedra, G. A.; Sobottka, E. A.. (2008 ). Introdu- T20/GT20_SchmitzH.pdf>.

Edson Rogério Nascimento Cruz (Brazil) Social Scientist Graduated at Federal University of
Pará (UFPA); Master in Sociology by the Postgraduate Program in Sociology and Anthropol-
ogy (PPGSA / UFPA); Member of the Afro-Amazonian Studies Group (GEAM / IFCH-
UFPA).

11