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MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST

3C/3D
Calculator-assumed

WACE Examination 2015

Marking Key

Marking keys are an explicit statement about what the examiner expects of candidates
when they respond to a question. They are essential to fair assessment because their
proper construction underpins reliability and validity.

Copyright © School Curriculum and Standards Authority 2015


2015/101206
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 2 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Section Two: Calculator-assumed 662 ⁄ 3 % (100 marks)

Question 9 (5 marks)

k + 5 1
Consider the matrix P =  where k is a constant.
 2 k 

1 0  4 2 
(a) If P   =   , solve for k . (2 marks)
1 2   0 −4 

Solution
1 0   4 2 
P  =  0 −4 
 1 2   
−1
 4 2  1 0  4 2  1 0  3 1 
∴ P 
= =    0 −4   −=   
 0 −4   1 2     1 / 2 1 / 2   2 −2 

Hence k + 5 =3 ∴ k=
−2
Specific behaviours
1 0 
 multiplies by the inverse of   to obtain matrix P
1 2 
 determines the value for k

(b) Determine whether P −1 exists for all values of k . (3 marks)

Solution
P −1
exists if det ( P ) ≠ 0 .
det ( P ) = k ( k + 5 ) − 2 = k 2 + 5k − 2
2
 5  25
= k +  − −2
 2 4
2
 5  33
= k +  −
 2 4

2
 5  33 −1
Hence if  k +  = then P will not exist.
 2 4
∴ P −1 will not always exist.
Specific behaviours
 forms the correct expression for det ( P )
exists if det ( P ) ≠ 0
−1
 tests the idea that P
 shows that there is a value of k where P −1 does not exist
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 3 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 10 (8 marks)

π
The tangent to the graph of y = cos x is drawn at x = . This tangent intersects the graph of
6
y = cos x again at x = k .

π
(a) Determine the equation of the tangent at x = . (3 marks)
6

Solution
dy π π  1
= − sin x Hence at x = gradient m =
− sin   =

dx 6 6 2
3 1 π
Equation of tangent : y− =− x− 
2 2 6
x π 3
i.e. y = − +  +  = − 0.5 x + 1.1278...
2  12 2 
Specific behaviours
dy
 differentiates correctly to find
dx
π
 determines correctly the slope at x =
6
π 3
 forms the equation for the tangent using the point 
 , 
6 2 
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 4 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(b) Determine the value of k, correct to three decimal places. (2 marks)

Solution
x π 3
Solving for the intersection points : cos x = − +  + 
2  12 2 
From CAS : x = 0.5235.., 3.8168...
Hence k = 3.817 (three decimal places)
Specific behaviours
 forms the equation for the intersection of the curve and the tangent
 determines the value for k

π
(c) Write an expression for the area enclosed between the tangent at x = and the curve
6
y = cos x . (2 marks)

Solution
3.817
 x π 3
Area expression= ∫  − + +  − ( cos x ) dx
0.524 
2 12 2 
Specific behaviours
 writes a definite integral with the correct integrand as a difference of functions
 uses the correct limits of integration

(d) Hence evaluate the area correct to two decimal places. (1 mark)

Solution
3.817
 x π 3
Area expression= ∫  − + +  − ( cos x ) dx= 1.2657...
0.524 
2 12 2 
Hence area is approximately 1.27 square units (two decimal places)
Specific behaviours
 evaluate the definite integral correctly to 0.01
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 5 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 11 (6 marks)

1 1
   
The line r = −1 + λ 2 and the plane r  ( i + 2 j − k ) =
1 intersect at point P .

     
 
0  3

(a) Determine the coordinates of P. (3 marks)

Solution
1 λ, y =
x =+ 2λ − 1, z =3λ
< 1 + λ , 2λ − 1,3λ >< 1, 2, −1 >= 1
1 + λ + 4λ − 2 − 3λ =
1
λ =1
P has coordinates (2, 1, 3)
Specific behaviours
 states correctly the line in parametric form
 solves the equation to find λ
 states the coordinates of P

(b) Determine the size of the angle between the line and the plane. (3 marks)

Solution
< 1, 2,3 > is the direction of the line
< 1, 2, −1 > is the normal to the plane
< 1, 2,3 >< 1, 2, −=
1> 14 × 6 × cos θ
2
cos θ =
14 × 6
θ = 77.40o
= 90o − 77.40o
angle between the line and the plane
= 12.60o
Specific behaviours
 sets up the dot product between the line and the normal to the plane
 calculates the size of the angle between the line and the normal correctly
 uses the complementary angle to determine the required angle
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 6 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 12 (5 marks)

The diagram below shows a sector OAB of a circle of radius r mm and centre O where
∠AOB = θ.

The value of r is increasing at the rate of 2 mm per second and the value of θ is increasing at
the rate of 0.1 radians per second.

π
Find the rate of increase of the area of the sector when r = 4 mm and θ = , correct to two
6
decimal places.

Solution
dr
= 2 mm/s
dt
Given:

= 0.1 rad/s
dt
1
A = r 2θ
2
dA 1  dθ 2 dr 
=  r + θ × 2r 
dt 2  dt dt 
dA 1 π 
=  0.1 × 16 + × 2 × 4 × 2 
dt=r 4,=θ π 2 6 
6

= 4.99 mm 2 / s (two decimal places)


Specific behaviours
 selects the correct formula for area of a sector
 differentiates using the product rule
 differentiates implicitly in terms of t
 substitutes correctly
 gives the correct answer (two decimal places)
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 7 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 13 (10 marks)

A particle performs simple harmonic motion with velocity v ( t ), measured in cm per second,
defined by the graph below.

(a) Given that the velocity v(t) = 3 cos(bt), determine the value for b. (2 marks)

Solution
From the graph of v ( t ) = 3cos ( bt ) Period = 0.4 seconds

Hence = 0.4 5π  15.70796...
∴ b=
b
Specific behaviours
 states the correct period from the graph
 determines the value for b

The displacement of the particle is given by x ( t ) centimetres, with x ( 0 ) = 1 .

(b) Determine x ( t ) in the form x (t) = A sin(bt) + C. (2 marks)

Solution
3sin ( 5π t )
x (t )
= ∫ v ( t ) dt
= ∫ 3cos (=
5π t ) dt + c

As x ( 0 ) = 1 then c = 1
3
x (t )
∴= sin ( 5π t ) + 1

Specific behaviours
 anti-differentiates the velocity correctly to form the displacement function
 determines the correct constant of integration
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 8 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(c) Calculate, correct to two decimal places, how far the particle will travel in the first
second. (3 marks)

Solution
3
=
Amplitude A = 0.19098.... cm

Period = 0.4 seconds
Hence in one second, the particle completes 2.5 cycles of its motion.

=
Distance travelled 2.5 (=
4 A) 10
= A 1.91 cm (two decimal places)
Specific behaviours
 determines the amplitude of motion
 applies the idea that in one cycle, the distance travelled is 4A
 states the distance correct to 0.01 cm

d 2x
(d) Show that =− k ( x − 1) for some appropriate value of k. (3 marks)
dt 2

Solution
2
d x dv
2
= = − 3b sin ( bt ) = − 15π .sin ( 5π t )
dt dt
3
x − 1 = sin ( 5π t )

d 2x
Hence both and ( x − 1) are multiples of sin ( 5π t )
dt 2
d 2x  3 
We can write =− k ( x − 1) ∴ −15π = − k. 
 5π 
2
dt
∴ k= 25π 2= 246.74110....
Specific behaviours
d 2x
 differentiates correctly to determine the acceleration
dt 2
d 2x
 shows that and ( x − 1) are multiples of sin ( 5π t )
dt 2
 determines the correct value for k
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 9 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 14 (8 marks)

Transformation matrices A, B and S are defined by:

 2 0  0 1
A =   B =  
0 1   −1 0 

S = a horizontal shear parallel to the x axis with factor equal to −1 .

(a) Write S as a 2 × 2 matrix. (1 mark)

Solution
 1 − 1
S =  
0 1
Specific behaviours
 writes the correct matrix

(b) Describe the transformation that is represented by the matrix AB. (3 marks)

Solution
Matrix AB represents:
i. B : Clockwise rotation of 90o about the origin and then
ii. A : Horizontal dilation about x = 0 with factor 2
Specific behaviours
 describes the rotation correctly
 describes the horizontal dilation correctly
 describes the transformation as B and then A i.e. uses the correct order

(c) Determine the matrix R such that R = B 2. (1 mark)

Solution
2  0 1  0 1   −1 0 
R B=
=   =   i.e. rotate 180o clockwise
 −1 0  −1 0   0 − 1
Specific behaviours
 writes the correct matrix
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 10 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Triangle OPQ is transformed by a matrix T to obtain ∆OP ' Q ' as shown in the diagram below.
Point O is the origin.

(d) Determine an expression for matrix T , in terms of two of the matrices A, B, R and S , so
that ∆OPQ is transformed into ∆OP ' Q '. Provide appropriate reasoning for your answer.
(3 marks)

Solution
Appears to be transformation R i.e. rotate clockwise 180o ( 0, 2 )  ( 0, −2 )
Then S i.e. shear horizontally ( 0, −2 )  ( 2, −2 )
i.e. Object point Q ( 0, 2 )  image point Q ' ( 2, −2 ) as shown in the above diagram
 −1 1 
Hence T = S × R =  
 0 − 1
Specific behaviours
 indicates that two rotations are required i.e. R
 indicates that a horizontal shear is required i.e. S
 writes the correct matrix expression for T in terms of R and S
(the elements of matrix T are not required)
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 11 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 15 (7 marks)

Two lines and a circle are shown below in the complex plane. Lines L1 and L2 intersect at
z= 3 + 2i, while L1 has a gradient of 3 and L2 has a gradient of – 3 .

(a) Write the equation of the circle C in the complex plane. (2 marks)

Solution
Equation for circle C : z − ( 3 + 2i ) =5
Specific behaviours
 forms an equation with the modulus of a complex number equal to 5
 writes a difference between z and the centre point ( 3 + 2i )

The equation of line L1 can be written in the form Arg ( z − a − bi ) =k .

(b) State the values for a, b and k . (2 marks)

Solution
π π
=k = ( )
tan −1 3
3
L1 : Arg ( z − ( 3 + 2i ) ) =
3
∴ a = 3, b = 2
Specific behaviours
 determines the correct value for k
 determines the correct values for a, b

(c) Express the region shaded as the intersection of inequalities in the Argand plane.
(3 marks)

Solution
π 2π
≤ Arg ( z − ( 3 + 2i ) ) ≤ and z − ( 3 + 2i ) ≤ 5
3 3
Specific behaviours
 recognises the correct argument for the second line
π

 states the argument between and
inclusive
3 3
 states the modulus is less than or equal to 5
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 12 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 16 (10 marks)

The diagram below shows the positive coordinate axes , and , with point O being
the origin. The following information is given.

• The points O, A, D, C, E, F, H and G from a rectangular prism.


4 0  0
• The points A, C and G have respective position vectors  0  ,  2  and  0  .
     
0 0  3
     
• The plane Π contains the points D, E and H .
• The vector intersects plane Π at point P.

(a) Determine the vector equation of the line that contains vector . (1 mark)

Solution

Hence vector equation

Specific behaviours
 states the correct vector equation
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 13 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(b) Explain why the equation for plane Π can be written in the form
, where µ , β are any real numbers. (2 marks)

Solution
Plane has this form because:
a. is the position vector for a point in the plane
b. vectors are vectors for lines that are in the plane
Specific behaviours
 states that is the position vector for a point in the plane
 states that vectors are vectors for lines that are in the plane

 4 − 4µ + 4β 
 
(c) Hence show that plane Π is given =
by r
 2 − 2β  . (2 marks)
 3µ 
 

Solution

and

Hence

Specific behaviours
 determines vector correctly
 determines vectors correctly
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 14 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(d) Determine the position vector of point P. (2 marks)

Solution
Point P is the intersection of the line and plane .
 4λ   4 − 4µ + 4β 
 
i.e. solve  2λ  =  2 − 2 β 
 
 3λ   3µ 
   
Equate components: 3µ = 3λ i.e. µ = λ
4λ = 4 − 4 ( λ ) + 4β i.e. 2λ = 1 + β
1
(1 + β ) =2 − 2β i.e. β =
3
2 2
Hence λ = , µ= i.e. Point P has position vector
3 3
Specific behaviours
 equates components and solves correctly λ , µ and β
 states the position vector for point P

3
(e) Show that the normal vector n for plane Π is parallel to  6  . (3 marks)
 
 4
 
Solution
Normal vector will be perpendicular to any vector in plane

Hence

Hence

Hence where k is a real constant

Specific behaviours
 calculates the dot product between vectors correctly
 applies the idea that a zero dot product implies perpendicular vectors
 shows that and
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 15 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 17 (7 marks)

(a) Using matrices P0 and T, write the matrix expression that will determine the proportions
of customers who will be shopping at K, S and W two weeks later. (2 marks)

Solution
2
P=
2 T × P0
Specific behaviours
 uses the correct order of matrix multiplication (post-multiplication with P0 )
 uses the matrix T 2

(b) Calculate the matrix expression from part (a). (1 mark)

Solution
2
 0.6 0.2 0.2   0.45   0.352 
     
=P2  0.1 0.7 0.3  × =
 0.1   0.324 
 0.3 0.1 0.5   0.45   0.324 
     
Specific behaviours
 calculates the correct matrix
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 16 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(c) Given that a customer initially shopped at W, what is the probability that this customer
shops at S two weeks later? (2 marks)

Solution
2
 0.6 0.2 0.2   0.44 0.28 0.28 
   
Need to examine matrix T 2 =  0.1 0.7 0.3  =  0.22 0.54 0.38 
 0.3 0.1 0.5   0.34 0.18 0.34 
   
Hence P ( shop at S after Week 2 | shop at W ) = 0.38
Specific behaviours
2
 examines matrix T to determine the conditional probability
 states the correct probability

After many weeks, it is found that the supermarket system in Peaceville reaches equilibrium,
where there is no change in the proportions matrix from week to week.

(d) Determine the equilibrium percentages of customers shopping at K, S and W.


(2 marks)

Solution
Need to examine P=
n T × P0 where n is sufficiently large.
n

 0.3333.... 
 
P20 = T 20 × P0 =  0.3888.... 
 0.2777.... 
 
 0.3333.... 

Checking P21 =T × P20 = 0.3888.... (also)

 
 0.2777.... 
 
Hence the approximate equilibrium percentages are:
K 33%
S 39%
W 28%
Specific behaviours
 calculates Pn for a large value of n
 states the correct percentages
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 17 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 18 (7 marks)

Archie and Brianna are two radio-controlled drones carrying cameras. Archie leaves the point
with position vector 2i − 3 j + 5k kilometres at 2 pm, and travels with a constant velocity of
10i − 10 j - 5k kilometres per hour .

(a) Find the speed at which Archie moves. (1 mark)

Solution
2 2 2
speed = 10 + 10 + 5
= 15 km/h −1
Specific behaviours
 evaluates the speed correctly

(b) Calculate the position vector of the location of Archie at 4 pm. (1 mark)

Solution
r=
< 2, −3,5 > +2 < 10, −10, −5 >
< 22, −23, −5 >
=
Specific behaviours
 determines the position vector for Archie when t = 2

The second radio-controlled drone, Brianna, leaves the point with position vector
−20i +10 j - 30k kilometres at 4 pm. Brianna travels with a constant velocity of
30i − 30 j − 15k kilometres per hour .

(c) Calculate the position vector of the location of Brianna at any time t . (1 mark)

Solution
r =< −20,10, −30 > + t < 30, −30, −15 >
Specific behaviours
 writes the position vector for Brianna at any time t

(d) Find an expression for the vector representing the distance between Archie and Brianna
at any time t . (1 mark)

Solution

AB =< −20 + 30t , 10 − 30t , − 30 − 15t > − < 22 + 10t , − 23 − 10t , − 5 − 5t >
=< −42 + 20t , 33 − 20t , − 25 − 10t >

AB = ( −42 + 20t ) 2 + ( 33 − 20t ) 2 + ( −25 − 10t ) 2
Specific behaviours
 writes the magnitude of vector in terms of t
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 18 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(e) Use calculus to determine the shortest distance between Archie and Brianna. (2 marks)

Solution
d
Using CAS, solve ( −42 + 20t ) 2 + ( 33 − 20t ) 2 + ( −25 − 10t ) 2 =0 and check by
dt
evaluating the second derivative for t = 1.39 h


AB  41.74 metres. Hence the shortest distance between Archie and Brianna is
41.7 metres. (one decimal place)
Specific behaviours
 solves correctly for t using the first derivative
 evaluates the distance correctly by substitution

(f) Correct to the nearest minute, at what time are they closest? (1 mark)

Solution
From above, this occurs after 1.39 h i.e. at ~5:24 pm
Specific behaviours
 determines the correct time
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 19 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 19 (9 marks)

A type of lichen, L1 , is flat and circular, and grows continuously, always maintaining its circular
shape with a fixed centre.

2
At any time t months, the instantaneous rate of growth of its surface area, A cm , is 0.2A.

2
(a) Write the formula for A , given the surface area of L1 is 2 cm when t = 0 . (1 mark)

Solution
dA
If = 0.2 A
dt
then A = A0e0.2 t
at t 0,=
= A 2
2e0.2 t
∴ A(t ) =
Specific behaviours
 writes the formula in correct form with correct constants

(b) Find the surface area of L1 after three months. (1 mark)

Solution
0.2( 3)
A = 2e
= 3.64 cm2 per month
Specific behaviours
 evaluates correctly stating the correct units
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 20 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Another type of lichen L2 grows in such a way that its rate of increase of surface area is given
by

dB
= 0.4 B.
dt

2
(c) Write the formula for B, given that the surface area of L2 is 1.5cm when t = 1 . (2 marks)

Solution
dB
If = 0.4 B
dt
then B = B0e0.4 t
at
= t 1,=
B 1.5
1.5 = B0e0.4
B0 = 1.0055 (four decimal places)
1.0055e0.4 t
∴ B (t ) =
Specific behaviours
 writes the correct exponential form for B
 evaluates constant B0 correctly

(d) When, to the nearest month, will L1 and L2 have the same surface areas? (2 marks)

Solution
0.2 t 0.4 t
2e = 1.0055e
t = 3.4383 months
i.e. same surface area after three months
Specific behaviours
 writes the correct equation to solve for equal areas
 solves correctly to give the answer in months
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 21 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(e) When will the lichens touch for the first time, given that their centres are 10 cm apart?
(3 marks)

Solution

For A, 2e0.2 t = π r12


For B, e0.4 t = π r2 2
and r1 + r2 =
10 cm
e0.2 t π r12 and =
Solving simultaneously: 2= e0.4 t π (10 − r1 ) 2

Lichens first touch after 12.69 months


Specific behaviours
 states that the sum of the radii equals 10
 writes simultaneous equations to solve for the radii and time t
 solves using CAS to find the correct time in months
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 22 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 20 (8 marks)

A number of fractions are multiplied together and the answers are tabulated.

Answer
n Product P(n)
A(n)
 2 1 2
3 1 −  =
 3 3 6
 2  2  1 2
4 1 − 1 −  =
 3  4  6 12
 2  2  2  1 2
5 1 − 1 − 1 −  =
 3  4  5  10 20
 2  2  2  2  1 2
6 1 − 1 − 1 − 1 −  =
 3  4  5  6  15 30
 2  2  2  2  2  1 2
7 1 − 1 − 1 − 1 − 1 −  =
 3  4  5  6  7  21 42

(a) Write an expression for P(8) and the answer A(8). (2 marks)

Solution
 2  2  2  2  2  2 
P ( 8 ) =−
1 1 − 1 − 1 − 1 − 1 − 
 3  4  5  6  7  8 
2 1
Hence A= (8) =
56 28
Specific behaviours
 forms the correct expression for P(8)
 states the correct value for A(8)

(b) Determine for n = 101 :

(i) the number of fractions multiplied to form P (101) . (1 mark)

Solution
P (101) has 99 factors multiplied together
Specific behaviours
 states the correct answer
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 23 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(ii) the exact value for A (101) . (1 mark)

Solution
2 2 1
A
= (101) = =
101×100 10100 5050
Specific behaviours
 states the correct answer

(c) Write an appropriate conjecture for A ( n ) , where n ≥ 3 . (1 mark)

Solution
2
It appears that A(n) =
n ( n − 1)
 2  2  2   2  2  2
i.e. 1 − 1 − 1 −  ...... 1 − 1 −  =
 3  4  5   n − 1  n  n ( n − 1)
Specific behaviours
 forms a conjecture that is consistent with the data

(d) Use the method of induction to prove your conjecture. (3 marks)

Solution
 2 1 2 1
For n = 3 1 −  = = Hence true for n = 3
 3 3 3(3 − 1) 3

 2  2   2  2
Assume it is true for n = k i.e.  1 − 1 −  ..... 1 −  =
 3  4   k  k ( k − 1)
Consider n= k + 1:
 2  2   2  2 
P ( k + 1) = 1 − 1 −  ...... 1 − 1 − 
 3  4   k  k + 1 
2  2 
= × 1 −  (using the assumption)
k ( k − 1)  k +1 
2  k −1  2
= ×   = Hence true for n= k + 1
k ( k − 1)  k +1  ( k + 1) k
Hence the conjecture is true for n = 3, 4, 5,.... (for all integers n ≥ 3 )
Specific behaviours
 shows that the conjecture is true for n = 3
 expresses correctly the product for n= k + 1
 shows that P ( k + 1) is true from the assumption that P ( k ) is true
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 24 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

Question 21 (10 marks)


dN
A rumour spreads among 200 people at a rate given by , where N ( t ) is the number of
dt
people who have already heard the rumour after t hours. Initially 40 people have heard the
rumour.
N
It is known that N (t ) satisfies Ae0.5t = , where A is some constant.
200 − N

(a) Determine the value of A. (2 marks)

Solution
40
Using N ( 0 ) = 40 then Ae ( ) =
0.5 0

200 − 40
40
=
i.e. A = 0.25
160
Specific behaviours
 substitutes correctly for N and t into the equation given
 determines the value for A

N
(b) By implicitly differentiating the equation Ae0.5t = with respect to t, show that
200 − N
dN N ( 200 − N )
= . (5 marks)
dt 400

Solution
d d N 
i.e.
dt
( 0.25e0.5t ) =  
dt  200 − N 
d  N  dN  ( 200 − N ) .1 − N . ( −1)  dN
∴ 0.5 ( 0.25e0.5=
t
)  . =  .
dN  200 − N  dt  ( 200 − N )
2
 dt
 
1 N   200  dN
∴  
 = .
2  200 − N   ( 200 − N )2  dt
 
N × ( 200 − N ) N ( 200 − N )
2
dN
=
∴ = as required
dt 2 × ( 200 − N ) × 200 400
Specific behaviours
 differentiates the exponential function Ae0.5t in terms of t correctly
N
 differentiates the quotient in terms of N correctly
200 − N
dN
 uses the chain rule correctly to obtain in the equation
dt
N
 substitutes for Ae0.5t using
200 − N
dN
 manipulates the equation to obtain correctly
dt
MATHEMATICS: SPECIALIST 3C/3D 25 MARKING KEY
CALCULATOR-ASSUMED

(c) Hence determine the fastest rate at which the rumour will spread. (3 marks)

Solution
dN N ( 200 − N )
=
Given that this is a quadratic function in terms of N
dt 400
dN
The maximum value for will occur when N = 100
dt

=
dN (100 )( 200 − 100 )
= 25
i.e.
dt 400
Hence the fastest rate that the rumour will spread is 25 people per hour
Specific behaviours
dN
 uses the expression for the derivative to find fastest rate
dt
 determines the value for N that yields the maximum
 determines the rate with appropriate use of units
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