You are on page 1of 10

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288


www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv

Determination of transient two-dimensional heat transfer in ventilated


lightweight low sloped roof using Fourier series
Boštjan Černea, Sašo Medvedb,
a
Trimo d.d., Prijateljeva 12, 8210 Trebnje, Slovenia
b
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Received 13 September 2005; received in revised form 12 April 2006; accepted 25 April 2006

Abstract

In this paper, the analysis of transient two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer in low sloped roof with forced ventilated cavity made from
lightweight building elements (LBE) is presented. For the heat transfer analysis the 2D numerical model, which was verified with
experiments, was used. Forced ventilated cavity was configured in two different ways. In the first case the cavity was configured with
coloured thin metal sheet and in the second case with thin metal sheet with added layer of thermal insulation and radiation barrier.
Beside the influence of the ventilated cavity configuration on the transient 2D heat transfer in the LBE and on the cavity outlet air
temperature also the influence of the LBE thickness, specific air flow rate through the cavity, inner air temperature and wind velocity was
analysed. Multi-parametric equations for determination of Fourier series coefficients were formed. These coefficients were used for
evaluation of transient 2D heat transfer on the inner side of the roof and cavity outlet air temperature for a clear day.
r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lightweight roof; Ventilated cavity; Two-dimensional heat transfer; Fourier series

1. Introduction the inner surface of the LBE, besides that an LBE with
ventilated cavity can operate as solar air collector.
Available time for building construction is getting Several researches of heat transfer through the building
shorter nowadays, therefore the number of buildings built envelope with ventilated cavity have been made. Balocco
with lightweight building elements (LBE) is increasing. [1] numerically compared stationary heat flow through the
These elements are made from two layers of thin metal building envelope with and without naturally ventilated
sheet, in between is a layer of thermal insulation. LBEs are cavity. Summer overheating was reduced from 7% to
especially appropriate as envelope elements for buildings, 27.5%, depending on cavity width. Ciampi et al. [2]
such as shopping centres, commercial buildings and compared with the use of analytical method the influence
production plants. These buildings are usually big with of several parameters on stationary heat flow through
low roof inclination. Static thermal resistance of LBE is different building envelopes with naturally ventilated
relatively high, while the thermal stability is relatively small cavity, which can be open or closed. Among other things,
compared to massive building constructions. Because of they showed that with optimised distribution of thermal
LBE’s small thermal stability the heat flow which enters insulation inside the air duct the maximum energy savings
into the building varies considerably due to the variation of can be reached. Maneewan et al. [3] numerically analysed
meteorological parameters. The heat flow variation can be heat flow reduction through the ventilated roof without
the reason for building overheating. Ventilated cavity on thermal insulation. Heat gains on the hottest day in the
the outer surface of the LBE reduces heat flow variation on year were reduced from 16% to 65% due to ventilated
cavity. Kairys and Karbauskaite [4] analysed transient heat
flow through a vertical lightweight wall with and without
Corresponding author. Tel.: +38614771316; fax: +38612518567. naturally ventilated cavity for a selected extreme day. They
E-mail address: saso.medved@fs.uni-lj.si (S. Medved). showed a 30% reduction of the maximum heat flow on the

0360-1323/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.04.022
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2280 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Nomenclature g inclination (1)


r density (kg/m3)
a0, a1, a2, b1, b2 Fourier series coefficients (dimension- o frequency (rad/s)
less)
A, B,y, M coefficients (dimensionless) Subscripts
dQ heat flow difference (W/m2)
dT temperature difference (1C) a ambient
cp specific thermal capacity (J/kg K) avg average
h convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K) c cavity
k thermal conductivity (W/mK) d downward
L length (m) e experimental
P period (h) F Fourier
Q heat flow (W/m2) i inner
R heat transfer resistance (m2 K/W) in inlet
t time (h) ir longwave
T_ temperature (1C) m mean
T temperature amplitude (1C) max maximum
U thermal transmittance (W/m2 K) n numerical
v air velocity in the cavity (m/s) wvc without ventilated cavity
V specific air flow rate (m3/m2 s) out outlet
X, Y variables pu polyurethane
w wind speed (m/s) s solar
sol sol-air
Greek letters u upward
01 cavity configured with thin metal sheet with
a absorptivity (dimensionless) added thermal insulation and radiation barrier
b phase (rad) 09 cavity configured with coloured thin metal
e emissivity (dimensionless) sheet
f latitude (1)

inner side of the wall with naturally ventilated cavity From the literature review it can be seen that the analysis
compared with a wall without cavity. Medina [5] and of the heat flow on the inner side of the building
Winiarski and O’Neal [6] compared room heat gains construction is 1D. There is no model which could be
through the ventilated attic with and without radiation used for prediction of transient 2D heat flow in building
barrier. Heat gains were reduced up to 40% when radiation construction with ventilated cavity.
barrier was used. In this paper, the analysis of building thermal load as a
Agnoletto et al. [7] showed air temperature variation consequence of transient heat transfer through the low
along the ventilated cavity, while the heat flow through the sloped roof with forced ventilated cavity made from LBEs
building construction was presented integrally. Hirunlabh is presented. Standard summer day for two latitudes [12],
et al. [8] also showed air temperature variation along which is used as project day for building thermal load
the ventilated cavity. Temperature variation was small determination, was used. In the multi-parametric analysis
because of relatively short cavity, therefore they used 1D of transient 2D heat transfer two different cavity config-
heat transfer model. In our previous work [9] we urations were analysed. In the first case the cavity was
analysed 2D heat flow amplitude on the inner side of configured with a coloured corrugated thin metal sheet, in
the LBE with ventilated cavity. We showed that 2D the second case the cavity was configured with a thin metal
heat transfer analysis in long LBEs with ventilated sheet with added 5 mm layer of thermal insulation
cavity is necessary for accurate estimation of heat flow (polyurethane) and radiation barrier (aluminium foil).
amplitude. Both metal sheets and LBE are produced as mass
Until now several models for predicting heat flow on the production made by the same producer [13].
inner side of the building construction were made. Transfer
function method [10] is one of the most known methods, 2. Numerical model of an LBE with ventilated cavity
which is used for transient heat flow determination.
Balocco [11] analysed ventilated opaque double fac- ade The 2D heat transfer in long LBE with ventilated cavity
with the use of non-dimensional numbers. This stationary must be analysed numerically using a CFD method. In our
analysis was 1D. case the control volume method was used. Differential
ARTICLE IN PRESS
B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2281

Fig. 1. Model of an LBE with ventilated cavity configured with coloured


thin metal sheet. Fig. 3. Photo of the sample of thin metal sheet with added 5 mm layer of
thermal insulation (polyurethane) and radiation barrier (aluminium foil).

 air velocity profile at the cavity inlet is uniform;


 air in the cavity does not take part in heat transfer by
radiation;
 cavity surfaces are diffuse, inlet and outlet openings do
not take part in heat transfer by radiation;
 solar and longwave radiation on the outer surface of the
element is uniform;
 corrugated thin metal sheet is substituted with flat one
providing the same average air flow velocity;
 2D heat transfer analysis is made for 1 m wide LBE, on
both sides of the LBE adiabatic conditions apply.

Fig. 2. Model of an LBE with ventilated cavity configured with thin metal
sheet with added 5 mm layer of thermal insulation (polyurethane) and 3. Verification of the numerical model
radiation barrier (aluminium foil).

Numerical model of the LBE with ventilated cavity


configured with coloured thin metal sheet was verified with
equations of the conservation of mass, momentum and experiments. The experiments were performed on the test
energy, known as the set of Navier–Stokes equations, ventilated roof with dimensions 6  6 m. Thickness of the
together with Fourier’s law of heat conduction and LBE was 80 mm, while the cavity width was 7 mm (Fig. 4).
Stefan–Boltzmann radiation law must be solved for control Air entered the cavity directly from the ambient. Dimen-
volumes. Solution of these equations gives temperature, sions and thermal properties of materials used in the
velocity and pressure field in the LBE with forced experiments are given in Table 1.
ventilated cavity. Commercial CFD software PHOENICS Indoor space was simulated with a closed cavity on the
[14] was used to solve differential equations. Numerical inner side of the LBE. The width of the cavity was 2 cm and
calculations were performed with a 10 min time step. it was thermally insulated with 5 cm thick layer of
The 2D numerical model of the LBE with ventilated polystyrene. The temperature in the cavity was regulated
cavity configured with coloured thin metal sheet is shown with resistance heating wire and cooling pipe system with
in Fig. 1. LBE with ventilated cavity configured with thin cold water, which were mounted on the inner surface of the
metal sheet with added thermal insulation and radiation LBE. Fig. 5 shows the cross section of the ventilated roof
barrier is shown in Fig. 2. Both figures also show boundary with a closed cavity. The heating wire and the cooling pipe
conditions used in numerical analysis. In Fig. 3 the photo are also shown. Fig. 6 shows the heating wire and the
of the sample of thin metal sheet with added thermal cooling pipe mounted on the inner surface of the test
insulation and radiation barrier is shown. ventilated roof together with an opening where heat flow
In the numerical model the following assumptions were metre was installed.
used: Air temperatures in both cavities were measured with
Ni–CrNi thermocouples. Four thermocouples were used
 heat transfer is transient with a 24 h period; for measuring air inlet and outlet temperatures. Along the
 heat transfer is 2D; ventilated cavity the air temperature was measured at three
 air flow through the ventilated cavity is constant; locations: 1, 3 and 5 m from cavity inlet. At these locations
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2282 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Fig. 4. Photo of the LBE with ventilated cavity configured with coloured Fig. 6. Resistance of heating wires (a) and pipe system with cold water (b)
thin metal sheet where experiments were performed. on the inner side of the LBE; opening (c), where the heat flow metre was
installed, was filled with thermal insulation.

Table 1
Dimensions and material thermal properties of the LBE with ventilated Ta Ti w Qs
cavity Qir,d Qir,u
50 1000
5.6.03 16.7.03
temperature (˚C), wind

s. & ir. radiation (W/m2)


Layer Thickness (mm) k (W/mK) r (kg/m3) cp (J/kg K) e
40 800
speed (m/s)

Metal sheet 0.6 43 7800 460 0.9


Thermal insulation 78.8 0.04 120 840 0.9 30 600
Metal sheet 0.6 43 7800 460 0.9
Air (ventilated cavity) 7 0.026 1.189 1005 0 20 400
Aluminium foil — 204 2700 900 0.1
Polyurethane — 0.035 25 1400 0.9 10 200
Metal sheet 0.6 43 7800 460 0.9
0 0
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24
time (h)

Fig. 7. Measured temperatures, wind speed, solar and longwave radiation


for two clear days used for verification of the numerical model.

the roof. Air flow rate was measured with an orifice and
differential pressure gauge. Measurement results were
saved every 5 min. Measurements were performed from
June to August 2003.
Numerical model was verified with two specific air flow
rates through the cavity: 0.0029 and 0.0043 m3/m2 s of the
ventilated roof. Fig. 7 shows meteorological parameters for
two clear days, which were used for verification of the
numerical model.
Fig. 5. Cross section of the ventilated roof with additional closed cavity. The following boundary conditions were used in
numerical simulations:

the heat flow, which entered the LBE was also measured.  sol-air temperature which replaces ambient temperature
heat flow metres with dimensions 120  120 mm were and solar and longwave radiation on the outer surface of
placed below upper thin metal sheet of the LBE (Fig. 5). the thin metal sheet. For calculation of sol-air tempera-
Ambient temperature was measured with shielded Pt100. ture the following equation was used:
Solar and longwave radiation were measured with pyr-
anometer and pyrgeometer, respectively. Both were Qs aa;s þ Qir;d aa;ir  Qir;u a;ir
T sol ¼ T a þ . (1)
mounted on the test roof and had the same inclination as ha
ARTICLE IN PRESS
B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2283

Q1m,e Q5m,e Q1m,n Q5m,n Tc,1m,e Tc,5m,e Tc,out,e


20 Tc,1m,n Tc,5m,n Tc,out,n
10 100
5.6.03 16.7.03
0 V = 0.0029 m3/m2s V = 0.0043 m3/m2s
heat flow (W/m2)

80
-10

temperature (°C)
-20 60
-30
40
-40
5.6.03 16.7.03
-50
20
V = 0.0029 m3/m2s V = 0.0043 m3/m2s
-60
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 0
time (h) 0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24

Fig. 8. Measured and numerically calculated heat flow at the position of time (h)
heat flow metres at distance 1 and 5 m from the cavity inlet.
Fig. 9. Measured and numerically calculated temperatures along the
cavity length at distance 1 and 5 m from the cavity inlet and at cavity
Absorbed (Qir,d  aa,ir) and emitted (Qir,u  ea,ir) long- outlet (6 m).
wave radiation were calculated from measured longwave
radiation exchange between the pyrgeometer and the parametric analysis of 2D heat transfer in the LBE with
sky. Pyrgeometer and outer thin metal sheet surface differently configured cavities.
temperature are not the same, therefore the emitted
longwave radiation was determined using correction, 4. Multi-parametric analysis
which takes into account this temperature difference.
The following optical properties of thin metal sheet were Multi-parametric analysis of transient 2D heat transfer
used: solar radiation absorptivity (aa,s) 0.85, longwave in LBE with ventilated cavity was performed for the most
radiation absorptivity and emissivity (aa,ir and ea,ir) 0.9 important construction and ambient parameters:
[9,15]. Convective heat transfer coefficient on the outer
side of the cavity, which does not include heat transfer  LBE thickness; 80 mm (U ¼ 0:467 W=m2 K), 150 mm
by radiation, was determined by [16] (0:257 W=m2 K) and 200 mm (0.195 W/m2 K), which
ha ¼ 3:1 þ 4:1w. (2) covers the production range of the LBEs;
 specific air flow rate through the cavity; 0.001, 0.002 and
Eq. (1) was used as a substitute ambient temperature 0.003 m3/m2 s; at cavity width d c ¼ 25 mm the velocities
during the daytime (Qs 40 ) and nighttime (Qs ¼ 0). For of air in the cavity are 0.36, 0.72 and 1.08 m/s,
the purpose of numerical analysis sol-air temperature respectively; range of air flow rates were chosen in such
was approximated with a sine function, which required a way, that it suits necessary amount of fresh air for the
use of two different sine function for daytime and ventilation of the building part, which belongs to the
nighttime, as is described in detail in [9]. LBE with ventilated cavity;
 cavity inlet air temperature was the same as ambient  emissivity of the cavity outer surface; c;a ¼ 0:9 for
temperature and was approximated with a sine function: coloured thin metal sheet and c;a ¼ 0:1 for thin metal
_
T in ¼ T a;m þ T a sinðot  bÞ, (3) sheet with added thermal insulation and radiation
barrier;
where Ta,m is mean temperature between_maximum and
 air temperature in the building; T i ¼ 20 and 25 1C,
minimum daily ambient temperature. T a is the tem-
which is constant during the day;
perature amplitude, calculated as half the difference
 ambient temperature and solar radiation were taken
between the maximum and minimum daily ambient
from standard EN ISO 13791 [12] for places with
temperature.
latitude f ¼ 401 and 521 (Fig. 10);
 wind speed w ¼ 0:5 and 4 m/s, which is constant during
Fig. 8 shows heat flow in the LBE at different locations the day; convective heat transfer coefficients on the
and Fig. 9 shows air temperature in the ventilated cavity at outer surface of the element are 11 and 25 W/m2 K [17],
different locations, which were measured with experiment respectively.
and calculated with numerical model. Two clear days were
selected (Fig. 7), which have characteristics of a clear Other parameters, such as convective heat transfer co-
project day. From Figs. 8 and 9 can be seen that the efficient on the inner side of the LBE (ai ¼ 7:8 W=m2 K),
agreement between measured and calculated values is thermal insulation added on the thin metal sheet
good, therefore we can conclude that the numerical model (d pu ¼ 5 mm), cavity width (d c ¼ 25 mm) and LBE length
is appropriate and will be used for transient multi- (L ¼ 9 m), were constant in the analysis. Use of LBE is
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2284 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Ta Qs Qi,1m Qi,2m Qi,3m Qi,4m


40 1000
40° 52° Qi,5m Qi,6m Qi,7m Qi,8m
ambient temperature (°C)

35 875 Qi,9m Qwvc Tout

solar radiation (W/m2)


30 750 5 110
0 100
25 625
-5 90

temperature (°C)
heat flow (W/m2)
20 500 -10 80
15 375 -15 70
10 250 -20 60
-25 50
5 125
-30 40
0 0 -35 30
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24
-40 20
time (h) w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s
-45 10
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24
Fig. 10. Ambient temperature and solar radiation for latitude f ¼ 401
and 521 on July 15 [12]. time (h)

Fig. 11. Heat flow on the inner side of the LBE with thickness 80 mm and
cavity width 25 mm and cavity outlet air temperature. Cavity is configured
with a coloured thin metal sheet: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, T i ¼ 25 1C, and
f ¼ 401.
especially appropriate for low sloped roof of large
buildings, where the roof inclination is between 31 and
101. Therefore, solar radiation taken from standard EN Qi,1m Qi,2m Qi,3m Qi,4m
ISO 13791, defined on horizontal surface, was not Qi,5m Qi,6m Qi,7m Qi,8m
corrected for actual roof inclination and orientation. Qi,9m Qwvc Tout
5 110
As an example of numerical analysis the heat flow from 0 100
the LBE into the building at various element lengths and -5 90
heat flow (W/m2)

temperature (°C)
air temperature at the cavity outlet is presented in Fig. 11 -10 80
for the cavity configured with coloured thin metal sheet -15 70
-20 60
and in Fig. 12 for the cavity configured with thin metal
-25 50
sheet with added thermal insulation and radiation barrier. 40
-30
In both figures the heat flow through the LBE without -35 30
ventilated cavity is also presented. -40 20
w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s
From presented examples it can be seen that the heat -45 10
flow into the building is markedly 2D. Ventilated cavity 0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24
effectively reduces heat flow into the building. This time (h)
reduction is especially noticeable in the first part of the Fig. 12. Heat flow on the inner side of the LBE with thickness 80 mm and
LBE, where the heat flow decreases to 1/3 at the cavity cavity width 25 mm and cavity outlet air temperature. Cavity is configured
configured with coloured thin metal sheet and to 2/3 at the with a thin metal sheet with added 5 mm layer of thermal insulation and
cavity configured with thin metal sheet and added thermal radiation barrier: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401.
insulation and radiation barrier. This confirms significance
of forced ventilation of low sloped roofs. Towards the end
of the ventilated cavity the heat flow into the building
practically does not increase, which means that selected depends on yearly energy analysis because the cavity outlet
length of the LBE used for numerical analysis is sufficient. air temperature is lower when configuration with thermal
At the end of the LBE with ventilated cavity is the heat insulation and radiation barrier is used. In any case, the
flow into the building smaller compared to the heat flow results presented in Figs. 11 and 12 shows proper approach
into the building from LBE without ventilated cavity. This and selection of influential parameters.
is a consequence of changed static thermal transmittance of Because of great number of influential parameters it is
such element with cavity. This is especially noticeable at the reasonable to form simple but accurate empirical expres-
cavity configured with thin metal sheet with added thermal sion by which the 2D heat flow into the building could be
insulation and radiation barrier (Fig. 12). Wind speed determined. Basis for modelling this expression are the
greatly influences the heat flow, which is reduced for 1/2 results of numerical analysis of transient heat flow, which
when the wind speed increases from 0.5 to 4 m/s. was performed with a 10 min time step. Discrete values
When heat flow reduction is the principal purpose of the (j ¼ 144 in 24 h period) of heat flow at selected LBE’s
ventilated cavity the configuration with thin metal sheet length are then decomposed into sine and cosine waves
with added thermal insulation and radiation barrier is using discrete Fourier transform [18]. Sine and cosine
more appropriate. If such element is used for preheating of waves have different frequency and amplitude. When
ventilation air then the choice of cavity configuration decomposition is made the 2D heat flow into the building
ARTICLE IN PRESS
B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2285

can be calculated with Fourier series equation: following equations:


 
a0;Q;L X m
2pt X a0;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞDT þ Cv þ DÞU
Qi;L;F ðt; LÞ ¼ þ ak;Q;L cos k
2 24 þ ðEv þ F ÞDT þ Gv þ H, ð9Þ
k¼1
Xm  
2pt Y a0;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞT i þ ðCv þ DÞT sol;avg ÞU, (10)
þ bk;Q;L sin k . ð4Þ
k¼1
24
X a1;Q ¼ Y a1;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞDT þ Cv þ DÞ
Coefficients a and b from Eq. (4) are calculated with
U þ ðEv þ F ÞDT þ Gv þ H, ð11Þ
equations
X
2 1441 X b1;Q ¼ Y b1;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞDT þ Cv þ DÞ
a0;Q;L ¼ Q , (5)
144 j¼0 i;L;j U 1 þ ðEv þ F ÞDT þ Gv þ H, ð12Þ

  X a2;Q ¼ Y a2;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞT sol;avg þ Cv þ DÞ


X
2 1441 2pj
ak;Q;L ¼ Q cos k , (6) U þ ðEv þ F ÞT sol;avg þ Gv þ H, ð13Þ
144 j¼0 i;L;j 144
X b2;Q ¼ Y b2;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞT sol;avg þ Cv þ DÞ
X   U 1 þ ðEv þ F ÞT sol;avg þ Gv þ H,
2 1441 2pj ð14Þ
bk;Q;L ¼ Qi;L;j sin k . (7)
144 j¼0 144
DT ¼ T sol;max  T a;max . (15)
We found, that the heat flow on the inner surface of the Tsol,avg is average sol-air temperature in the 24 h period,
LBE can be determined with sufficient accuracy with DT is the difference between maximum daily sol-air
Eq. (4) when m ¼ 2. This means that the heat flow can be temperature and maximum daily ambient temperature.
determined with five Fourier series coefficients (a0,Q, a1,Q, Coefficient values from Eqs. (9)–(15) are given in Tables 2
a2,Q, b1,Q, b2,Q). Fig. 13 shows Fourier series coefficients and 3.
values calculated with the same conditions as described in Figs. 14 and 15 show heat flow on the inner side of the
Fig. 11. It is obvious from Fig. 13 that values of Fourier LBE with ventilated cavity at three different locations
series coefficients which are used for the heat flow determined with numerical method and Fourier series. The
determination vary along the LBE length. difference in heat flow determined by both methods is also
Multi-parametric dependence of all Fourier series shown. The same conditions were used for calculation as in
coefficients (a0,Q, a1,Q, a2,Q, b1,Q, b2,Q) can be approximated Figs. 11 and 12. Meteorological data used for calculation
with the same function: were: T a;max ¼ 34 1C, T sol;max;w¼0:5 ¼ 108:6 1C, T sol;max;w¼4
¼ 65:8 1C, T sol;avg;w¼0:5 ¼ 54:9 1C, T sol;avg;w¼4 ¼ 39:4 1C,
a0;Q;L ; a1;Q;L ; a2;Q;L ; b1;Q;L ; b2;Q;L  Z ¼ X Z lnðLÞ þ Y Z ,
T a;max ¼ 34 1C, T sol;max;w¼0:5 ¼ 108:6 1C, T sol;max;w¼4 ¼
(8) 65:8 1C, T sol;avg;w¼0:5 ¼ 54:9 1C, and T sol;avg;w¼4 ¼ 39:4 1C.
where Z represents particular Fourier series coefficient. heat flow comparison shows good agreement between heat
Values of variables XZ and YZ are determined with the flow determined by both methods. Oscillation of heat flow
difference can be seen, which is the consequence of using
only five Fourier series coefficients for heat flow determi-
15
nation. however, this difference is small, which proves that
chosen number (m ¼ 2) of Fourier series coefficients is
a0,Q,L; a1,Q,L; a2,Q,L; b1,

10
appropriate.
5 When the LBE with forced ventilated cavity is used
Q,L; b2,Q,L

0 as solar air collector the cavity outlet air temperature must


-5 a0,Q,L a1,Q,L
be known. This temperature can be determined with
a2,Q,L b1,Q,L equation:
-10
b2,Q,L  
-15 a0;T X m
2pt
T out;F ðtÞ ¼ þ ak;T cos k
-20 2 k¼1
24
w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s
Xm  
-25 2pt
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 þ bk;T sin k . ð16Þ
k¼1
24
length (m)
In our case the length of numerical model was 9 m,
Fig. 13. Values of Fourier series coefficients which are used for
determination of heat flow on the inner side of the LBE and cavity outlet therefore the cavity outlet air temperature is given at this
air temperature. LBE thickness was 80 mm, cavity width 25 mm, length. If longer LBE with ventilated cavity would be used
V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, c;a ¼ 0:9, T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401. the air outlet temperature would not change noticeably,
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2286 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Table 2
Coefficient values which are used for determination of variable XZ

ec,a w (m/s) A B C D E F G H

Xa0,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0219 0.0040 2.5660 9.1019 0.0008 0.0047 0.1314 0.1344
0.9 4 0.0093 0.0209 0.2139 3.8017 0.0040 0.0071 0.1429 0.1524
0.1 0.5 0.0132 0.0620 6.9182 15.8550 0.0068 0.0245 0.0342 1.0497
0.1 4 0.0412 0.2223 3.7396 11.4970 0.0121 0.0505 0.1564 1.1852
Xa1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0157 0.0890 2.1756 2.8054 0.0022 0.0124 0.3593 0.6132
0.9 4 0.0331 0.0806 0.9760 0.7884 0.0049 0.0116 0.1479 0.1841
0.1 0.5 0.0761 0.1937 1.3892 1.1657 0.0133 0.0311 0.3153 0.0461
0.1 4 0.0913 0.2425 0.0900 2.1260 0.0167 0.0399 0.0386 0.2381

Xa2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0006 0.0801 0.1204 1.4526 0.0001 0.0185 0.0232 0.2942
0.9 4 0.0050 0.0267 0.1000 0.0090 0.0011 0.0058 0.0206 0.0334
0.1 0.5 0.0507 0.1174 0.9993 2.5511 0.0138 0.0295 0.0251 0.5806
0.1 4 0.0224 0.0514 0.1332 0.3752 0.0057 0.0125 0.0075 0.0390
Xb1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0001 0.0011 0.0117 0.1126 0.0013 0.0033 0.3178 0.9537
0.9 4 7  105 0.0004 0.0011 0.0309 0.0032 0.0056 0.1122 0.2761
0.1 0.5 0.0004 0.0004 0.0668 0.1057 0.0117 0.0244 0.4750 0.3811
0.1 4 0.0013 0.0024 0.0114 0.0019 0.0181 0.0407 0.0386 0.2902
Xb2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0004 0.0027 0.0025 0.0046 0.0017 0.0178 0.0064 0.0813
0.9 4 0.0001 0.0004 0.0011 0.0419 0.0008 0.0037 0.0119 0.1995
0.1 0.5 0.0035 0.0063 0.0307 0.0545 0.0210 0.0376 0.2193 0.4341
0.1 4 0.0013 0.0023 0.0278 0.0520 0.0072 0.0138 0.1254 0.2229

Table 3
Coefficient values which are used for determination of variable YZ

ec,a w (m/s) A B C D E F G H

Ya0,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0260 1.9196 0.2254 1.5926 — — — —


0.9 4 0.0207 1.9297 0.1274 1.7815 — — — —
0.1 0.5 0.0794 1.8062 0.1239 1.1119 — — — —
0.1 4 0.0792 1.8064 0.0512 1.3964 — — — —
Ya1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.1556 0.2899 0.5514 20.7450 0.0217 0.0134 0.3050 6.2013
0.9 4 0.1693 0.1184 0.3736 19.8690 0.0244 0.0412 0.0374 5.6724
0.1 0.5 0.1593 0.0392 3.9611 15.8420 0.0238 0.0199 0.4493 5.1393
0.1 4 0.2058 0.1904 3.2222 17.4280 0.0311 0.0859 0.4078 5.2188
Ya2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.1179 0.3812 2.3183 7.8945 0.0267 0.0843 0.4706 1.5496
0.9 4 0.0475 0.1792 0.1614 0.9261 0.0103 0.0382 0.0128 0.0221
0.1 0.5 0.0899 0.1511 2.1200 3.6411 0.0213 0.0351 0.4633 0.7788
0.1 4 0.0393 0.0657 0.3369 0.6045 0.0092 0.0149 0.0465 0.0863
Yb1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0018 0.0275 0.1437 2.5458 0.0068 0.1168 0.8694 15.9060
0.9 4 0.0008 0.0516 0.0454 2.2154 0.0132 0.2668 0.2222 14.0280
0.1 0.5 0.0003 0.0213 0.0472 2.1365 0.0164 0.1079 0.2139 12.9670
0.1 4 0.0013 0.0456 0.0189 1.9942 0.0297 0.2613 0.4764 12.3940
Yb2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0032 0.0081 0.0100 0.0877 0.0233 0.0654 0.1117 0.1647
0.9 4 0.0008 0.0022 0.0585 0.2090 0.0068 0.0235 0.2675 0.9079
0.1 0.5 0.0035 0.0051 0.0294 0.0344 0.0221 0.0342 0.2786 0.4034
0.1 4 0.0013 0.0018 0.0306 0.0489 0.0085 0.0130 0.1214 0.1984

X  
similarly as heat flow on the inner side of the LBE does not 2 1441 2pj
change at longer LBE. Coefficients a and b from Eq. (16) ak;T ¼ T out;j cos k , (18)
144 j¼0 144
are determined with the following equations:

X  
X
2 1441 2 1441 2pj
a0;T ¼ T out;j , (17) bk;T ¼ T out;j sin k . (19)
144 j¼0 144 j¼0 144
ARTICLE IN PRESS
B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2287

The same as for the heat flow also the cavity outlet air Multi-parametric dependence of all necessary Fourier
temperature can be determined with sufficient accuracy series coefficients (a0,T, a1,T, a2,T, b1,T, b2,T) which are used
with Eq. (16) when m ¼ 2 or five Fourier series coefficients for cavity outlet air temperature determination are
(a0,T, a1,T, a2,T, b1,T, b2,T). Table 4 gives values of Fourier approximated with the following function:
series coefficients determined at the same conditions as in a0;T ; a1;T ; a2;T ; b1;T ; b2;T ; ¼ ðJv þ KÞT sol;avg þ Lv þ M.
Fig. 11.
(20)
Comparison of Eqs. (8) and (20) shows, that the cavity
outlet air temperature is independent from LBE thickness
Q2m,n Q5m,n Q8m,n Q2m,F and inner temperature. Coefficients values from Eq. (20)
Q5m,F Q8m,F dQ2m dQ5m are given in Table 5.
dQ8m The comparison of numerically calculated temperature
10 3
5 and temperature calculated with Fourier series is shown in
0 2 Fig. 16. Calculation was made at the same conditions as
heat flow (W/m2)

difference (W/m2)
-5 described in Figs. 14 and 15. It can be seen that the
-10 1 difference between temperatures calculated with both
-15 methods is small for different cavity configurations
-20 0 and wind speed. During the highest cavity outlet air
-25 temperatures is the difference approximately 1 1C. Simi-
-30 -1
larly as for heat flow determination, the temperature
-35 w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s difference is oscillating. This is a consequence of tempera-
-40 -2
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 ture determination with only five Fourier series coefficients.
time (h) The difference is small, therefore we can conclude that
selected number (m ¼ 2) of Fourier series coefficients is
Fig. 14. Heat flow on the inner side of the LBE with ventilated cavity appropriate.
determined with numerical method and Fourier series and the difference
between them. Cavity is configured with a coloured thin metal sheet:
V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, T i ¼ 25 1C, f ¼ 401. 5. Conclusions

Transient 2D heat transfer analysis in low sloped roofs


made from LBEs with forced ventilated cavity is presented
Q2m,n Q5m,n Q8m,n Q2m,F in the paper. The cavity was configured in two different
Q5m,F Q8m,F dQ2m dQ5m ways. In the first case it was configured with coloured thin
dQ8m
10 3 metal sheet and in the second case with metal sheet with
5 added thermal insulation and radiation barrier. For the
0 2 analysis numerical method, verified with experiments, was
difference (W/m2)
heat flow (W/m2)

-5 used. Performed analysis was multi-parametric, the follow-


-10 1 ing parameters were analysed: cavity surface emissivity,
-15 LBE thickness (U-value), specific air flow rate through the
-20 0
cavity, air temperature on the inner side of the LBE,
-25
ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity and wind
-30 -1
speed. Ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity
-35
w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s were taken from standard clear summer day in order to
-40 -2
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 assess thermal load of the building.
time (h) Presented analysis showed that the heat flow through the
LBE with ventilated cavity is markedly 2D. LBE with
Fig. 15. Heat flow on the inner side of the LBE with ventilated cavity
ventilated cavity reduces thermal load of the building
determined with numerical method and Fourier series and the difference
between them. Cavity is configured with a thin metal sheet with added 5 mm compared to LBE without cavity. In the first part of the
layer of thermal insulation and radiation barrier: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, element the thermal load is reduced to 1/3 when the cavity
T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401. is configured with coloured thin metal sheet and to 2/3

Table 4
Values of Fourier series coefficients for Tout,F(t) determination (for the case shown in Fig. 11)

w ¼ 0.5 m/s w ¼ 4 m/s

a0,T a1,T a2,T b1,T b2,T a0,T a1,T a2,T b1,T b2,T

91.61 29.51 8.66 5.76 1.14 73.30 16.25 4.44 5.38 0.82
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2288 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Table 5 formed. Model is based upon Fourier series by which the


Coefficient values used for determination of Fourier series coefficients heat flow and temperature difference can be determined
ec,a w (m/s) J K L M
with sufficient accuracy with only five Fourier series
coefficients. These coefficients are determined with multi-
a0,T 0.9 0.5 0.0262 2.0254 17.2440 1.1070 parametric equations, which take into account different
0.9 4 0.0079 2.0119 6.1449 1.2391 geometric, hydraulic and meteorological parameters. The
0.1 0.5 0.0343 1.8891 21.4980 0.4212
equations are valid in the range of analysed influential
0.1 4 0.0242 1.8494 10.4830 3.8504
parameters.
a1,T 0.9 0.5 0.1108 0.2901 6.9486 27.8120
0.9 4 0.0453 0.0689 2.7333 18.4560
0.1 0.5 0.1976 0.2841 4.3722 20.7430 Acknowledgements
0.1 4 0.1119 0.0864 1.6444 14.1600

a2,T 0.9 0.5 0.0996 0.3580 1.4939 6.7224


The authors wish to thank Ministry of higher Education,
0.9 4 0.0314 0.1586 0.1879 0.2854 Science and Technology and Ministry of the Economy of
0.1 0.5 0.1229 0.2984 2.2804 5.9918 the Republic of Slovenia for financial support. We would
0.1 4 0.0490 0.1352 0.0631 0.4978 also like to thank Trimo d.d., Trebnje, Slovenia for setting
b1,T 0.9 0.5 0.0106 0.1889 2.3431 18.4220 up the test roof.
0.9 4 0.0031 0.1718 0.7806 13.0480
0.1 0.5 0.0254 0.1339 2.2861 16.8220
References
0.1 4 0.0204 0.1385 0.9097 12.4010
b2,T 0.9 0.5 0.0054 0.0016 0.6271 2.1147 [1] Balocco C. A simple model to study ventilated facades energy
0.9 4 0.0047 0.0172 0.5504 1.9183 performance. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:469–75.
0.1 0.5 0.0308 0.0343 0.1714 0.9554 [2] Ciampi M, Leccese F, Tuoni G. Ventilated facades energy performance
0.1 4 0.0072 0.0030 0.6457 1.4504 in summer cooling of buildings. Solar Energy 2003;75:491–502.
[3] Maneewan S, Hirunlabh J, Khedari J, Zeghmati B, Teekasap S. Heat
gain reduction by means of thermoelectric roof solar collector. Solar
Energy 2005;78:495–503.
[4] Kairys L, Karbauskaite J. Solar radiation influence to the thermo
T09,n T01,n T09,F physical parameters of thermal wave that penetrates through the
T01,F dT09 dT01 lightweight buildings partitions. Proceedings of the conference on
100 5 dynamic analysis and modelling techniques for energy in buildings,
90 4 Ispra, Italy, November 13–14, 2003. p. 105–13.
80 3 [5] Medina MA. Effects of shingle absorptivity, radiant barrier emissi-
temperature (°C)

difference (°C)

70 2 vity, attic ventilation flow rate and roof slope on the performance of
60 1 radiant barriers. International Journal of Energy Research 2000;24:
50 0 665–78.
40 -1 [6] Winiarski DW, O’Neal DL. A quasi-steady-state model of attic heat
30 -2 transfer with radiant barriers. Energy and Buildings 1996;24:183–94.
[7] Agnoletto L, Cortella G, Manzan M. Finite element thermal analysis
20 -3
of special building components. Energy and Buildings 1995;22:
10 -4
w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s 115–23.
0 -5 [8] Hirunlabh J, Wachirapuwadon S, Pratinthong N, Khedari J. New
0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 configurations of a roof solar collector maximizing natural ventila-
time (h) tion. Building and Environment 2001;36:383–91.
[9] Černe B, Medved S. The dynamic thermal characteristics of
Fig. 16. Cavity outlet air temperature calculated with numerical method lightweight building elements with a forced ventilated cavity and
and Fourier series and the difference between them: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, radiation barriers. Energy and Buildings 2005;37:972–81.
T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401. [10] ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals. 1997. p. 17–28 [Chapter 28].
[11] Balocco C. A non-dimensional analysis of a ventilated double fac- ade
energy performance. Energy and Buildings 2004;36:35–40.
[12] EN ISO 13791: Thermal performance of buildings—internal tem-
when the cavity is configured with thin metal sheet with peratures in summer of a room without mechanical cooling—general
added thermal insulation and radiation barrier. Wind criteria and calculation procedures, 2004.
speed also has great influence on the building thermal load, [13] TRIMO Presentation Catalogue, www.trimo.si.
which is reduced to 1/2 when the wind speed increases from [14] PHOENICS 3.6.0, Parabolic hyperbolic or elliptic numerical
integration code series. Wimbledon, England: CHAM; 2004.
0.5 to 4 m/s. Thermal load is reduced because of air heating [15] Medved S, Arkar C, Černe B. A large-panel unglazed roof-integrated
in the cavity, therefore hot air can be used for heating of liquid solar collector—energy and economic evaluation. Solar Energy
building, tap water, etc. In this case the selection of 2003;75:455–67.
optimum parameters depends on yearly analysis of [16] Australian Standard AS 3634. Solar heating systems for swimming
building thermal load and heat gains. pools, 1989.
[17] EN ISO 6946: Building components and building elements—thermal
On the basis of performed numerical analyses, empirical resistance and thermal transmittance—calculation method, 1997.
model for transient 2D heat flow on the inner side of the [18] Smith SW. The scientist and engineer’s guide to digital signal
LBE and cavity outlet air temperature determination was processing. 2nd ed. San Diego: California Technical Publishing; 1999.