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www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv

lightweight low sloped roof using Fourier series

Boštjan Černea, Sašo Medvedb,

a

Trimo d.d., Prijateljeva 12, 8210 Trebnje, Slovenia

b

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Received 13 September 2005; received in revised form 12 April 2006; accepted 25 April 2006

Abstract

In this paper, the analysis of transient two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer in low sloped roof with forced ventilated cavity made from

lightweight building elements (LBE) is presented. For the heat transfer analysis the 2D numerical model, which was veriﬁed with

experiments, was used. Forced ventilated cavity was conﬁgured in two different ways. In the ﬁrst case the cavity was conﬁgured with

coloured thin metal sheet and in the second case with thin metal sheet with added layer of thermal insulation and radiation barrier.

Beside the inﬂuence of the ventilated cavity conﬁguration on the transient 2D heat transfer in the LBE and on the cavity outlet air

temperature also the inﬂuence of the LBE thickness, speciﬁc air ﬂow rate through the cavity, inner air temperature and wind velocity was

analysed. Multi-parametric equations for determination of Fourier series coefﬁcients were formed. These coefﬁcients were used for

evaluation of transient 2D heat transfer on the inner side of the roof and cavity outlet air temperature for a clear day.

r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lightweight roof; Ventilated cavity; Two-dimensional heat transfer; Fourier series

1. Introduction the inner surface of the LBE, besides that an LBE with

ventilated cavity can operate as solar air collector.

Available time for building construction is getting Several researches of heat transfer through the building

shorter nowadays, therefore the number of buildings built envelope with ventilated cavity have been made. Balocco

with lightweight building elements (LBE) is increasing. [1] numerically compared stationary heat ﬂow through the

These elements are made from two layers of thin metal building envelope with and without naturally ventilated

sheet, in between is a layer of thermal insulation. LBEs are cavity. Summer overheating was reduced from 7% to

especially appropriate as envelope elements for buildings, 27.5%, depending on cavity width. Ciampi et al. [2]

such as shopping centres, commercial buildings and compared with the use of analytical method the inﬂuence

production plants. These buildings are usually big with of several parameters on stationary heat ﬂow through

low roof inclination. Static thermal resistance of LBE is different building envelopes with naturally ventilated

relatively high, while the thermal stability is relatively small cavity, which can be open or closed. Among other things,

compared to massive building constructions. Because of they showed that with optimised distribution of thermal

LBE’s small thermal stability the heat ﬂow which enters insulation inside the air duct the maximum energy savings

into the building varies considerably due to the variation of can be reached. Maneewan et al. [3] numerically analysed

meteorological parameters. The heat ﬂow variation can be heat ﬂow reduction through the ventilated roof without

the reason for building overheating. Ventilated cavity on thermal insulation. Heat gains on the hottest day in the

the outer surface of the LBE reduces heat ﬂow variation on year were reduced from 16% to 65% due to ventilated

cavity. Kairys and Karbauskaite [4] analysed transient heat

ﬂow through a vertical lightweight wall with and without

Corresponding author. Tel.: +38614771316; fax: +38612518567. naturally ventilated cavity for a selected extreme day. They

E-mail address: saso.medved@fs.uni-lj.si (S. Medved). showed a 30% reduction of the maximum heat ﬂow on the

0360-1323/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.04.022

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2280 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

r density (kg/m3)

a0, a1, a2, b1, b2 Fourier series coefﬁcients (dimension- o frequency (rad/s)

less)

A, B,y, M coefﬁcients (dimensionless) Subscripts

dQ heat ﬂow difference (W/m2)

dT temperature difference (1C) a ambient

cp speciﬁc thermal capacity (J/kg K) avg average

h convective heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m2 K) c cavity

k thermal conductivity (W/mK) d downward

L length (m) e experimental

P period (h) F Fourier

Q heat ﬂow (W/m2) i inner

R heat transfer resistance (m2 K/W) in inlet

t time (h) ir longwave

T_ temperature (1C) m mean

T temperature amplitude (1C) max maximum

U thermal transmittance (W/m2 K) n numerical

v air velocity in the cavity (m/s) wvc without ventilated cavity

V speciﬁc air ﬂow rate (m3/m2 s) out outlet

X, Y variables pu polyurethane

w wind speed (m/s) s solar

sol sol-air

Greek letters u upward

01 cavity conﬁgured with thin metal sheet with

a absorptivity (dimensionless) added thermal insulation and radiation barrier

b phase (rad) 09 cavity conﬁgured with coloured thin metal

e emissivity (dimensionless) sheet

f latitude (1)

inner side of the wall with naturally ventilated cavity From the literature review it can be seen that the analysis

compared with a wall without cavity. Medina [5] and of the heat ﬂow on the inner side of the building

Winiarski and O’Neal [6] compared room heat gains construction is 1D. There is no model which could be

through the ventilated attic with and without radiation used for prediction of transient 2D heat ﬂow in building

barrier. Heat gains were reduced up to 40% when radiation construction with ventilated cavity.

barrier was used. In this paper, the analysis of building thermal load as a

Agnoletto et al. [7] showed air temperature variation consequence of transient heat transfer through the low

along the ventilated cavity, while the heat ﬂow through the sloped roof with forced ventilated cavity made from LBEs

building construction was presented integrally. Hirunlabh is presented. Standard summer day for two latitudes [12],

et al. [8] also showed air temperature variation along which is used as project day for building thermal load

the ventilated cavity. Temperature variation was small determination, was used. In the multi-parametric analysis

because of relatively short cavity, therefore they used 1D of transient 2D heat transfer two different cavity conﬁg-

heat transfer model. In our previous work [9] we urations were analysed. In the ﬁrst case the cavity was

analysed 2D heat ﬂow amplitude on the inner side of conﬁgured with a coloured corrugated thin metal sheet, in

the LBE with ventilated cavity. We showed that 2D the second case the cavity was conﬁgured with a thin metal

heat transfer analysis in long LBEs with ventilated sheet with added 5 mm layer of thermal insulation

cavity is necessary for accurate estimation of heat ﬂow (polyurethane) and radiation barrier (aluminium foil).

amplitude. Both metal sheets and LBE are produced as mass

Until now several models for predicting heat ﬂow on the production made by the same producer [13].

inner side of the building construction were made. Transfer

function method [10] is one of the most known methods, 2. Numerical model of an LBE with ventilated cavity

which is used for transient heat ﬂow determination.

Balocco [11] analysed ventilated opaque double fac- ade The 2D heat transfer in long LBE with ventilated cavity

with the use of non-dimensional numbers. This stationary must be analysed numerically using a CFD method. In our

analysis was 1D. case the control volume method was used. Differential

ARTICLE IN PRESS

B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2281

thin metal sheet. Fig. 3. Photo of the sample of thin metal sheet with added 5 mm layer of

thermal insulation (polyurethane) and radiation barrier (aluminium foil).

air in the cavity does not take part in heat transfer by

radiation;

cavity surfaces are diffuse, inlet and outlet openings do

not take part in heat transfer by radiation;

solar and longwave radiation on the outer surface of the

element is uniform;

corrugated thin metal sheet is substituted with ﬂat one

providing the same average air ﬂow velocity;

2D heat transfer analysis is made for 1 m wide LBE, on

both sides of the LBE adiabatic conditions apply.

Fig. 2. Model of an LBE with ventilated cavity conﬁgured with thin metal

sheet with added 5 mm layer of thermal insulation (polyurethane) and 3. Veriﬁcation of the numerical model

radiation barrier (aluminium foil).

conﬁgured with coloured thin metal sheet was veriﬁed with

equations of the conservation of mass, momentum and experiments. The experiments were performed on the test

energy, known as the set of Navier–Stokes equations, ventilated roof with dimensions 6 6 m. Thickness of the

together with Fourier’s law of heat conduction and LBE was 80 mm, while the cavity width was 7 mm (Fig. 4).

Stefan–Boltzmann radiation law must be solved for control Air entered the cavity directly from the ambient. Dimen-

volumes. Solution of these equations gives temperature, sions and thermal properties of materials used in the

velocity and pressure ﬁeld in the LBE with forced experiments are given in Table 1.

ventilated cavity. Commercial CFD software PHOENICS Indoor space was simulated with a closed cavity on the

[14] was used to solve differential equations. Numerical inner side of the LBE. The width of the cavity was 2 cm and

calculations were performed with a 10 min time step. it was thermally insulated with 5 cm thick layer of

The 2D numerical model of the LBE with ventilated polystyrene. The temperature in the cavity was regulated

cavity conﬁgured with coloured thin metal sheet is shown with resistance heating wire and cooling pipe system with

in Fig. 1. LBE with ventilated cavity conﬁgured with thin cold water, which were mounted on the inner surface of the

metal sheet with added thermal insulation and radiation LBE. Fig. 5 shows the cross section of the ventilated roof

barrier is shown in Fig. 2. Both ﬁgures also show boundary with a closed cavity. The heating wire and the cooling pipe

conditions used in numerical analysis. In Fig. 3 the photo are also shown. Fig. 6 shows the heating wire and the

of the sample of thin metal sheet with added thermal cooling pipe mounted on the inner surface of the test

insulation and radiation barrier is shown. ventilated roof together with an opening where heat ﬂow

In the numerical model the following assumptions were metre was installed.

used: Air temperatures in both cavities were measured with

Ni–CrNi thermocouples. Four thermocouples were used

heat transfer is transient with a 24 h period; for measuring air inlet and outlet temperatures. Along the

heat transfer is 2D; ventilated cavity the air temperature was measured at three

air ﬂow through the ventilated cavity is constant; locations: 1, 3 and 5 m from cavity inlet. At these locations

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2282 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Fig. 4. Photo of the LBE with ventilated cavity conﬁgured with coloured Fig. 6. Resistance of heating wires (a) and pipe system with cold water (b)

thin metal sheet where experiments were performed. on the inner side of the LBE; opening (c), where the heat ﬂow metre was

installed, was ﬁlled with thermal insulation.

Table 1

Dimensions and material thermal properties of the LBE with ventilated Ta Ti w Qs

cavity Qir,d Qir,u

50 1000

5.6.03 16.7.03

temperature (˚C), wind

Layer Thickness (mm) k (W/mK) r (kg/m3) cp (J/kg K) e

40 800

speed (m/s)

Thermal insulation 78.8 0.04 120 840 0.9 30 600

Metal sheet 0.6 43 7800 460 0.9

Air (ventilated cavity) 7 0.026 1.189 1005 0 20 400

Aluminium foil — 204 2700 900 0.1

Polyurethane — 0.035 25 1400 0.9 10 200

Metal sheet 0.6 43 7800 460 0.9

0 0

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24

time (h)

for two clear days used for veriﬁcation of the numerical model.

the roof. Air ﬂow rate was measured with an oriﬁce and

differential pressure gauge. Measurement results were

saved every 5 min. Measurements were performed from

June to August 2003.

Numerical model was veriﬁed with two speciﬁc air ﬂow

rates through the cavity: 0.0029 and 0.0043 m3/m2 s of the

ventilated roof. Fig. 7 shows meteorological parameters for

two clear days, which were used for veriﬁcation of the

numerical model.

Fig. 5. Cross section of the ventilated roof with additional closed cavity. The following boundary conditions were used in

numerical simulations:

the heat ﬂow, which entered the LBE was also measured. sol-air temperature which replaces ambient temperature

heat ﬂow metres with dimensions 120 120 mm were and solar and longwave radiation on the outer surface of

placed below upper thin metal sheet of the LBE (Fig. 5). the thin metal sheet. For calculation of sol-air tempera-

Ambient temperature was measured with shielded Pt100. ture the following equation was used:

Solar and longwave radiation were measured with pyr-

anometer and pyrgeometer, respectively. Both were Qs aa;s þ Qir;d aa;ir Qir;u a;ir

T sol ¼ T a þ . (1)

mounted on the test roof and had the same inclination as ha

ARTICLE IN PRESS

B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2283

20 Tc,1m,n Tc,5m,n Tc,out,n

10 100

5.6.03 16.7.03

0 V = 0.0029 m3/m2s V = 0.0043 m3/m2s

heat flow (W/m2)

80

-10

temperature (°C)

-20 60

-30

40

-40

5.6.03 16.7.03

-50

20

V = 0.0029 m3/m2s V = 0.0043 m3/m2s

-60

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 0

time (h) 0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24

Fig. 8. Measured and numerically calculated heat ﬂow at the position of time (h)

heat ﬂow metres at distance 1 and 5 m from the cavity inlet.

Fig. 9. Measured and numerically calculated temperatures along the

cavity length at distance 1 and 5 m from the cavity inlet and at cavity

Absorbed (Qir,d aa,ir) and emitted (Qir,u ea,ir) long- outlet (6 m).

wave radiation were calculated from measured longwave

radiation exchange between the pyrgeometer and the parametric analysis of 2D heat transfer in the LBE with

sky. Pyrgeometer and outer thin metal sheet surface differently conﬁgured cavities.

temperature are not the same, therefore the emitted

longwave radiation was determined using correction, 4. Multi-parametric analysis

which takes into account this temperature difference.

The following optical properties of thin metal sheet were Multi-parametric analysis of transient 2D heat transfer

used: solar radiation absorptivity (aa,s) 0.85, longwave in LBE with ventilated cavity was performed for the most

radiation absorptivity and emissivity (aa,ir and ea,ir) 0.9 important construction and ambient parameters:

[9,15]. Convective heat transfer coefﬁcient on the outer

side of the cavity, which does not include heat transfer LBE thickness; 80 mm (U ¼ 0:467 W=m2 K), 150 mm

by radiation, was determined by [16] (0:257 W=m2 K) and 200 mm (0.195 W/m2 K), which

ha ¼ 3:1 þ 4:1w. (2) covers the production range of the LBEs;

speciﬁc air ﬂow rate through the cavity; 0.001, 0.002 and

Eq. (1) was used as a substitute ambient temperature 0.003 m3/m2 s; at cavity width d c ¼ 25 mm the velocities

during the daytime (Qs 40 ) and nighttime (Qs ¼ 0). For of air in the cavity are 0.36, 0.72 and 1.08 m/s,

the purpose of numerical analysis sol-air temperature respectively; range of air ﬂow rates were chosen in such

was approximated with a sine function, which required a way, that it suits necessary amount of fresh air for the

use of two different sine function for daytime and ventilation of the building part, which belongs to the

nighttime, as is described in detail in [9]. LBE with ventilated cavity;

cavity inlet air temperature was the same as ambient emissivity of the cavity outer surface; c;a ¼ 0:9 for

temperature and was approximated with a sine function: coloured thin metal sheet and c;a ¼ 0:1 for thin metal

_

T in ¼ T a;m þ T a sinðot bÞ, (3) sheet with added thermal insulation and radiation

barrier;

where Ta,m is mean temperature between_maximum and

air temperature in the building; T i ¼ 20 and 25 1C,

minimum daily ambient temperature. T a is the tem-

which is constant during the day;

perature amplitude, calculated as half the difference

ambient temperature and solar radiation were taken

between the maximum and minimum daily ambient

from standard EN ISO 13791 [12] for places with

temperature.

latitude f ¼ 401 and 521 (Fig. 10);

wind speed w ¼ 0:5 and 4 m/s, which is constant during

Fig. 8 shows heat ﬂow in the LBE at different locations the day; convective heat transfer coefﬁcients on the

and Fig. 9 shows air temperature in the ventilated cavity at outer surface of the element are 11 and 25 W/m2 K [17],

different locations, which were measured with experiment respectively.

and calculated with numerical model. Two clear days were

selected (Fig. 7), which have characteristics of a clear Other parameters, such as convective heat transfer co-

project day. From Figs. 8 and 9 can be seen that the efﬁcient on the inner side of the LBE (ai ¼ 7:8 W=m2 K),

agreement between measured and calculated values is thermal insulation added on the thin metal sheet

good, therefore we can conclude that the numerical model (d pu ¼ 5 mm), cavity width (d c ¼ 25 mm) and LBE length

is appropriate and will be used for transient multi- (L ¼ 9 m), were constant in the analysis. Use of LBE is

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2284 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

40 1000

40° 52° Qi,5m Qi,6m Qi,7m Qi,8m

ambient temperature (°C)

30 750 5 110

0 100

25 625

-5 90

temperature (°C)

heat flow (W/m2)

20 500 -10 80

15 375 -15 70

10 250 -20 60

-25 50

5 125

-30 40

0 0 -35 30

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24

-40 20

time (h) w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s

-45 10

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24

Fig. 10. Ambient temperature and solar radiation for latitude f ¼ 401

and 521 on July 15 [12]. time (h)

Fig. 11. Heat ﬂow on the inner side of the LBE with thickness 80 mm and

cavity width 25 mm and cavity outlet air temperature. Cavity is conﬁgured

with a coloured thin metal sheet: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, T i ¼ 25 1C, and

f ¼ 401.

especially appropriate for low sloped roof of large

buildings, where the roof inclination is between 31 and

101. Therefore, solar radiation taken from standard EN Qi,1m Qi,2m Qi,3m Qi,4m

ISO 13791, deﬁned on horizontal surface, was not Qi,5m Qi,6m Qi,7m Qi,8m

corrected for actual roof inclination and orientation. Qi,9m Qwvc Tout

5 110

As an example of numerical analysis the heat ﬂow from 0 100

the LBE into the building at various element lengths and -5 90

heat flow (W/m2)

temperature (°C)

air temperature at the cavity outlet is presented in Fig. 11 -10 80

for the cavity conﬁgured with coloured thin metal sheet -15 70

-20 60

and in Fig. 12 for the cavity conﬁgured with thin metal

-25 50

sheet with added thermal insulation and radiation barrier. 40

-30

In both ﬁgures the heat ﬂow through the LBE without -35 30

ventilated cavity is also presented. -40 20

w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s

From presented examples it can be seen that the heat -45 10

ﬂow into the building is markedly 2D. Ventilated cavity 0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24

effectively reduces heat ﬂow into the building. This time (h)

reduction is especially noticeable in the ﬁrst part of the Fig. 12. Heat ﬂow on the inner side of the LBE with thickness 80 mm and

LBE, where the heat ﬂow decreases to 1/3 at the cavity cavity width 25 mm and cavity outlet air temperature. Cavity is conﬁgured

conﬁgured with coloured thin metal sheet and to 2/3 at the with a thin metal sheet with added 5 mm layer of thermal insulation and

cavity conﬁgured with thin metal sheet and added thermal radiation barrier: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401.

insulation and radiation barrier. This conﬁrms signiﬁcance

of forced ventilation of low sloped roofs. Towards the end

of the ventilated cavity the heat ﬂow into the building

practically does not increase, which means that selected depends on yearly energy analysis because the cavity outlet

length of the LBE used for numerical analysis is sufﬁcient. air temperature is lower when conﬁguration with thermal

At the end of the LBE with ventilated cavity is the heat insulation and radiation barrier is used. In any case, the

ﬂow into the building smaller compared to the heat ﬂow results presented in Figs. 11 and 12 shows proper approach

into the building from LBE without ventilated cavity. This and selection of inﬂuential parameters.

is a consequence of changed static thermal transmittance of Because of great number of inﬂuential parameters it is

such element with cavity. This is especially noticeable at the reasonable to form simple but accurate empirical expres-

cavity conﬁgured with thin metal sheet with added thermal sion by which the 2D heat ﬂow into the building could be

insulation and radiation barrier (Fig. 12). Wind speed determined. Basis for modelling this expression are the

greatly inﬂuences the heat ﬂow, which is reduced for 1/2 results of numerical analysis of transient heat ﬂow, which

when the wind speed increases from 0.5 to 4 m/s. was performed with a 10 min time step. Discrete values

When heat ﬂow reduction is the principal purpose of the (j ¼ 144 in 24 h period) of heat ﬂow at selected LBE’s

ventilated cavity the conﬁguration with thin metal sheet length are then decomposed into sine and cosine waves

with added thermal insulation and radiation barrier is using discrete Fourier transform [18]. Sine and cosine

more appropriate. If such element is used for preheating of waves have different frequency and amplitude. When

ventilation air then the choice of cavity conﬁguration decomposition is made the 2D heat ﬂow into the building

ARTICLE IN PRESS

B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2285

a0;Q;L X m

2pt X a0;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞDT þ Cv þ DÞU

Qi;L;F ðt; LÞ ¼ þ ak;Q;L cos k

2 24 þ ðEv þ F ÞDT þ Gv þ H, ð9Þ

k¼1

Xm

2pt Y a0;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞT i þ ðCv þ DÞT sol;avg ÞU, (10)

þ bk;Q;L sin k . ð4Þ

k¼1

24

X a1;Q ¼ Y a1;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞDT þ Cv þ DÞ

Coefﬁcients a and b from Eq. (4) are calculated with

U þ ðEv þ F ÞDT þ Gv þ H, ð11Þ

equations

X

2 1441 X b1;Q ¼ Y b1;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞDT þ Cv þ DÞ

a0;Q;L ¼ Q , (5)

144 j¼0 i;L;j U 1 þ ðEv þ F ÞDT þ Gv þ H, ð12Þ

X

2 1441 2pj

ak;Q;L ¼ Q cos k , (6) U þ ðEv þ F ÞT sol;avg þ Gv þ H, ð13Þ

144 j¼0 i;L;j 144

X b2;Q ¼ Y b2;Q ¼ ððAv þ BÞT sol;avg þ Cv þ DÞ

X U 1 þ ðEv þ F ÞT sol;avg þ Gv þ H,

2 1441 2pj ð14Þ

bk;Q;L ¼ Qi;L;j sin k . (7)

144 j¼0 144

DT ¼ T sol;max T a;max . (15)

We found, that the heat ﬂow on the inner surface of the Tsol,avg is average sol-air temperature in the 24 h period,

LBE can be determined with sufﬁcient accuracy with DT is the difference between maximum daily sol-air

Eq. (4) when m ¼ 2. This means that the heat ﬂow can be temperature and maximum daily ambient temperature.

determined with ﬁve Fourier series coefﬁcients (a0,Q, a1,Q, Coefﬁcient values from Eqs. (9)–(15) are given in Tables 2

a2,Q, b1,Q, b2,Q). Fig. 13 shows Fourier series coefﬁcients and 3.

values calculated with the same conditions as described in Figs. 14 and 15 show heat ﬂow on the inner side of the

Fig. 11. It is obvious from Fig. 13 that values of Fourier LBE with ventilated cavity at three different locations

series coefﬁcients which are used for the heat ﬂow determined with numerical method and Fourier series. The

determination vary along the LBE length. difference in heat ﬂow determined by both methods is also

Multi-parametric dependence of all Fourier series shown. The same conditions were used for calculation as in

coefﬁcients (a0,Q, a1,Q, a2,Q, b1,Q, b2,Q) can be approximated Figs. 11 and 12. Meteorological data used for calculation

with the same function: were: T a;max ¼ 34 1C, T sol;max;w¼0:5 ¼ 108:6 1C, T sol;max;w¼4

¼ 65:8 1C, T sol;avg;w¼0:5 ¼ 54:9 1C, T sol;avg;w¼4 ¼ 39:4 1C,

a0;Q;L ; a1;Q;L ; a2;Q;L ; b1;Q;L ; b2;Q;L Z ¼ X Z lnðLÞ þ Y Z ,

T a;max ¼ 34 1C, T sol;max;w¼0:5 ¼ 108:6 1C, T sol;max;w¼4 ¼

(8) 65:8 1C, T sol;avg;w¼0:5 ¼ 54:9 1C, and T sol;avg;w¼4 ¼ 39:4 1C.

where Z represents particular Fourier series coefﬁcient. heat ﬂow comparison shows good agreement between heat

Values of variables XZ and YZ are determined with the ﬂow determined by both methods. Oscillation of heat ﬂow

difference can be seen, which is the consequence of using

only ﬁve Fourier series coefﬁcients for heat ﬂow determi-

15

nation. however, this difference is small, which proves that

chosen number (m ¼ 2) of Fourier series coefﬁcients is

a0,Q,L; a1,Q,L; a2,Q,L; b1,

10

appropriate.

5 When the LBE with forced ventilated cavity is used

Q,L; b2,Q,L

-5 a0,Q,L a1,Q,L

be known. This temperature can be determined with

a2,Q,L b1,Q,L equation:

-10

b2,Q,L

-15 a0;T X m

2pt

T out;F ðtÞ ¼ þ ak;T cos k

-20 2 k¼1

24

w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s

Xm

-25 2pt

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 þ bk;T sin k . ð16Þ

k¼1

24

length (m)

In our case the length of numerical model was 9 m,

Fig. 13. Values of Fourier series coefﬁcients which are used for

determination of heat ﬂow on the inner side of the LBE and cavity outlet therefore the cavity outlet air temperature is given at this

air temperature. LBE thickness was 80 mm, cavity width 25 mm, length. If longer LBE with ventilated cavity would be used

V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, c;a ¼ 0:9, T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401. the air outlet temperature would not change noticeably,

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Table 2

Coefﬁcient values which are used for determination of variable XZ

ec,a w (m/s) A B C D E F G H

Xa0,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0219 0.0040 2.5660 9.1019 0.0008 0.0047 0.1314 0.1344

0.9 4 0.0093 0.0209 0.2139 3.8017 0.0040 0.0071 0.1429 0.1524

0.1 0.5 0.0132 0.0620 6.9182 15.8550 0.0068 0.0245 0.0342 1.0497

0.1 4 0.0412 0.2223 3.7396 11.4970 0.0121 0.0505 0.1564 1.1852

Xa1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0157 0.0890 2.1756 2.8054 0.0022 0.0124 0.3593 0.6132

0.9 4 0.0331 0.0806 0.9760 0.7884 0.0049 0.0116 0.1479 0.1841

0.1 0.5 0.0761 0.1937 1.3892 1.1657 0.0133 0.0311 0.3153 0.0461

0.1 4 0.0913 0.2425 0.0900 2.1260 0.0167 0.0399 0.0386 0.2381

Xa2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0006 0.0801 0.1204 1.4526 0.0001 0.0185 0.0232 0.2942

0.9 4 0.0050 0.0267 0.1000 0.0090 0.0011 0.0058 0.0206 0.0334

0.1 0.5 0.0507 0.1174 0.9993 2.5511 0.0138 0.0295 0.0251 0.5806

0.1 4 0.0224 0.0514 0.1332 0.3752 0.0057 0.0125 0.0075 0.0390

Xb1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0001 0.0011 0.0117 0.1126 0.0013 0.0033 0.3178 0.9537

0.9 4 7 105 0.0004 0.0011 0.0309 0.0032 0.0056 0.1122 0.2761

0.1 0.5 0.0004 0.0004 0.0668 0.1057 0.0117 0.0244 0.4750 0.3811

0.1 4 0.0013 0.0024 0.0114 0.0019 0.0181 0.0407 0.0386 0.2902

Xb2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0004 0.0027 0.0025 0.0046 0.0017 0.0178 0.0064 0.0813

0.9 4 0.0001 0.0004 0.0011 0.0419 0.0008 0.0037 0.0119 0.1995

0.1 0.5 0.0035 0.0063 0.0307 0.0545 0.0210 0.0376 0.2193 0.4341

0.1 4 0.0013 0.0023 0.0278 0.0520 0.0072 0.0138 0.1254 0.2229

Table 3

Coefﬁcient values which are used for determination of variable YZ

ec,a w (m/s) A B C D E F G H

0.9 4 0.0207 1.9297 0.1274 1.7815 — — — —

0.1 0.5 0.0794 1.8062 0.1239 1.1119 — — — —

0.1 4 0.0792 1.8064 0.0512 1.3964 — — — —

Ya1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.1556 0.2899 0.5514 20.7450 0.0217 0.0134 0.3050 6.2013

0.9 4 0.1693 0.1184 0.3736 19.8690 0.0244 0.0412 0.0374 5.6724

0.1 0.5 0.1593 0.0392 3.9611 15.8420 0.0238 0.0199 0.4493 5.1393

0.1 4 0.2058 0.1904 3.2222 17.4280 0.0311 0.0859 0.4078 5.2188

Ya2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.1179 0.3812 2.3183 7.8945 0.0267 0.0843 0.4706 1.5496

0.9 4 0.0475 0.1792 0.1614 0.9261 0.0103 0.0382 0.0128 0.0221

0.1 0.5 0.0899 0.1511 2.1200 3.6411 0.0213 0.0351 0.4633 0.7788

0.1 4 0.0393 0.0657 0.3369 0.6045 0.0092 0.0149 0.0465 0.0863

Yb1,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0018 0.0275 0.1437 2.5458 0.0068 0.1168 0.8694 15.9060

0.9 4 0.0008 0.0516 0.0454 2.2154 0.0132 0.2668 0.2222 14.0280

0.1 0.5 0.0003 0.0213 0.0472 2.1365 0.0164 0.1079 0.2139 12.9670

0.1 4 0.0013 0.0456 0.0189 1.9942 0.0297 0.2613 0.4764 12.3940

Yb2,Q 0.9 0.5 0.0032 0.0081 0.0100 0.0877 0.0233 0.0654 0.1117 0.1647

0.9 4 0.0008 0.0022 0.0585 0.2090 0.0068 0.0235 0.2675 0.9079

0.1 0.5 0.0035 0.0051 0.0294 0.0344 0.0221 0.0342 0.2786 0.4034

0.1 4 0.0013 0.0018 0.0306 0.0489 0.0085 0.0130 0.1214 0.1984

X

similarly as heat ﬂow on the inner side of the LBE does not 2 1441 2pj

change at longer LBE. Coefﬁcients a and b from Eq. (16) ak;T ¼ T out;j cos k , (18)

144 j¼0 144

are determined with the following equations:

X

X

2 1441 2 1441 2pj

a0;T ¼ T out;j , (17) bk;T ¼ T out;j sin k . (19)

144 j¼0 144 j¼0 144

ARTICLE IN PRESS

B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288 2287

The same as for the heat ﬂow also the cavity outlet air Multi-parametric dependence of all necessary Fourier

temperature can be determined with sufﬁcient accuracy series coefﬁcients (a0,T, a1,T, a2,T, b1,T, b2,T) which are used

with Eq. (16) when m ¼ 2 or ﬁve Fourier series coefﬁcients for cavity outlet air temperature determination are

(a0,T, a1,T, a2,T, b1,T, b2,T). Table 4 gives values of Fourier approximated with the following function:

series coefﬁcients determined at the same conditions as in a0;T ; a1;T ; a2;T ; b1;T ; b2;T ; ¼ ðJv þ KÞT sol;avg þ Lv þ M.

Fig. 11.

(20)

Comparison of Eqs. (8) and (20) shows, that the cavity

outlet air temperature is independent from LBE thickness

Q2m,n Q5m,n Q8m,n Q2m,F and inner temperature. Coefﬁcients values from Eq. (20)

Q5m,F Q8m,F dQ2m dQ5m are given in Table 5.

dQ8m The comparison of numerically calculated temperature

10 3

5 and temperature calculated with Fourier series is shown in

0 2 Fig. 16. Calculation was made at the same conditions as

heat flow (W/m2)

difference (W/m2)

-5 described in Figs. 14 and 15. It can be seen that the

-10 1 difference between temperatures calculated with both

-15 methods is small for different cavity conﬁgurations

-20 0 and wind speed. During the highest cavity outlet air

-25 temperatures is the difference approximately 1 1C. Simi-

-30 -1

larly as for heat ﬂow determination, the temperature

-35 w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s difference is oscillating. This is a consequence of tempera-

-40 -2

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 ture determination with only ﬁve Fourier series coefﬁcients.

time (h) The difference is small, therefore we can conclude that

selected number (m ¼ 2) of Fourier series coefﬁcients is

Fig. 14. Heat ﬂow on the inner side of the LBE with ventilated cavity appropriate.

determined with numerical method and Fourier series and the difference

between them. Cavity is conﬁgured with a coloured thin metal sheet:

V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, T i ¼ 25 1C, f ¼ 401. 5. Conclusions

made from LBEs with forced ventilated cavity is presented

Q2m,n Q5m,n Q8m,n Q2m,F in the paper. The cavity was conﬁgured in two different

Q5m,F Q8m,F dQ2m dQ5m ways. In the ﬁrst case it was conﬁgured with coloured thin

dQ8m

10 3 metal sheet and in the second case with metal sheet with

5 added thermal insulation and radiation barrier. For the

0 2 analysis numerical method, veriﬁed with experiments, was

difference (W/m2)

heat flow (W/m2)

-10 1 ing parameters were analysed: cavity surface emissivity,

-15 LBE thickness (U-value), speciﬁc air ﬂow rate through the

-20 0

cavity, air temperature on the inner side of the LBE,

-25

ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity and wind

-30 -1

speed. Ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity

-35

w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s were taken from standard clear summer day in order to

-40 -2

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 assess thermal load of the building.

time (h) Presented analysis showed that the heat ﬂow through the

LBE with ventilated cavity is markedly 2D. LBE with

Fig. 15. Heat ﬂow on the inner side of the LBE with ventilated cavity

ventilated cavity reduces thermal load of the building

determined with numerical method and Fourier series and the difference

between them. Cavity is conﬁgured with a thin metal sheet with added 5 mm compared to LBE without cavity. In the ﬁrst part of the

layer of thermal insulation and radiation barrier: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, element the thermal load is reduced to 1/3 when the cavity

T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401. is conﬁgured with coloured thin metal sheet and to 2/3

Table 4

Values of Fourier series coefﬁcients for Tout,F(t) determination (for the case shown in Fig. 11)

a0,T a1,T a2,T b1,T b2,T a0,T a1,T a2,T b1,T b2,T

91.61 29.51 8.66 5.76 1.14 73.30 16.25 4.44 5.38 0.82

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2288 B. Černe, S. Medved / Building and Environment 42 (2007) 2279–2288

Coefﬁcient values used for determination of Fourier series coefﬁcients heat ﬂow and temperature difference can be determined

ec,a w (m/s) J K L M

with sufﬁcient accuracy with only ﬁve Fourier series

coefﬁcients. These coefﬁcients are determined with multi-

a0,T 0.9 0.5 0.0262 2.0254 17.2440 1.1070 parametric equations, which take into account different

0.9 4 0.0079 2.0119 6.1449 1.2391 geometric, hydraulic and meteorological parameters. The

0.1 0.5 0.0343 1.8891 21.4980 0.4212

equations are valid in the range of analysed inﬂuential

0.1 4 0.0242 1.8494 10.4830 3.8504

parameters.

a1,T 0.9 0.5 0.1108 0.2901 6.9486 27.8120

0.9 4 0.0453 0.0689 2.7333 18.4560

0.1 0.5 0.1976 0.2841 4.3722 20.7430 Acknowledgements

0.1 4 0.1119 0.0864 1.6444 14.1600

The authors wish to thank Ministry of higher Education,

0.9 4 0.0314 0.1586 0.1879 0.2854 Science and Technology and Ministry of the Economy of

0.1 0.5 0.1229 0.2984 2.2804 5.9918 the Republic of Slovenia for ﬁnancial support. We would

0.1 4 0.0490 0.1352 0.0631 0.4978 also like to thank Trimo d.d., Trebnje, Slovenia for setting

b1,T 0.9 0.5 0.0106 0.1889 2.3431 18.4220 up the test roof.

0.9 4 0.0031 0.1718 0.7806 13.0480

0.1 0.5 0.0254 0.1339 2.2861 16.8220

References

0.1 4 0.0204 0.1385 0.9097 12.4010

b2,T 0.9 0.5 0.0054 0.0016 0.6271 2.1147 [1] Balocco C. A simple model to study ventilated facades energy

0.9 4 0.0047 0.0172 0.5504 1.9183 performance. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:469–75.

0.1 0.5 0.0308 0.0343 0.1714 0.9554 [2] Ciampi M, Leccese F, Tuoni G. Ventilated facades energy performance

0.1 4 0.0072 0.0030 0.6457 1.4504 in summer cooling of buildings. Solar Energy 2003;75:491–502.

[3] Maneewan S, Hirunlabh J, Khedari J, Zeghmati B, Teekasap S. Heat

gain reduction by means of thermoelectric roof solar collector. Solar

Energy 2005;78:495–503.

[4] Kairys L, Karbauskaite J. Solar radiation inﬂuence to the thermo

T09,n T01,n T09,F physical parameters of thermal wave that penetrates through the

T01,F dT09 dT01 lightweight buildings partitions. Proceedings of the conference on

100 5 dynamic analysis and modelling techniques for energy in buildings,

90 4 Ispra, Italy, November 13–14, 2003. p. 105–13.

80 3 [5] Medina MA. Effects of shingle absorptivity, radiant barrier emissi-

temperature (°C)

difference (°C)

70 2 vity, attic ventilation ﬂow rate and roof slope on the performance of

60 1 radiant barriers. International Journal of Energy Research 2000;24:

50 0 665–78.

40 -1 [6] Winiarski DW, O’Neal DL. A quasi-steady-state model of attic heat

30 -2 transfer with radiant barriers. Energy and Buildings 1996;24:183–94.

[7] Agnoletto L, Cortella G, Manzan M. Finite element thermal analysis

20 -3

of special building components. Energy and Buildings 1995;22:

10 -4

w = 0.5 m/s w = 4 m/s 115–23.

0 -5 [8] Hirunlabh J, Wachirapuwadon S, Pratinthong N, Khedari J. New

0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 24 conﬁgurations of a roof solar collector maximizing natural ventila-

time (h) tion. Building and Environment 2001;36:383–91.

[9] Černe B, Medved S. The dynamic thermal characteristics of

Fig. 16. Cavity outlet air temperature calculated with numerical method lightweight building elements with a forced ventilated cavity and

and Fourier series and the difference between them: V ¼ 0:003 m3 =m2 s, radiation barriers. Energy and Buildings 2005;37:972–81.

T i ¼ 25 1C, and f ¼ 401. [10] ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals. 1997. p. 17–28 [Chapter 28].

[11] Balocco C. A non-dimensional analysis of a ventilated double fac- ade

energy performance. Energy and Buildings 2004;36:35–40.

[12] EN ISO 13791: Thermal performance of buildings—internal tem-

when the cavity is conﬁgured with thin metal sheet with peratures in summer of a room without mechanical cooling—general

added thermal insulation and radiation barrier. Wind criteria and calculation procedures, 2004.

speed also has great inﬂuence on the building thermal load, [13] TRIMO Presentation Catalogue, www.trimo.si.

which is reduced to 1/2 when the wind speed increases from [14] PHOENICS 3.6.0, Parabolic hyperbolic or elliptic numerical

integration code series. Wimbledon, England: CHAM; 2004.

0.5 to 4 m/s. Thermal load is reduced because of air heating [15] Medved S, Arkar C, Černe B. A large-panel unglazed roof-integrated

in the cavity, therefore hot air can be used for heating of liquid solar collector—energy and economic evaluation. Solar Energy

building, tap water, etc. In this case the selection of 2003;75:455–67.

optimum parameters depends on yearly analysis of [16] Australian Standard AS 3634. Solar heating systems for swimming

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[17] EN ISO 6946: Building components and building elements—thermal

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