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heat exchanger network☆

Li Xia, Yuanli Feng, Xiaoyan Sun, Shuguang Xiang ⁎

Institute of Process System Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A T-Q diagram based on entransy theory is applied to graphically and quantitatively describe the irreversibility of

Received 23 September 2016 the heat transfer processes. The hot and cold composite curves can be obtained in the T-Q diagram. The entransy

Received in revised form 24 December 2016 recovery and entransy dissipation that are affected by temperature differences can be obtained through the

Accepted 21 March 2017

shaded area under the composite curves. The method for setting the energy target of the HENs in T-Q diagram

Available online 25 March 2017

based on entransy theory is proposed. A case study of the diesel oil hydrogenation unit is used to illustrate the

Keywords:

application of the method. The results show that three different heat transfer temperature differences is 10 K,

Heat transfer 15 K and 20 K, and the entransy recovery is 5.498 × 107 kW·K, 5.377 × 107 kW·K, 5.257 × 107 kW·K, respectively.

Process systems And the entransy transfer efﬁciency is 92.29%, 91.63%, 90.99%. Thus, the energy-saving potential of the HENs is

Entransy obtained by setting the energy target based on the entransy transfer efﬁciency.

Energy target © 2017 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.

T-Q diagram

1. Introduction Heat transfer was widely thought to originate in 19th century, which

had gradually matured in theory and engineering application [3]. The

Energy is the driving force for economic growth and sustainable various quantity methods have been used to describe the heat transfer

development of a country. Simultaneously, a series of environmental rate, but there is no concept of efﬁciency for transfer processes. Guo

and health problems have been caused by energy production and et al. [4] introduced a new physical quantity, entransy, based on the

consumption. Currently China has become the ﬁrst energy producer analogy between heat and electrical conduction. The entransy of an ob-

and the second largest energy consumer in the world. With the rapid ject describes its heat transfer ability and “thermal potential energy”.

economic development and improved standards of living, energy The concept of entransy dissipation was introduced to analyze an

demand in China is continually rising and resource constraints are irreversible heating transfer process. Moreover, Chen et al. [5,6] derived

becoming more seriously [1]. the extremum principle of entransy dissipation to optimize the process-

Heat exchanger networks are widely used in oil reﬁning, chemical, es of the heat conduction. This attracts many scholars to carry out a

metallurgy, pharmaceutical and other large industrial enterprises. Its sig- series of in-depth related research in various directions, such as heat

niﬁcance can be attributed to its role in reducing energy consumption and conduction [7–9], heat convection [10], the optimal design of heat

increasing energy utilization ratio [2]. Nowadays, three kinds of heat ex- exchangers [11,12], mass transfer [13,14], heat radiation [15–17], and

changer network synthesis methods have been established: the pinch de- multiple transfer process [18].

sign method (PDM), the mathematical programming approach, and the In order to analyze the performance of heat transfer processes, Chen

artiﬁcial intelligence approach. PDM is the most mature and successful et al. [19] introduced a two-dimension property diagram, temperature-

method in the heat exchange network design. Besides, PDM is applied heat ﬂow diagram (T-q• diagram). The area between the process curves

to analyze the distribution of energy ﬂow along the temperature gradient of the hot and cold streams represented the total entransy dissipation

in the heat transfer process. The maximum energy recovery (MER) rate in the whole heat exchanger. The diagram can be used to analyze

network can be obtained by PDM, but the heat transfer efﬁciency cannot the irreversibility of heat transfer processes. Wu et al. [20] compared

be calculated. With the heat recovery processes becoming more complex, the entransy dissipation rates of three simple chemical processes in

the PDM has some shortcomings. For example, the operating and invest- the temperature-heat ﬂow rate diagram (T-Q • diagram). This approach

ment costs are not considered in this method. was applied to evaluate the performance of self-heat recuperation

technology (SHRT).

☆ Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21406124).

The theoretical basis for simplifying the complex chemical process

⁎ Corresponding author. was only provided in the previous work, but was not applied to the

E-mail address: xsg@qust.edu.cn (S.G. Xiang). optimal design of HENs [29].

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2017.03.015

1004-9541/© 2017 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.

1038 L. Xia et al. / Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 25 (2017) 1037–1042

This article will propose an energy target approach of HENs based on In Eq. (7), we can see that entransy is not completely conserved due

the concept of entransy and entransy dissipation. In comparison with to dissipation, which means the entransy dissipation is a measurement

the PDM, the entransy method of HENs has some obvious advantages, of the irreversibility of heat transfer processes. If the quantity of

such as accurate calculation of entransy transfer efﬁciency, minimizing entransy that the hot streams release is absorbed by the cold streams,

the entransy dissipation and maximizing the entransy recovery. A real the entransy dissipation is reduced. So the effective energy utilization

case study is used to show the application of the novel method. Thus, is achieved.

the energy-saving potential of the HENs can be obtained based on the The entransy transfer efﬁciency can be used to evaluate the heat

entransy transfer efﬁciency analysis. transfer performance of HENs, expressed as.

η¼ ¼ ð8Þ

input entransy flux Eh

2.1. Model of a two-stream heat transfer process with entransy theory

where Eh, Ec represent the quantity of entransy that the hot streams

Guo et al. [4] proposed a new physical quantity, entransy, which release and the cold streams absorb, respectively. The more entransy

correspond to electrical potential energy in a capacitor based on the that cold streams absorb and the less entransy that hot streams

analogy between electrical and thermal systems. The entransy of an dissipate, the higher entransy transfer efﬁciency can be obtained.

object is,

2.2. Available entransy and the physical meaning of T-Q diagram

1 1 1

Evh ¼ Q vh U h ¼ Q vh T ¼ mcv T ð1Þ

2 2 2 Entransy possesses both the nature of “energy” and the heat transfer

ability. The temperature represents the potential of the heat because the

where Q vh is thermal capacity of an object with constant volume, cv is heat differs at different temperatures. Hence the entransy of hot

speciﬁc heat capacity at constant volume, Uh or T represents the thermal streams, which means “potential energy” of heat, can be used effectively

potential. by cold streams.

For a two-stream heat exchanger, which is operated in steady state, When two objects at different temperatures are in thermal contact,

when the temperature drop of the stream is dT, heat ﬂow generating is the total quantity of “potential energy” of heat can be transferred,

dQ, and the output entransy is [21]: which represent the entransy transfer associated with the heat transfer.

Guo et al. [23] considered the entransy as the heat transport potential

dEvh ¼ TdQ vh ð2Þ

capacity in an earlier paper. Cheng et al. [24] found that entransy changes

in heat transfer process of an isolated system and a closed system. This

It is assumed that there is no heat exchanging with environment, the principle was called entransy decrease, based on the ﬁrst and second

change of kinetic and potential energy, the effects of conduction and laws of thermodynamics. That can be written as dG≤0 (the equal sign

mixing in the direction of stream can be ignored [22]. The heat capacities is tenable for an ideal heat transfer process, while the sign of “less

and heat transfer coefﬁcients are deﬁned as constant. than” is tenable for natural heat transfer process), which can be

With these assumptions, speciﬁc heat capacity at constant volume described as the irreversibility of heat transfer process due to entransy

and speciﬁc heat capacity at constant pressure are approximately equal, loss or heat transfer ability.

which can be written as The volume changes are not usually considered in heat transfer. As T

is a state quantity and δQ is a process quantity, entransy T·δQ is obviously

cv ≈ cp ð3Þ

a process quantity. Hu et al. [25] derived that the entransy ﬂow of a

system, which was called the system entransy G, corresponded to a

The heat transfer between the hot and cold streams is state quantity in a reversible process with constant volume.

Based on the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics, the energy balance

dQ vh ¼ −mh cp;h dT h ¼ mc cp;c dT c ð4Þ

equation can be expressed as.

where m is the mass ﬂow, the subscript h refers to the hot stream, and ðTδQ Þrev ¼ TdU þ TδW ð9Þ

the subscript c refers to the cold stream.

The entransy change between the hot and cold streams is

Eq. (9) points out that in entransy transfer, a portion of the entransy

dEh ¼ −T h dQ; dEc ¼ T c dQ ð5Þ ﬂow will be converted into work entransy, T·δW, which makes no

contribution to the heating or cooling of an object. T·dU is the available

portion of the entransy ﬂow, which is called the available entransy.

The entransy balance equation of hot and cold streams in heat transfer

As mentioned above, the heat transfer process of streams can be

can be deﬁned as.

shown in the T-Q diagram. It is clear that the heat transfer capability

Q should be enhanced in the HENs. The available entransy, which makes

Eh;in þ ∫ 0 t −T h dQ ¼ Eh;out ð6aÞ

contribution to the heating or cooling streams, needs to be maximized.

Thus, the heat transfer performance is improved, and the effective

Q

Ec;in þ ∫ 0 t T c dQ ¼ Ec;out ð6bÞ utilization of energy is realized.

where the subscripts in and out denote the inlet and outlet states, 3. Novel Method to Setting the Energy Targets

respectively.

The entransy dissipation in the whole heat exchange network can be The tasks of HENs synthesis are minimizing capital and operating

obtained by summing Eqs. (6a) and (6b) costs, achieving the initial temperature to the target temperature. The

feed, which starts cold and needs to be heated up, is called as a cold

1 1 1 1 stream; conversely which starts hot and needs to be cooled down, is

ΔE ¼ Ein −Eout ¼ mh cp;h T 2h;in þ mc cp;c T 2c;in − mh cp;h T 2h;out þ mc cp;c T 2c;out

2 2 2 2 called as a hot stream [26].

Q

¼ ∫ 0 ðT h −T c ÞdQ In the proposed method, the available entransy of the HENs can be

ð7Þ maximized, which means the entransy of all hot streams can maximum

L. Xia et al. / Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 25 (2017) 1037–1042 1039

possible absorbed by the cold streams. Taking the temperature T and the

heat ﬂow rate Q as the horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively,

a T-Q diagram to express the heat ﬂow processes of streams can be

constructed, as shown in Fig. 1 [19]. The green shade area under the

composite curve stands for the entransy ﬂow when the stream temper-

ature from Tin to Tout, as shown in Eq. (2), which means the available

entransy of the system.

Fig. 3. The property diagram in heat transfer processes between hot and cold streams.

Meanwhile, the amount of entransy dissipation and entransy recovery are shown in this

diagram.

blue shaded area under the cold composite curve, which is identiﬁed

as the entransy recovery of the system, indicates that the cold streams

effectively utilize the entransy transferred from the hot streams.

For a heat exchanger network, in order to meet the actual industrial

production needs, the quantity of entransy that the hot stream releases

Fig. 1. The property diagram in heat transfer processes of streams. is not completely absorbed by the cold stream. The entransy required

for the cold stream to be heated to the target temperature cannot be

provided entirely by the hot stream. Generally we need additional hot

During the heat transfer processes, the change of heat is equal to the and cold utilities in the system.

enthalpy change of each stream. In Fig. 2, the T-axis is a continuous The maximum energy recovery and the minimum utility require-

change and the Q-axis is a relative change. If process curve is shifted ments can be achieved by the HENs synthesis method, which means

along the Q-axis, the change of temperature, heat and entransy will that the entransy of all hot streams can possibly be absorbed in maxi-

not affect the property of stream. Thus, to handle multiple streams, it mum by the cold streams. Meanwhile for the maximum entransy recov-

is convenient to combine the lines of multiple streams into a single ery, the minimum entransy dissipation and the minimum utility

curve. requirements are represented in the optimization of heat exchanger

Fig. 2 shows a formation of the hot composite curve. It is formed by network, shown in Fig. 4.

three hot streams, whose heat capacity ﬂow rates are named as A, B, C. For the design of heat exchangers, considering exchanger area,

The enthalpy change can be calculated in a series of every interval tem- utility requirements and capital cost with minimum approach tempera-

peratures. If there is only one line in an interval, the slope cannot be ture ΔTmin changes. There is an optimum value for ΔTmin, which is usually

changed. If multiple lines exit in an interval, the temperature of vertical 10–20 K.

coordinates in this interval remains unchanged, the enthalpy change of In Fig. 4, the hot and cold composite curves are shifted on the Q-axis

horizontal coordinates added together, which means the vector sum of and close to each other. Until the two composite curves reach to the

these lines in this interval can be got. Finally, the line segments are con- predetermined target position (ΔTmin) in a vertical direction, the

nected end-to-end to form a single curve, shown in Fig. 2(b). lower right corner area indicates the minimum entransy of hot utility

Using the same method, the cold composite curve can be obtained. requirements (Eh,min), which means the cold streams can be entirely

Therefore, the green shade area between the hot and cold streams in heated to target temperature. The lower left corner area indicates the

Fig. 3 is the total entransy dissipation, ΔE,·as shown in Eq. (7). The minimum entransy of cold utility requirements (Ec,min), which means

Fig. 2. Example of formation of the hot composite curve: (a)A T-Q diagram of three hot streams; (b)The process of forming a hot composite curve through three hot streams.

1040 L. Xia et al. / Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 25 (2017) 1037–1042

Table 2

The data of cold streams

temperature temperature /kW·K−1

/K /K

2 Mixed hydrogen 356.5 448.8 75.3

3 Oil mixed with hydrogen 423.4 618.9 401.3

4 Bottom oil 494.8 518.8 303.2

5 Fractionation column bottom 541.7 553.6 600.4

oil

6 Steam 368.0 474.6 112.7

7 Steam 462.9 539.1 10.8

units is shown in Fig. 5 and the hot and cold streams are simultaneously

represented (red represents hot stream and blue represents cold

stream).

Fig. 4. The property diagram in heat transfer processes of all hot and cold streams in the

HENs.

4.1. Before setting the energy target of diesel oil hydrogenation unit

the hot streams can be entirely cooled to target temperature. And the According to Table 1, the hot and cold composite curves are shown

overlapped area between the composite curves represents the max- in Fig. 6. As a result, the entransy of hot streams is 6.762 × 107 kW·K

imum entransy recovery and the minimum entransy dissipation. while the entransy of cold streams is 6.352 × 107 kW·K. There is no

Entropy, which is another kind of physical quantity in thermody- overlapped area between the composite curves, which means the

namics, is a measure of the irreversibility of a process and the random- quantity of entransy that the hot streams release is not absorbed by

ness of a system. The entropy theory is mainly applied to the heat-work the cold streams. Hence, there are no entransy recovery, the minimum

conversion optimization in reversible process, but there is an “entropy entransy dissipation is 1.311 × 108 kW·K.

paradox” [27]. That is with the increase of heat exchanger effectiveness,

the entropy generation number is also increased. In addition, entropy 4.2. After setting the energy target of diesel oil hydrogenation unit

cannot be used to describe energy quality. However, entransy is devel-

oped to describe heat transfer ability of a real system. The entransy dis- It is assumed that the minimum approach temperature ΔTmin is 10 K.

sipation number, which is introduced by the theory of entransy The cold and hot stream composite curves are shown in Fig. 7.

dissipation, can resolve entropy generation paradox. The entransy dissi- As a result, the entransy of hot streams is 6.762 × 107 kW·K, the

pation number can correctly describe the global performance of the entransy of cold streams is 6.352 × 107 kW·K, the entransy of hot utility

heat exchangers with three different ﬂow arrangements simultaneously is 8.543 × 106 kW·K, the entransy of cold utility is 7.428 × 106 kW·K, so

[28]. Compared with the entropy analysis, the entransy analysis has ob- the entransy recovery is 5.498 × 107 kW·K, the entransy dissipation is

vious advantages. 5.212 × 106 kW·K, and the entransy transfer efﬁciency is 92.29%.

Using the similar methods mentioned, one can obtain the optimiza-

tion results of three different minimum approach temperatures: 10 K,

4. Case Study

15 K, and 20 K. The results of comparing three different energy targets

are listed in Table 3.

The diesel oil hydrogenation unit of one petrochemical company in-

From the results of calculation, we can see that the quantity of

cludes reaction, fractionation, acid gas desulfurization, and the design

entransy is inﬂuenced by the variation of temperature difference.

scale is 3.4 million tons per year. According to limits and measurement

Corresponding to the minimum temperature difference, ΔTmin

methods for emission from light-duty vehicles (China 5), part of the

is given as 10 K, 15 K, and 20 K while the entransy recovery is

transformation of the unit is to meet the requirements of the production

5.498 × 10 7 kW·K, 5.377 × 107 kW·K, and 5.257 × 10 7 kW·K,

of diesel oil. To reduce the external hot utility usage, the optimization of

respectively. The entransy dissipation is 5.212 × 10 6 kW·K,

heat exchanger network has a practical signiﬁcance. The data of hot and

5.661 × 106 kW·K, and 6.093 × 106 kW·K. Therefore, the entransy

cold streams are shown in Tables 1, 2. The process ﬂow diagram of the

transfer efﬁciency is 92.29%, 91.63%, and 90.99%. It is obvious that the

larger the temperature difference, the more hot and cold the utility

requirements, the less the entransy recovery, the more the entransy

Table 1 dissipation, and the lower the entransy transfer efﬁciency.

The data of hot streams The heat transfer rate equation could be expressed as.

Flow Initial Final CP

temperature temperature /kW·K−1 Q ¼ UAΔT LM ð10Þ

/K /K

where A is the heat transfer area, U is heat transfer coefﬁcient. ΔTLM is

1 Oil mixed with hydrogen 655.9 504.8 418.1

2 High pressure segregator gas 396.0 321.0 206.4 the log mean temperature difference, which expression is

3 Thermal low pressure 505.0 307.0 1.5

separator gas ΔT h −ΔT c T h;in −T c;out −T h;out þ T c;in

ΔTLM ¼ ¼ ð11Þ

4 Overhead recycle oil 418.5 303.1 30.7 ln ðΔT h =ΔT c Þ ln T h;in −T c;out =T h;out −T c;in

5 Overhead recycle oil 428.7 319.2 17.2

6 Naphtha 320.0 310.8 1.9

7 Diesel oil 542.5 325.7 244.9 It is found that the heat exchanger area is inversely proportional to

8 Lean amine 325.1 316.0 67.5 the temperature difference. For an actual heat exchanger, the lower

9 Lean amine 325.0 316.8 17.7 values of ΔTmin can lead to larger area and more capital cost. Therefore,

10 Acid gas 313.0 307.0 1.5

in the design of heat exchanger network, we need a comprehensive

L. Xia et al. / Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 25 (2017) 1037–1042 1041

Fig. 5. The process ﬂow diagram of diesel oil hydrogenation unit. In the diagram, red represents hot streams and blue represents cold streams.

area, process conditions, etc. Finally, the optimal minimum approach

temperature, ΔTmin and the effective energy utilization can be obtained.

5. Conclusions

T/K

for setting energy targets of HENs in T-Q diagram. The hot and cold com-

posite curves can be obtained in the T-Q diagram.

700

Hot stream

650 Cold stream

600

Q×10-4 /kW

550

T/K

Fig. 7. The heat transfer property diagram of the diesel oil hydrogenation unit after setting

500 the energy target.

450

400 Table 3

The results of setting different energy targets, ΔTmin = 10 K, 15 K, 20 K

350

The entransy of HEN ΔTmin = 10 K ΔTmin = 15 K ΔTmin = 20 K

300 The entransy of hot streams/kW·K 6.762 × 107 6.762 × 107 6.762 × 107

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 The entransy of cold streams/kW·K 6.352 × 107 6.352 × 107 6.352 × 107

The entransy of hot utility/kW·K 8.543 × 106 9.751 × 106 1.095 × 107

Q ×10-4/kW The entransy of cold utility/kW·K 7.428 × 106 8.190 × 106 8.960 × 106

The entransy recovery/kW·K 5.498 × 107 5.377 × 107 5.257 × 107

The entransy dissipation/kW·K 5.212 × 106 5.661 × 106 6.093 × 106

Fig. 6. The heat transfer property diagram of the diesel oil hydrogenation unit before

The entransy transfer efﬁciency/% 92.29 91.63 90.99

setting the energy target.

1042 L. Xia et al. / Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 25 (2017) 1037–1042

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η entransy transfer efﬁciency, % [23] Z.Y. Guo, X.G. Cheng, Z.Z. Xia, Least dissipation principle of heat transport potential

ΔTLM the log mean temperature difference, K capacity and its application in heat conduction optimization, Chin. Sci. Bull. 48 (4)

(2003) 406–410. (in Chinese)

ΔTmin minimum approach temperature, K [24] X.T. Cheng, X.G. Liang, Z.Y. Guo, Entransy decrease principle of heat transfer in an

isolated system, Chin. Sci. Bull. 56 (9) (2011) 847–854.

[25] G.J. Hu, B.Y. Cao, Z.Y. Guo, Entransy and entropy revisited, Chin. Sci. Bull. 56 (27)

(2011) 2974–2977.

Subscripts [26] I.C. Kemp, Pinch Analysis and Process Integration, Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, 2006.

c cold stream [27] A. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, New York, 1988.

h hot stream [28] J.F. Guo, L. Cheng, M.T. Xu, Entransy dissipation number and its application to heat

in inlet state exchanger performance, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54 (15) (2009) 2974–2977.

[29] L. Xia, Y.L. Feng, S.G. Xiang, Progress and application of entransy theory in energy

outlet outlet state saving of chemical processes, CIESC J. 67 (12) (2016) 4915–4921.

rev reversible condition

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