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Energy Efficiency DOI 10.1007/s12053-009-9072-8

Electricity and water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine worldwide

Christiane Pakula & Rainer Stamminger

Received: 15 January 2009 /Accepted: 7 December 2009 # Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Abstract Washing laundry is one of the most wide- spread housework in the world. Today, washing machines do this work in many private households, using water, electricity, chemical substances, and process time. Although energy efficiency is in the focus of many regulations which have already achieved significant improvements, the question remains, how relevant these processes are in terms of the absolute impact on resources and whether there are possibilities to improve even further by looking abroad. This survey, which is based on published data, compares the energy and water consumption for automatic laundry washing in an average private household with the total energy and water consumption of private households. Only little data are available on resource consumption for laundry washing and reliable figures based on in-use measurements are hard to obtain. But although some of the data in this report are poor, this is the first work that tries to elucidate the contribution of automatic laundry washing to the total electricity and water consumption of households in selected countries worldwide. The report estimates the resource consumption of roughly

  • C. Pakula : R. Stamminger (*)

Household and Appliance Technology Section, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Nussallee 5, 53115 Bonn, Germany

e-mail: stamminger@uni-bonn.de

  • C. Pakula

e-mail: haushaltstechnik@uni-bonn.de

590,000,000 washing machines in 38 countries with about 2.3 billion people, which is about one third of the world population. The results of this work show that laundry washing in private households is done with quite different amounts of electricity and water in different parts of the world both in absolute and relative comparison to the overall household consumption. But due to different consumer habits in dealing with the achieved washing performance in the different global regions, the best practice in washing laundry in a most sustainable way cannot be determined yet. Further research is needed to form a basis for a most sustainable development of resource consumption in private households.

Keywords Energy consumption . Housework practices . Laundry washing . Washing machine . Sustainability . Water consumption . Consumer habits . Global relevance

Introduction

Washing clothes, laundry, and other home textiles is

one of the most widespread housework in the world. Years ago, it was hard mechanical work, and in some regions of the world, it still is. Today, washing machines do this work in many private households worldwide using water, electricity, chemical substances,

and process time as resources. Due to different wash habits and practices and different types of washing

Energy Efficiency DOI 10.1007/s12053-009-9072-8 Electricity and water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine worldwide Christiane

Energy Efficiency

machines, the consumption of resources for laundry washing by washing machine varies a lot. Figure 1 shows the main washing machine technologies which are in use. While in horizontal axis machines, only the bottom of the wash tub is filled with water, in vertical axis machines, traditionally, the whole tub is filled with water. Therefore, horizontal axis machines consume much less water per wash cycle than vertical axis machines, while these are mostly run without heating, especially in Asia, and therefore, consume much less electricity per wash cycle than horizontal axis machines with integrated heating. But indeed, the main task of all types of washing machines is to provide hygienically clean laundry and to preserve its value. This so-called washing performance is not included in our work and an assessment of the different washing machine technologies besides the electricity and water consumption is not intended. For several years, the state of the art shown in Fig. 1 has been changing. Vertical axis machines are still most widespread in America, Australia, and Asia. But the share of horizontal axis machines in those markets is rising steadily, e.g., in 2007, 22% of households used a horizontal axis machine in Australia, while in 2005, it was only 13%. In some areas of the country, horizontal axis machines make already 50% of the new sales of washing machines (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008). Very often, horizontal axis machines have a minimum program temperature of 30°C which means that these machines use electricity to heat up water even in the coldest program selectable.

The main scope of this work is the electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing per household, which is not influenced by the market penetration of washing machines. But an estimation of the total electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing in the different regions covered in our work seems to be interesting and is attempted in the Electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing by regionsection. The variation of ownership rates is shown in Fig. 2. The market of washing machines in industrial countries is more or less saturated and the worldwide market penetration is rising steadily. Nevertheless, in many regions, like China, Turkey, or East Europe, the ownership rate of washing machines is <70% (Fig. 2), which means that, in about one third of the house- holds in these countries, notable amounts of resources are consumed for manual laundry washing or by using manual washers. And although a washing machine is available in some households, clothes are frequently washed manually, e.g., in China (Procter & Gamble, private communication). Apart from the electricity and water consumption of washing machines, the efficiency of the washing process is determined by the washing performance. In some countries where mostly cold wash programs are used, e.g., in Japan, a lot of water and energy is spent for pre- and post-treatments of laundry in addition to the consumption of the washing machine (Nakaoka and Sursadana 2002). In our assessment, the con- sumptions for manual clothes washing and pre- and post-treatments of laundry are not taken into consid-

Fig. 1 Global washing systems (source: WFKRE

2006)

Energy Efficiency machines, the consumption of resources for laundry washing by washing machine varies a lot.
with heating without heating without heating Horizontal axis Vertical axis Vertical axis
with heating
without heating
without heating
Horizontal axis
Vertical axis
Vertical axis

Energy Efficiency

Fig. 2 Ownership rate of washing machines. Source:

Own calculation on the basis of the following sources: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008); de Almeida et al. (2007); DEHWA (2008b); GIFAM (2006); Harrel (2003); Nakaoka and Sudarsana (2002); Togay (2002); Yang (2006); ZVEI (2005); Procter & Gamble, private communication

94 97 100 99 100 86 90 80 66 63 70 61 60 50 40 30
94
97
100
99
100
86
90
80
66
63
70
61
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
West
East
Turkey
North
Australia
China
South
Japan
Europe
Europe
America
Korea
Owner ship rate of washing machines in %.

eration; therefore, a fair comparison of countries is not possible. But indeed, resource consumption for manual laundry washing is an important and interest- ing research area in respect to the global resource consumption for laundry washing. Although in a lot of vertical axis machines an internal water heating is not possible, warm washes can be done by using hot water from external sources. The additional energy needed to heat up water from the tap is not included in our calculations because it can be done by other energy sources than electricity, e.g., gas, coal, oil, or solar power. An assessment of the energy consumption for external water heating is difficult. It does not only depend on the different fuels used but also on the average cold water temperature, which in some regions of the world can reach 25°C and can make washing with little water heating effective. The electricity and water consumption for laundry washing in private households is determined by the technology of the washing machines and also by the number of washes, the chosen wash temperature, and the load size even in one single washing machine model (Table 1, Fig. 3). Washing machine technolo- gies are also changing because horizontal axis washing machine technology is gaining market shares in almost all markets worldwide. But as most markets are already saturated, this is changing the stock of machines only gradually. Wash habits and practices in different countries of the world vary a lot and only little reliable data about actual consumer behavior are available. Data on water and electricity consumption for automatic laundry washing are incomplete and reliable figures from in-use measurements are hard to

obtain. Therefore, some of the data in this report are poor and, in some cases, reasonable guesses had to be made; but nevertheless, this work is the first attempt to elucidate the contribution of automatic laundry washing to the total electricity and water consumption of households. The main task of this work is the comparison of the electricity and water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine in relation to the total

Table 1 Distribution of washing machine technology and con- sumer behavior

Region

Technology

Load size per

Most frequently

in the stock

wash cycle (kg)

used wash

 

temperatures

(°C)

West

>98% HA

34 (75% of

40

Europe

machine capacity)

East

>98% HA

34 (75% of

40

Europe

machine capacity)

Turkey

>90% HA

60

North

>90% VA

34

1548

America Australia >75% VA

2040

China

>90% VA

1.32

Cold water

South

>90% VA

Cold water

Korea

Japan

>97% VA

3

Cold water

Sources: de Almeida et al. (2007), Togay (2002), Nakaoka and Sudarsana (2002), Harrel (2003), DEHWA (2008b), Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008), Yang (2006), and Procter & Gamble, private communication

HA horizontal axis, VA vertical axis

Energy Efficiency Fig. 2 Ownership rate of washing machines. Source: Own calculation on the basis of

Energy Efficiency

Fig. 3 Yearly number of wash cycles per household. Source: Own calculation on the basis of the following sources: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008); Harrel (2003); Nakaoka and Sudarsana (2002); Rüdenauer and Grießhammer (2004); Wang (2006); Yang (2006); Procter & Gamble, private communication

600 520 500 400 289 300 260 211 208 165 173 200 100 100 0 West
600
520
500
400
289
300
260
211
208
165
173
200
100
100
0
West
East
Turkey
North
Australia
China
South
Japan
Europe
Europe
America
Korea
Yearly number of wash cycles per household.

electricity and water consumption of households. This shall be done on a country by country basis based on available data, but extended to the global picture as good as possible using extrapolations and educated guesses.

Material and methods

While the total electricity and water consumption of the residential sector is mostly published by the National Statistical Office of a country, accurate in- use data on electricity and water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine are often hard to obtain. Energy efficiency for washing machines is the focus of many regulations locally or regionally (European Commission 1995; US Federal Register 2005; DEWHA 2008a). Within 10 years, improve- ments in electricity and water efficiency of about 30% have been revealed in the European horizontal axis technology (European Commission 2005). Today, all washing machines sold in Europe belong at least to the energy label category A which is undoubtedly due to the forced energy efficiency policy of the European Union. Therefore, the actual water and electricity consump- tion per wash cycle depend very much on the age of the washing machine. Accurate in-use data is not available for all countries and, due to large differences to actual measured consumptions per wash cycle, rated or regulated values should not be used. In order to fill data gaps, some reasonable assumptions had to be made, but

Energy Efficiency Fig. 3 Yearly number of wash cycles per household. Source: Own calculation on the

for some countries, the share of water consumption for laundry washing could not be calculated and some figures remain uncertain. These are marked clearly in the report. Figures for 38 countries, which are 31 European countries, Australia, Canada, China, Japan, South Korea, Turkey, and USA are included in our calculation. The results are presented in diagrams assorted by typical regions which are West Europe, East Europe, Turkey, North America, Australia, China, South Korea, and Japan. The most interesting figures are drawn up alphabetically by country in Table 2. For several countries, the same values are shown for, e.g., the number of wash cycles, the electricity consumption per load, and the water consumption per load. Due to similar wash habits and practices, household sizes, and washing machine technologies in different countries of the same cultural region, these assump- tions seem to be reasonable. And although quite a few values are identical, the figures of these countries remain interesting because the total elec- tricity and water consumption and thus the share for automatic laundry washin g vary. Finally, the results are given as mean values to make figures compara- ble but it should always be recognized that real consumer behavior is a series of distributions rather than means.

Number of wash cycles per household

The calculation of the electricity and water consump- tion for clothes washing by washing machine requests

Energy Efficiency

information about laundry washing habits and practi- ces, like the number of wash cycles run per year, the chosen wash temperature, and the average load size. Only little data are available concerning the actual load washed per wash cycle. A recent metering study in 100 German households (Berkholz et al. 2006) reports rising load sizes per wash cycle with rising household sizes. Within the European project Resi- dential Monitoring to Decrease Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in Europe(REMODECE), wash habits in about 500 households in five European countries have been observed. The report on the project states that the vast majority of the households always use the washing machine at over 75% of its capacity (de Almeida et al. 2007). More detailed information about actual load sizes per wash cycle is given in the Water consumption per householdsection. It can be assumed that the total number of wash cycles increase with increasing number of persons living in a household, while the number of washes per person living in the household decreases with rising household sizes. This is supported by Berkholz who has measured the total electricity consumption for laundry washing in 100 households for 1 month to be at 1,045.5 kWh and the average consumption per cycle at 0.89 kWh (average load, 5 kg). Extrapolated to 1 year, this leads to an annual electricity consump- tion of 125 kWh and 141 wash cycles per household. The report shows a nearly linear increase of wash cycles in dependence of the household size, with a distribution of 2.1 washes per week in a single household up to seven washes per week in a six- person household. The German Öko-Institut has published 164 wash cycles per year for an average household in the region Germany, Austria, and Switzerland with a distribution of 111 wash cycles per year for a single household up to 211 wash cycles per year for a four-person house- hold (Rüdenauer and Grießhammer 2004). The report suggests accepting these figures for all European countries as long as reliable figures from in-use measurements are not available. In contrast to the above-mentioned figures, other sources report much more wash cycles per household, e.g., Stamminger and Goerdeler published 4.5 washes per week (234 per year) in an average household in Germany, based on an online questioning of more than 2,000 persons (Stamminger and Goerdeler 2007 ). The Preparatory Studies for Eco-Design

Requirements of Energy-Using Products (EuP) have investigated among others the consumer behavior with washing machines. The data were collected with an online consumer questionnaire in 10 European countries and 4.9 wash cycles per household per week (254 per year) were reported (Presutto et al. 2007). The report on the European REMODECE project states 270 wash cycles per year (de Almeida et al. 2007). The examples show that the available infor- mation sometimes is contradictory. The best guess seems to be the adaption of the number of wash cycles to the household size. Therefore, the number of wash cycles in our work has been calculated on basis of the information published by the German Öko- Institut as presented in Table 3. The information used for the calculation of values for the non-European countries has been taken from regional reports about laundry habits and practices (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008; Harrel 2003; Nakaoka and Sudarsana 2002; Wang 2006; Yang 2006; Procter & Gamble, private communication). The number of wash cycles per household per year is presented in Fig. 3. Obviously, Australia, Japan, and North America run more wash cycles than households in Europe. This seems to correlate with the frequent use of cold washing programs. But cold washes are also widespread in China and South Korea, and in both countries, the number of wash cycles per household per year is relatively low. While an explanation for South Korea is still missing, the low number of wash cycles in Chinese households is due to the frequent manual washing of clothes although a washing machine is available (Wang 2006). The leading country regarding the number of wash cycles with about 10 loads per week is Japan, which is obviously caused by the common use of very short and cold washing programs and a relatively low load size (Nakaoka and Sudarsana 2002). The report Energy Use in the Australian Residential Sector 19862020publishes 312 wash cycles per year (six washes per week) for Australian households (DEHWA 2008b), while the Australian Bureau of Statistics reports that about 75% of Australian households run five or less wash cycles per week (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008). Due to decreasing household sizes and a rising number of horizontal axis machines in the Australian market, the estimation of five wash cycles per week (260 cycles per year) seems to be reasonable.

Energy Efficiency information about laundry washing habits and practi- ces, like the number of wash cycles

Energy Efficiency

consumption consumption consumption consumption

consumption

washing per washing in

for clothes

household

relation to

11.0

11.0

22.2

5.6

14.7

9.2

11.2

11.2

5.9

9.7

9.8

3.8

9.8

20.3

8.3

7.1

Water

water

per

% b

for clothes

household

10.6

27.6

10.6

41.6

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.8

9.8

per year

Water

m 3 b

per wash

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

144

106

99

Water

cycle

L b

household

167.5 d

Water

102.0

283.0

101.0

176.0

127.2

139.2

100.2

258.2

107.1

247.1

89.6

88.6

48.8

89.8

47.8

per

m 3

e

relation to total electricity

per household

consumption

ship rate cycles consumption consumption consumption consumption

washing per washing in

for clothes

Electricity

4.0

1.0

2.6

4.6

1.6

4.2

5.2

3.2

3.9

2.9

5.7

0.8

3.8

4.5

5.5

5.5

1.3

% b

for clothes

household

Electricity

88.4

10.0

239.0

170.0

239.0

146.9

171.7

142.7

142.7

151.8

156.8

124.3

155.1

160.1

160.1

160.1

160.1

per year

kWh b

Electricity

per wash

0.94

0.34

0.10

0.92

0.89

0.97

0.87

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.87

0.97

1.35

1.35

0.95

1.03

0.43

cycle a

kWh b

household

Wash Electricity

1.2 c

6.0

3.6

4.6

4.2

9.2

2.9

2.9

6.9

3.9

2.8

5.8

4.5

3.5

5.3

13.1

4.1

MWh

per

164

164

100

260

289

177

177

177

165

165

165

165

165

165

165

165

165

washing year

per

machines

Number of Household Owner

44

70

60

82

89

79

97

97

78

65

95

95

95

95

95

95

61

of

%

Table 2 Most interesting figures by country

2.4

3.4

2.4

2.4

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.6

2.6

2.2

2.2

2.7

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.3

2.1

households size

24,523.0

39,122.0

367,617.0

1,478.0

2,992.0

3,863.0

3,664.0

8,300.0

248.0

582.0

116.2

11,562.9

4,408.7

2,480.8

2,295.5

3,342.3

4,216.1

×1,000

Czech Republic

Denmark

Germany

Australia

Hungary

Belgium

Bulgaria

Finland

Canada

Estonia

Croatia

Austria

Iceland

Cyprus

Greece

France

China

Unit

Energy Efficiency consumption consumption consumption consumption consumption washing per washing in for clothes household relation to

Energy Efficiency

consumption

c Uncertain figure calculated on the basis of the nonofficial information (das Zeitbild) that the electricity consumption of Chinese households is about 10% of the US household

d Uncertain figure calculated on basis of total water consumption of the domestic sector in China published by US Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration

household

4.4

11.0

18.4

17.4

9.6

8.2

4.9

31.2

10.9

7.8

6.5

5.5

5.3

7.3

5.1

5.1

per

% b

62.4

10.6

41.6

10.6

10.6

10.6

10.6

8.4

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

29.1

m 3 b

144

140

120

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

L b

152.4

201.0

226.2

180.2

129.2

102.9

573.7

193.8

339.5

114.9

201.3

534.3

61.0

31.7

97.5

96.3

m 3

e

e

e

e

e

f High electricity consumption reported by Eurostat 2005, by Statistics Norway (2005), and by de Almeida et al. (2007)

per household

consumption

2.4

4.4

3.4

1.0

1.0

1.0

4.6

3.6

15.6

4.2

6.9

3.9

16.8

9.5

1.5

3.5

10.5

3.1

6.1

1.1

10.1

a No external resources considered b Own calculation based on published data. All sources are mentioned in the Material and methods section

% b

163.4

200.0

133.0

171.6

97.4

77.0

52.0

145.2

284.9

171.7

171.7

171.7

171.7

171.7

171.7

157.5

153.5

173.3

124.3

188.1

160.1

kWh b

1.14

1.04

0.10

0.99

0.89

0.59

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.37

0.97

0.88

1.35

1.05

0.95

0.43

1.13

0.93

kWh b

17.0 f

3.4

4.4

5.4

4.4

9.0

5.2

1.7

1.7

2.8

5.8

1.8

4.8

4.5

2.5

1.5

11.5

7.5

3.3

1.1

4.1

MWh

140

520

289

177

177

177

177

177

177

177

177

208

165

165

165

165

165

165

165

165

211

60

100

76

86

82

82

89

99

98

98

95

85

95

95

95

95

65

93

63

83

51

%

2.4

3.4

3.0

3.0

2.6

2.6

2.9

2.9

2.9

1.9

2.9

2.9

2.7

2.8

2.5

2.5

2.3

2.3

2.3

4.1

3.1

3,115.0

7,320.0

3,651.0

1,900.0

1,357.0

1,288.0

4,576.0

7,049.0

685.0

803.0

172.0

128.0

25,564.0

13,337.0

48,225.0

14,187.0

13,770.0

16,744.0

112,000.0

23,310.6

1,962.5

×1,000

  • 2005 e No data available

consumption

Luxembourg

Netherlands

Switzerland

Lithuania

Romania

Slovakia

Slovenia

Portugal

Norway

Sweden

Turkey

Ireland

Poland

Latvia

Korea

Malta

Spain

Japan

USA

Italy

Unit

UK

Energy Efficiency consumption c d household 4.4 11.0 18.4 17.4 9.6 8.2 4.9 31.2 10.9 7.8

Energy Efficiency

Table 3 Number of wash cycles per household per year

Household size (no. of persons)

Number of wash cycles

<2.2

140

2.22.7

165

>2.7

177

Source: Own estimation based on Rüdenauer and Grießhammer

(2004)

Electricity consumption per household

In 2002, IBM reported data on the average electricity consumption per wash cycle. In 16 European countries, a representative sample of households was questioned about their wash habits and practices focussing on dif- ferent wash temperatures (IBM 2002). The average age of washing machines in German households is reported to be at about 7 years (Berkholz et al. 2006). This is close to the information given in the REMODECE report that about 50% of washing machines in European households are <5 years old, 30% are between 6 and 10 years old, and 20% are older than 10 years (de Almeida et al. 2007). Therefore, it seems to be fair to use the average electricity consumption per wash cycle published by IBM in 2002. For some European countries, mainly the New Member States, no specific information is available; therefore, an electricity consumption of 0.97 kWh has been calcu- lated on the basis of the IBM figures (Appendix 1). For the non-European countries, information about the electricity consumption per wash cycle has been taken from published reports about laundry habits and practices (Harrel 2003; Nakaoka and Sudarsana 2002; Togay 2002; Wang 2006; Yang 2006; Procter & Gamble, private communication). These reports do not provide accurate in-use data but consider different wash programs and water temperatures as well as different machine technologies and refer to the existing stock of washing machines. Data for China and South Korea could be further improved by personal contact to experts in these countries. Very recently, in-use measured data for automatic laundry washing in Australia have been published, but as such information is not available for all countries in this report, all figures are calculated on the basis of the number of wash cycles and the electricity consump- tion per load. The value of 0.34 kWh per wash cycle is calculated on the basis of the published information

Energy Efficiency Table 3 Number of wash cycles per household per year Household size (no. of

that more than 70% of wash cycles in Australian

households are cold washes (Australian Bureau of

Statistics 2008; DEHWA 2008b). The total electricity consumption per household is calculated on the basis of figures about the electricity consumption of the residential sector published by the

National Statistic Office of the country and region (Adato Energia Oy 2006; Eurostat 2006a; OECD 2005; STATCAN 2006; Statistics Norway 2005; Statistics Bureau Japan 2006b; Statistisches Bundesamt Schweiz 2006; Yang 2006).

Water consumption per household

While quite topical data regarding the electricity consumption of households have been found, topical or even any reliable data about the water consumption of private households are not available for all countries. The lacking information is due to the fact that, in some countries like Turkey or China, large parts of the population are not connected to the public water supply or the water consumption per household is not measured like, e.g., in UK. The total water consump- tion per household is calculated on the basis of figures about the water consumption of the residential sector published by the National Statistic Office of the country and region (Appendix 2; Eurostat 2006b; OECD 2005; Yang 2006). The average water consumption per wash cycle mainly depends on the washing machine technology. Vertical axis machines consume about twice as much as horizontal machines per wash cycle. Modern washing machines with horizontal axis technology often have an automatic load sensing function in order to reduce water and electricity consumption in response to consumer loads that are smaller than the rated capacity. Most vertical axis machines also have automatic water level settings or the water level can be set manually by the user. Although until today no systematic assessment of part load performance has been carried out, the availability of the function might lead to the expectation that the actual water consump- tion per wash cycle is remarkably lower than the rated value provided that the consumer does not use the full capacity of the washing machine. In 2006, Berkholz measured the actual load size of 1,265 wash cycles (Table 4; Berkholz et al. 2006). Obviously, for white and colored clothes with hot wash programs, the capacity of the washing machine

Energy Efficiency

Table 4 Wash load per wash cycle in different wash programs

Whites/colored, Easy care,

Delicates,

full capacity

46 kg

full capacity full capacity

1.53 kg

0.52 kg

Less capacity

used (%)

Full capacity

used (%)

80

20

Overloaded (%)

25

53

22

35

65

Source: Berkholz et al. (2006)

is not fully used, while the load sizes are quite large for easy care and delicates which are washed with warm or cold water temperatures. This is supported by the report on the European REMODECE project, which states that the vast majority of the consumers observed in the project always use the washing machine at over 75% of its capacity (de Almeida et al. 2007). A survey on the US laundry market published by Harrel in 2003 reports water level settings of 3,142 wash cycles in American households. The load diary data shows that more than 50% of the cycles were run with large and extra large water level, about 30% of the washes were done with medium/normal water level, and only 10% with low water level. The options extra low and mini-basket were not used at all (Harrel 2003). These observations do only show consumer behavior in Germany and United States, the behavior in other countries might be different. But obviously, it is too early to confirm that washing machines frequently use less water than rated due to low wash loads or low water level settings. Stamminger et al. (2005) published an average water consumption of 59 L per wash cycle with a load size of 5 kg for washing machines built in 2000. The German Öko-Institut reports 61 L for washing machines in stock in 2006 (Rüdenauer et al. 2006). As reliable in-use measurement data are not available up to now and part load performance has not yet been analyzed, the rated values of water consumption per wash cycle seem to be the best guess. Therefore, an average consumption per wash cycle of 60 L is estimated for all European countries in this study without taking the actual average load size and water setting level into consideration. For the non-European countries, the value for the water consumption per wash cycle has been taken from published reports about laundry habits and

practices (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008 ;

DEWHA 2008b; Wang 2006; Harrel 2003; Togay 2002; Nakaoka and Sudarsana 2002; Yang 2006; Procter & Gamble, private communication), which consider different machine technologies and refer to

the existing stock of washing machines but no load sizes

and water level settings are considered either. Data for China and South Korea could be further improved by

personal contact to experts in these countries. It is

known that Japanese washing machines are often filled with used water from a bath which contains more or less residual heat. This very special practice can only be mentioned because no reliable quantification of energy and water taken from this source is available.

Electricity and water consumption per region

The choice of countries included in our calculations is limited by the available information about wash habits and practices and also by the availability of reliable data about the electricity and water consump- tion of households, whereas demographic figures like the population number, the household size, and the number of households are available from reliable sources for all countries in this survey. The informa- tion is taken from Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Ausland(Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland 2006) and, for Japan, from Household and Household Members(Statistics Bureau Japan 2006a). Taking the ownership rate of washing machines into consid- eration and multiplying the number of households owning a washing machine with the electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing shown in Figs. 5 (the Electricity consumption for automatic laundry washing per householdsection) and 9 (the Water consumption for automatic laundry washing per householdsection), the total amount of electricity and water consumed for automatic laundry washing by region can be estimated.

Results

Electricity consumption for automatic laundry washing per household

The electricity consumption for laundry washing mainly depends on the average washing temperature. Whether a household washes with low temperatures or primarily

Energy Efficiency Table 4 Wash load per wash cycle in different wash programs Whites/colored, Easy care,

Energy Efficiency

chooses high temperature washing programs depends on one hand on the technical standard of the washing machine and energy supply and on the other hand on the traditional wash habits and practices in the respective region. Figure 4 shows that large differences in the electricity consumption per wash cycle do exist. In North America, Australia, China, South Korea, and Japan, the electricity consumption per wash cycle is low. In these countries, vertical axis machines are widely spread which use cold water or warm water from the tap which is not heated by the washing machine furthermore. Due to the methodical basis of this report, the additional energy used to heat up water from external sources is not included. Studies about wash habits and practices in these countries show that wash temperatures are significantly lower than in countries with mainly horizontal axis technology (DEHWA 2008b; Harrel 2003; Togay 2002; Yang 2006; Procter & Gamble, private communication). A good cleaning performance needs a minimum amount of energy input, which is mechanical work, thermal energy, chemicals, and time. Presuming a constant cleaning performance, the reduction of one of these four compounds leads to an increase of the others. In countries with low electricity consumption per wash cycle, a good cleaning performance is often achieved by an additional input of chemical and mechanical energy outside the washing machine. Pre- and post-treatment processes which are mostly done manually increase the consumption of water and, when done with warm water, energy as well as the time spent on laundry washing.

Although 95% of washing machines in North America are vertical axis machines, the average washing temperature is reported to be at about 30°C (Harrel 2003), which causes an electricity consump- tion of about 0.43 kWh per wash cycle. This might include warm water from the tap and thus energy from external resources which cannot be quantified. In West and East Europe and Turkey, the state of the art is horizontal axis washing machines with inte- grated heating rods. Turkish households have the highest electricity consumption per wash cycle as they are using high wash temperatures more frequently. Following a study about wash habits and practices in Turkey (Togay 2002), Turkish households wash more than 75% of their laundry at water temperatures higher than 50°C and, out of this, 25% at more than 85°C. In Germany, e.g., the average wash temperature is at 46°C and only 6% of the laundry is done at more than 60°C (Stamminger and Goerdeler 2007). Based on the number of wash cycles and the electricity consumption per wash cycle, the yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing per house- hold has been calculated as shown in Fig. 5. Due to the larger household size and thus higher number of wash cycles in East European countries, the electricity consumption is slightly higher than in West European countries. The high value for Turkey is caused by the large household size and frequently used high washing temperatures and thus high energy consumption per wash cycle. Very recently, a report on energy consumption of the residential sector in

Fig. 4 Electricity consump- tion per wash cycle. Source:

Own calculation on the basis of the following sources: Harrel (2003); IBM (2002); Nakaoka and Sudarsana (2002); Togay (2002); Yang (2006); Wang (2006); Procter & Gamble, private communication

Energy Efficiency chooses high temperature washing programs depends on one hand on the technical standard of
West Europe 0,95 East Europe 0,97 Turkey 1,35 North America 0,43 Australia 0,34 China 0,10 South
West Europe
0,95
East Europe
0,97
Turkey
1,35
North America
0,43
Australia
0,34
China
0,10
South Korea
0,37
Japan
0,10
0,00
0,20
0,40
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,20
1,40

Electricity consumption per wash cycle in kWh

Energy Efficiency

Fig. 5 Yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing per household. Source: Own calculation based on the figures shown in Figs. 3 and 4

West Europe 156,2 East Europe 167,8 284,9 Turkey North America 124,3 Australia 88,4 China 10,0 South
West Europe
156,2
East Europe
167,8
284,9
Turkey
North America
124,3
Australia
88,4
China
10,0
South Korea
77,0
Japan
52,0
0,0
50,0
100,0
150,0
200,0
250,0
300,0

Yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing per household in kWh

Australia has been published which estimates 2.58 PJ of energy for automatic clothes washing in Australia in 2008 (DEWHA 2008b). Converted to kilowatt hour per year and household, this fits the calculated consumption of 88.4 kWh quite well. Comparing the electricity consumption for laundry washing with the total electricity consumption, it gets obvious that only a small part of the electricity bill of private households is caused by the washing machine (Fig. 6). An average North American household has the highest total electricity consumption among the countries surveyed and also Korean, Japanese, Aus- tralian, and West European households consume quite a lot of electricity compared to households in China, 1 Turkey, and East Europe. The relation between the total electricity consumption and the electricity con- sumption for laundry washing becomes more expressive by regarding the shares expressed as a percentage which are presented in Fig. 7. The large difference of the share between West European (3.8%) and East European (9.2%) house- holds is caused by the much lower total electricity consumption of East European households. Due to the relatively high electricity consumption for laundry washing and a low total electricity consumption of only 1.7 MWh per household and year, on basis of

1 Uncertain figure calculated on basis of the nonofficial informa- tion (das Zeitbild) that the electricity consumption of Chinese households is about 10% of the US household consumption.

our calculation, Turkish households spent more than 16% of their expenditures for electricity on laundry washing. 2 But as the ownership rate of washing machines is only 63% and the total electricity consumption refers to all households in Turkey, it might be that this share is too high. Households in urban areas who own a washing machine probably have higher total electricity consumption than the average value published by Eurostat in 2006. In North America, Australia, and Asia, the share for laundry washing is only about 1% of the total electricity bill. The rising market penetration of horizontal axis machines with integrated heating in these countries might increase the share for automatic laundry washing in the near future, especially in countries where energy saving projects will be carried out in order to reduce the total electricity consumption of households.

Water consumption for automatic laundry washing per household

As well as the electricity consumption for laundry washing, the volume of water consumption is influ- enced by the technical standard of the washing machine and by the behavior of the user, e.g., the number of wash cycles run per week.

2 The Turkish household size is 4.1 persons, which leads to the

high number of 211 wash cycles. The electricity consumption per wash cycle is about 1.35 kWh, which is quite high, and in contrast, the total electricity consumption is only 1.7 MWh/year. This constellation causes the very high share of 16.8%.

Energy Efficiency Fig. 5 Yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing per household. Source: Own calculation based

Energy Efficiency

Fig. 6 Yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing and yearly total electricity consumption per household. Source: Own calculation based on the following sources: total electricity consumption:

Adato Energia Oy (2006); Eurostat (2006a); OECD (2005); STATCAN (2006); Statistics Norway (2005); Statistics Bureau Japan (2006b); Statistisches Bundesamt Schweiz (2006); Yang (2006); electricity consumption for laundry washing as per Fig. 5

West Europe East Europe Electricity consumption for laundry washing Turkey Total electricity consumption per household North
West Europe
East Europe
Electricity consumption for
laundry washing
Turkey
Total electricity
consumption per household
North America
Australia
China
South Korea
Japan
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

Yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing and yearly total electricity consumption per household in MWh

Figure 8 shows that European washing machines use less water per wash cycle than washing machines in America, Australia, and Asia, which is caused by the fact that, in Europe, only horizontal axis machines are in use. On the basis of the information that about 75% of washing machines in Australia are vertical axis machines (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008; DEWHA 2008b) with more than 120 L water con- sumption per wash cycle and only 25% are horizontal axis machines with a consumption of about 60 L per load, an average consumption of 106 L has been calculated. Due to the economical water consumption of European washing machines, households in Europe use less water for clothes washing per year than most other countries as shown in Fig. 9. Households in

China consume as little water as European households because of their low number of wash cycles. The high water consumption shown for Japan is caused on one hand by the high number of wash cycles and on the other hand by the high water consumption of the vertical axis technology. The amount of 62.4 m 3 of water for laundry washing in Japanese households is probably too high if it is presumed that only potable water is used for laundry washing. Japanese house- holds frequently fill used water from a bath into the washing machine, which cannot be counted as potable water but as water which is used for laundry washing. Concerning the total water consumption of house- holds, large differences between the different coun- tries do exist. As shown in Fig. 10, South Korean, North American, and Japanese households consume

Fig. 7 Share of electricity consumption for clothes washing per household. Source: Own calculation as per Fig. 6

West Europe 3,8 East Europe 9,2 Turkey 16,8 North America 1,1 Australia 1,3 China 0,8 South
West Europe
3,8
East Europe
9,2
Turkey
16,8
North America
1,1
Australia
1,3
China
0,8
South Korea
1,0
Japan
1,0
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
16,0
18,0

Share of electricity consumption for laundry washing in percent

Energy Efficiency Fig. 6 Yearly electricity consumption for laundry washing and yearly total electricity consumption per

Energy Efficiency

Fig. 8 Water consumption per wash cycle. Source:

Own calculation on the basis of the following sources: Harrel (2003); Nakaoka and Sudarsana (2002); Rüdenauer et al. (2006); Stamminger et al. (2005); Togay (2002); Yang (2006); Wang (2006); Procter & Gamble, private communication

West Europe 60 East Europe 60 North America 144 Australia 106 China 99 South Korea 140
West Europe
60
East Europe
60
North America
144
Australia
106
China
99
South Korea
140
Japan
120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160

Water consumption per wash cycle in litre

much more water than European, 3 Chinese, 4 and Australian households. The share of water consump- tion for laundry washing varies between 5% and 19% and depends on the water consumption per wash cycle and on the total water consumption of the household. The volume of water used for laundry washing influences the total water consumption of households in all countries significantly. The relation between the total water consumption of households and the water consumption for clothes washing becomes more expressive by regarding the shares expressed as a percentage which are presented in Fig. 11. The rising market share of horizontal axis machines in Asia, Australia, and North America is expected to increase the electricity consumption for laundry washing, but it will probably reduce the water consumption for automatic laundry washing notably in the near future.

Electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing by region

With the collected data, not only the contribution of resources consumed for automatic laundry washing

3 The figures for Europe are incomplete. UK does not provide information about water consumption of households because, in most buildings, water meters are missing. Ireland, Cyprus, Malta, and Slovakia could also not be considered, but as weighted averages are calculated, the influence on the result is not significant. 4 Uncertain figure calculated on the basis of total water consump- tion of the domestic sector in China published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration

2005.

to the total electricity and water bill of a single household can be estimated but also the total amount of electricity and water consumed for automatic laundry washing in the regions surveyed in our report. Table 5 presents an overview about the total number of households owning a washing machine and the electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing in the different regions and in total. Taking the ownership rate into consideration, this covers roughly 780,000,000 households with about 2.3 billion people living in the regions included in this report, which is about one third of the world population. The global electricity and water consumption of washing machines may be at maximum twice as high (about 100 TWh electricity and 20 km 3 =20,000,000,000 m 3 water), as in most countries outside of our investigation laundry washing is still done by hand.

Conclusion

Summing up the results, it can be said that huge differences regarding electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing do exist. Reasons for these variations are different numbers of wash cycles per

year, different wash temperatures, and different technol- ogies like horizontal and vertical axis washing machines. The quantification of the electricity and water input is difficult as traditional wash habits and practices vary a lot. Japanese households, for example, need more water for laundry washing than any other country, but not only potable water is used and the amount of reused water from a bath remains un-

known. European households consume the least

Energy Efficiency Fig. 8 Water consumption per wash cycle. Source: Own calculation on the basis of

Energy Efficiency

Fig. 9 Yearly water con- sumption for clothes wash- ing per household. Source:

Own calculation based on the figures shown in Figs. 3 and 8

West Europe 9,9 East Europe 10,4 North America 41,6 Australia 27,6 China 9,9 South Korea 29,1
West Europe
9,9
East Europe
10,4
North America
41,6
Australia
27,6
China
9,9
South Korea
29,1
Japan
62,4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

Yearly water consumption for laundry washing per household in m 3

Fig. 10 Yearly water con- sumption for laundry wash- ing and yearly total water consumption per household. Source: Own calculation based on the following sources: total water con- sumption: Eurostat (2006b); OECD (2005); Yang (2006); water consumption for laundry washing as per Fig. 9

West Europe Water consumption for laundry washing per household East Europe Total water consumption per household
West Europe
Water consumption for laundry
washing per household
East Europe
Total water consumption per
household
North America
Australia
China
South Korea
Japan
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700

Yearly water consumption for laundry washing and yearly total water consumption per household in m 3

Fig. 11 Share of water con- sumption for clothes wash- ing per household. Source:

Own calculation as per Fig. 10

Energy Efficiency Fig. 9 Yearly water con- sumption for clothes wash- ing per household. Source: Own
West Europe 7,8 East Europe 11,8 North America 8,4 Australia 11,2 China 5,9 South Korea 5,1
West Europe
7,8
East Europe
11,8
North America
8,4
Australia
11,2
China
5,9
South Korea
5,1
18,4
Japan
0
5
10
15
20

Share of water consumption for laundry washing in percent

Energy Efficiency

Table 5 Electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing by region

Region

Households

Electricity

Water

owning a

consumption

consumption

washing

for automatic

for automatic

machine

laundry

laundry

(×1,000)

washing

washing

 

(TWh)

(km 3 )

West Europe

155,000

24.2

1.5

East Europe

25,500

4.3

0.3

Turkey

10,500

3.0

0.1

North America

106,000

13.2

4.3

Australia

7,500

0.7

0.2

China

225,000

2.3

2.2

South Korea

14,000

1.1

0.4

Japan

48,000

2.5

3.0

Total

590,000

51.1

12.0

Source: Own calculation based on following sources: Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (2006) and Statistics Bureau Japan (2006a, b); electricity and water consumption per household as per Figs. 5 and 9 multiplied by the number of households owning a washing machine

amount of water for laundry washing due to the horizontal axis technology. Because of the very low number of machine wash cycles in Chinese house- holds, the electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing is low. But, as household saturation with washing machines is low and, even when owning a washing machine, manual washing is quite common in China, the overall electricity and water consumption for all laundry washing may be a factor of 3 to 4 higher as estimated here for using washing machines alone. This may be the case also for other countries, e.g., South Korea and Japan where high levels of pre- and post-treatments of laundry are reported which take off some of the cleaning process from the washing machine. This leads to the question of the washing performance which is achieved by the washing machine and if this is sufficient for consumer needs. High levels of washing treatments outside the washing machine indicate a low level of washing performance provided by these machines. These additional processes con- sume also relevant amounts of water and energy which are not considered in this investigation. To provide a complete picture on the resources used for laundry washing, also the use of detergent (inside the washing machine, but also for manual washing and

pre-treatment) should be considered. A selection of

those countries as world championwhich have the lowest consumption is too premature, as it lacks the information on the achieved washing performance and additional resources used for washing processes of laundry outside the machine. But there are for sure plenty of opportunities to learn from each other in

having the laundry process done in a most sustainable way. Energy efficiency and water efficiency gains in Europe show that good policies on energy and water consumption can foster sustainable development. Large parts of the world map remain unconsidered in our report, e.g., South and Middle America, Africa, Russia, India, and Indonesia. Investigations about the electricity and water consumption of the residential sectors in these regions are incomplete and informa- tion about laundry habits and practices is rare. Low

living standards in most of those countries and low ownership rates of washing machines can be assumed and thus the contribution of automatic laundry washing to the total electricity and water bill of households is probably low. But in some of those countries, the accelerated economic development will lead to rising living standards and thus to a rising number of washing machines in private households. Research about laundry habits and practices is necessary, especially in those countries where a rising stock of washing machines in private households can be expected, in order to form a basis for a sustainable development. The example of laundry washing makes clear that research, preferably in-use measurement, is needed in order to improve housework in all household processes. Learning about different housework and its influence on the energy and water consumption of households in all relevant countries is necessary to understand how resources are used and can be optimized in private households. Best practices for doing all kinds of housework with minimum amount of resources should be identified and disseminated to help in improving housework habits and practices.

Acknowledgement This work was supported by Henkel KGaA, Germany.

Appendix 1: calculation of electricity consumption

The total electricity consumption, the electricity con- sumption for automatic laundry washing, and the share

Energy Efficiency Table 5 Electricity and water consumption for automatic laundry washing by region Region Households

Energy Efficiency

for automatic laundry washing are calculated by the following equations. As all results refer to the resource consumption per household per year, the ownership rate of washing machines by country is only a component of the equations describing weighted averages. Total electricity consumption per household:

C e ¼

E t

n h

ð1Þ

C e total electricity consumption per household, E t total electricity consumption of residential sector per country, n h number of households.

Electricity consumption for laundry washing by washing machine per household:

c e ¼ n wc c e=wc

ð2Þ

c e electricity consumption for laundry washing by washing machine per household, n wc yearly number of wash cycles per household, c e/wc electricity consumption per wash cycle.

The share of electricity consumption for laundry washing in relation to the total electricity consump- tion per household:

z e ¼

c

e

  • C e

ð3Þ

z e share of electricity consumption for laundry washing by washing machine, c e electricity consumption for laundry washing by washing machine per household/country, C e total electricity consumption per household/ country.

Aggregated figures for West Europe, East Europe, and North America are calculated as weighted averages:

Example: electricity consumption for laundry wash- ing by washing machine in West Europe:

c eWE ¼

20

P

i¼1

n wci c e=wci r n i

N WE

ð4Þ

c eWE

average electricity consumption for laundry washing by washing machine per household in West European countries,

Energy Efficiency for automatic laundry washing are calculated by the following equations. As all results refer

n wci number of wash cycles per household/country, c e/wci electricity consumption per wash cycle per household/country, owner ship rate of washing machines, number of households per country, N WE number of households in West Europe.

r

n

i

Appendix 2: calculation of water consumption

The total water consumption, the water consumption for laundry washing, and the share for laundry washing have been calculated by the following equations. All figures refer to the resource consumption per house- hold per year; therefore, the ownership rate is only a component of the equations describing weighted averages. Total water consumption per household:

C w ¼

W t

n h

ð5Þ

C w total water consumption per household, W t total water consumption of residential sector per country, n h number of households.

Water consumption for laundry washing by wash-

ing machine per household:

c w ¼ n w c w=wc

ð6Þ

c w

water consumption for laundry washing by

n w

washing machine, yearly number of wash cycles per household,

c w/wc water consumption per wash cycle.

Water consumption for laundry washing by wash- ing machine in relation to the total water consumption per household:

z w ¼

c

w

C

w

ð7Þ

z w

c w

share of water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine, water consumption for laundry washing by

washing machine per household/country, C w total water consumption per household/country.

Energy Efficiency

Aggregated figures for West Europe, East Europe, and North America are calculated as weighted averages:

Example: water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine in West Europe:

c wWE ¼

20

P

i¼1

n wci c w=wci r n i

N WE

ð8Þ

average water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine per household in West European countries, n wci number of wash cycles per household/ country,

c

wWE

c w/wci

r

n i

water consumption per wash cycle per household/country, owner ship rate of washing machines number of households per country,

N WE number of households in West Europe.

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Environmental issues:

Energy use and conservation. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Berkholz, P., Stamminger, R., Kruschwitz, A., & Brückner, A. (2006). Definition und Ermittlung verhaltensabhängiger Energiesparpotentiale beim Betrieb elektrischer Haushalts- waschmaschinen. Bonn. de Almeida, A., et al. (2007). Residential monitoring to decrease energy use and carbon emissions in Europe. Portugal: ISR- University of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering. DEWHA. (2008a). Equipment energy efficiency program. Aus- tralia: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. DEWHA. (2008b). Energy use in the residential sector 19862020. Australia: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. European Commission. (1995). Commission Directive 95/12/EC of 23 May 1995 implementing Council Directive 92/75/EEC with regard to energy labelling of household washing machines. European Commission. (2005). EuP Studies for Eco-Design Requirements of EuP's (Tender TREN/D1/40-2005). Re- trieved from http://www.ecowet-domestic.org/. GIFAM. (2005). Le marché franςais des produits. Retrieved October 27, 2006, from http://www.gifam.fr/pages/

Harrel, C. W. (2003). The US Laundry Market. IEC SC 59D WG Meeting, Gaithersburg, Oct 13, Procter & Gamble communication to IEC SC59D working groups (private communication).

IBM. (2002). AISE code of good environmental practice: Final report to the European Commission 19962001. Brussels:

IBM. Nakaoka, K., & Sudarsana, B. S. (2002). Laundry in Japan. Procter & Gamble communication to IEC SC59D working

groups (private communication).

Presutto, M., et al. (2007). Preparatory studies for eco-design requirements of EuP's (Tender TREN/D1/40-2005) LOT

14, task 3: Washing machines. Retrieved from http://www. ecowet-domestic.org.

Rüdenauer, I., & Grießhammer, R. (2004). Produkt-Nachhaltig- keitsanalyse von Waschmaschinen und Waschprozessen. Freiburg: PROSA Waschmaschinen. Rüdenauer, I., et al. (2006). Ökobilanz und Lebenszykluskos- tenrechnung Wäschewaschen. Vergleich des Waschens bei durchschnittlichen Waschtemperaturen mit Waschen bei

niedrigeren Waschtemperaturen. Freiburg: Öko-Institut. Stamminger, R., et al. (2005). Old washing machines wash less efficiently and consume more resources. In: Hauswirtschaft und Wissenschaft 3/2005 Stamminger, R., & Goerdeler, G. (2007). Aktionstag Nachhaltiges WaschenWas macht der Verbraucher? In: SÖFW-Journal

1/2-2007

Togay, M. (2002). Laundry in CEEMEA. Procter & Gamble communication to IEC SC59D working groups (private communication) US Federal Register (2005). Retrieved January 2008, from http://

Wäschereiforschung Krefeld. Retrieved December 2006, from http://www.wfk.de. Wang, A. H. (2006). Dr. Alexander H. Wang, Haier Group Corporation, Qingdao, China (private communication) Yang, H. (2006). The total energy and water consumption of washing machines in Korea. Samsung Electronics (private communication) ZVEI. (2005). Market saturation in Germany in percentage of households. Nürnberg: Zentralverband der Elektrotechnik Industrie.

Further readings

Bertoldi, P. (1997). Energy efficiency in household appliances. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Household Appliances. Florence, Italy.

National Statistics

Adato Energia Oy. (2006). Electricity consumption, statistical yearbook 2006. Helsinki: Adato Energia Oy. Eurostat (2005). Europe in figures. Yearbook. Eurostat (2006a). Table nrg 105a energy. Retrieved November 2006, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=ta-

Eurostat (2006b). Table env_watq3 water. Retrieved November 2006, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.

Energy Efficiency Aggregated figures for West Europe, East Europe, and North America are calculated as weightedhttp://www.ecowet-domestic.org/ . GIFAM. (2005). Le marché fran ς ais des produits. Retrieved October 27, 2006, from http://www.gifam.fr/pages/ lemarché/chriffrescles/gam-lavage-2005-2.html . Harrel, C. W. (2003). The US Laundry Market. IEC SC 59D WG Meeting, Gaithersburg, Oct 13, Procter & Gamble communication to IEC SC59D working groups (private communication). IBM. (2002). AISE code of good environmental practice: Final report to the European Commission 1996 – 2001 . Brussels: IBM. Nakaoka, K., & Sudarsana, B. S. (2002). Laundry in Japan. Procter & Gamble communication to IEC SC59D working groups (private communication). Presutto, M., et al. (2007). Preparatory studies for eco-design requirements of EuP's (Tender TREN/D1/40-2005) LOT 14, task 3: Washing machines. Retrieved from http://www. ecowet-domestic.org . Rüdenauer, I., & Grießhammer, R. (2004). Produkt-Nachhaltig- keitsanalyse von Waschmaschinen und Waschprozessen . Freiburg: PROSA Waschmaschinen. Rüdenauer, I., et al. (2006). Ökobilanz und Lebenszykluskos- tenrechnung Wäschewaschen. Vergleich des Waschens bei durchschnittlichen Waschtemperaturen mit Waschen bei niedrigeren Waschtemperaturen . Freiburg: Öko-Institut. Stamminger, R., et al. (2005). Old washing machines wash less efficiently and consume more resources. In: Hauswirtschaft und Wissenschaft 3/2005 Stamminger, R., & Goerdeler, G. (2007). Aktionstag Nachhaltiges Waschen — Was macht der Verbraucher? In: SÖFW-Journal 1/2-2007 Togay, M. (2002). Laundry in CEEMEA. Procter & Gamble communication to IEC SC59D working groups (private communication) US Federal Register (2005). Retrieved January 2008, from http:// frwebgate6.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/TEXTgate.cgi?WAISdoc ID=659635452204+20+1+0&WAISaction=retrieve . Wäschereiforschung Krefeld. Retrieved December 2006, from http://www.wfk.de . Wang, A. H. (2006). Dr. Alexander H. Wang, Haier Group Corporation, Qingdao, China (private communication) Yang, H. (2006). The total energy and water consumption of washing machines in Korea. Samsung Electronics (private communication) ZVEI. (2005). Market saturation in Germany in percentage of households . Nürnberg: Zentralverband der Elektrotechnik Industrie. Further readings Bertoldi, P. (1997). Energy efficiency in household appliances. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Household Appliances. Florence, Italy. National Statistics Adato Energia Oy. (2006). Electricity consumption, statistical yearbook 2006 . Helsinki: Adato Energia Oy. Eurostat (2005). Europe in figures. Yearbook. Eurostat (2006a). Table nrg 105a energy. Retrieved November 2006, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=ta- ble&init=1&language=de&pcode=ten00101&plugin=1 . Eurostat (2006b). Table env_watq3 water. Retrieved November 2006, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table. " id="pdf-obj-16-153" src="pdf-obj-16-153.jpg">

Energy Efficiency

Statistisches Bundesamt Schweiz (2006). Statistisches Jahrbuch

2006. Neuchâtel.

Retrieved November 2006, from Yearlies_new_environment_

Statistics Bureau Japan. (2006a). Household and household

members. Retrieved November 3, 2006, from http://www.

OECD Environmental Data 2004Compendium 2004, OECD

2005

STATCAN (2006). Energy supply and demand by fuel type. Retrieved November 2006, from http//www40.statcan.ca/

Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (2006). Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Ausland. Berlin.

Statistics Bureau Japan. (2006b). Final energy consumption. Retrieved November 3, 2006, from http://www.stat.go/jp/

Statistics Norway. (2005). Statistical yearbook of Norway 2005. Retrieved October 23, 2006, from http://www.ssb.no/

Energy Efficiency <a href=do?tab=table&init=1&langu age=de&pcode=ten00014& Statistisches Bundesamt Schweiz (2006). Statistisches Jahrbuch plugin=1 . 2006. Neuchâtel. Retrieved November 2006, from Yearlies_new_environment_ Statistics Bureau Japan. (2006a). Household and household energy&depth=4 members. Retrieved November 3, 2006, from http://www. OECD Environmental Data 2004 — Compendium 2004, OECD stat.go/jp/english/data/handbook/c02cont.html . 2005 STATCAN (2006). Energy supply and demand by fuel type. Retrieved November 2006, from http//www40.statcan.ca/ 101/cst01/prim72.htm . Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (2006). Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Ausland. Berlin. Statistics Bureau Japan. (2006b). Final energy consumption. Retrieved November 3, 2006, from http://www.stat.go/jp/ english/data/handbook/c02cont.html . Statistics Norway. (2005). Statistical yearbook of Norway 2005. Retrieved October 23, 2006, from http://www.ssb.no/ english/yearbook/tab/tab-061.html . " id="pdf-obj-17-64" src="pdf-obj-17-64.jpg">