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chapter - V

5octo-Ecoru>m/to Cmf>cu:t of Stone/ Cru^ihe^


poUAAtion/on/the/ vxje^ctvhy hou^ehold^
154

CHAPTER -V

SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT OF STONE CRUSHER

POLLUTION ON THE NEARBY HOUSEHOLDS.

In the last chapter an attempt was made to study the impact of the pollution

caused by the stone mills located in Timchirapalli district on their employees. The

employees are the people who are directly affected by pollution as they are working

at the very sources of pollution. But the particulate matter and respirable dust

particle pollution caused by the stone mills affect the households near the place of

pollution. In the case of cement industry the particulate matter spreads as far as 3 to

5 kilometers. But that is not case with stone crusher units. The dust pollution caused

by them cannot travel beyond a distance of one kilometer from the source of

pollution. In this chapter an attempt lias been made to study the impact of such

pollution on the households within the range of one kilometer from the stone mills.

The households are located in the villages nearby. There are about 221

households in the region earmarked for the survey. Of them there are agricultural

households and an equal number of the households engaged in other occupations.

Seventy households from the each of two groups have been selected for this study

on the basis of random sampling. The data collected from these households have

been tabulated and presented here under.


155

The 140 households are found to be located in three villages situated with in

the range of one kilometer from the stone mills. Particulars of the households

selected are given in Table 5.1.

TABLE 5.1

RESIDENTS OF RESPONDENTS

Name of the Villages Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Thuvakudi 18 25.71 70 100.00


IDevarayaneri 34 48.57 0 0.00
Aravankmichi 18 25.72 0 0.00
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

Out of the 70 agricultural households 34 belong to Devarayaneri, a village in

which majority of the households are engaged in agriculture. The remaining 36

households have been selected from Aravankurchi and Thuvakudi at the rate 18

households from each. In the case of non-farmer households all the 70 have been

selected from Thuvakudi. The distribution of respondents' location wise may

appear to be lopsided. But that cannot be helped, as households have to be selected

within the radius of one kilometer from the crusher imits.

The households selected for the study have been residing in the area for over

a period of time. The period of residence of tlierespondentsis shown in Table 5.2.


156

TABLE 5.2

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE OF RESPONDENTS

Years Living Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Uptol5 Years 7 10.00 26 37.14


15 To 30 Years 4 5.71 30 42.86
30 To 45 Years 0 0.00 4 5.71
45 To 60 Years 57 81.43 10 14.29
Above 60 Years 2 2.86 0 0.00
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

It is clearfijomthe table that in the case of agricultural households more than

81 percent have been residing in their present location for a period varying from 46

to 60 years. In the case of non-agricultural households 80 percent have been found

to be residing in the present location for less than 30 years. Majority of non-

agricultural respondents have stated that it is a habit with them to move from place

to place in search ofjobs.


157

TABLE 5.3
AGE COMPOSITION OF FARMERS AND OTHER RESPONDENTS

Age (in Years) Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Upto 18 Years 0 0.00 0 0.00


18 To 36 Years 20 28.57 34 48.57
36 To 54 Years 33 47.14 31 44.29
54 To 72 Years 16 22.86 5 7.14
Above 72 1 1.43 0 0.00
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

The table shows the distribution of respondents in both the groups, namely,

farmers and others, according to their age. As far as reqwndent farmers are

concerned a significant percentage (47.14 per cent) is found in the age group 36 to

54 years. The next significant group is found in the age group 18 to 36 (28.57 per

cent). Thus altogether more than 75 per cent of the respondent farmers belong to the

age group 18 to 54 years. The average and standard deviation age of respondent

farmers arerespectively44.49 years and 31.60 years. The Co-efficient of variation

is 30.56. In the case of other respondents 48.29 are in the group 36 to 54 years.

Thus more than 92 per cent of the otherrespondentsis found in the age group 18 to

54 years. The average and standard deviation age of other rei^ndents are 37.54

years and 11.18 yearsre^ectively.The <x)-eflEicient of variation is 29.77. Thus there

is less variation in the age of other respondents as the co-efificient of variation is less
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than that of thefenners.It is significant to notefix)mthe table that only one case of

farmer respondents found to woric even after 70 years of age.

In Indian villages the caste factor plays an important role in deciding the

occupation of individuals. Information regarding the caste composition of the

present respondents is provided in Table 5.4.

TABLE 5.4

CASTE COMPOSITION OF FARMERS AND OTHER RESPONDENTS

Caste Fanners Percentage Others Percentage

BC 56 80.00 12 17.14
MBC 2 2.86 42 60.00
SC/ST 12 17.14 16 22.86
TOTAL 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

It is significant to note in the table that 80 per cent of respondentformersand

60 per cent of other respondent belongs to the backward classes. The number of

respondents in the SC/ST category is greater in tlie case of other households than in

the case of the agricultural households. An attempt has been made to find out

whether there is any significant relationship between the type of employment and

the castes of the respondents by using the chi-square method. The value of the X is

9.714. The 5 per cent of table value for 2 degrees offi-eedomis 5.991. As the

calculated value is greater than the table value it can be concluded that there is the

significant relationship between the caste of respondents and their occupation. More
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number of respondents in the BC groups are found to be employed in agriculture

where as in the case of respondents employed in the other trades 60 per cent belong

to MBC. The educational status of the present respondent is shown in Table 5.5.

TABLE 5.5
EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF FARMERS AND OTHER RESPONDENTS

Level of Education Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Illiterate 12 17.14 25 35.71


Primary 30 42.86 14 20.00
Secondary 28 40.00 28 40.00
Technical 0 0.00 3 4.29
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primaiy Data

It is significant to note that the level of illiteracy is higher in the case of other

respondents (35.71 per cent) than in the case of respondentformers(17.14 per cent).

It is fiirther significant to note that the percentage of the respondents who have

studied up to the secondary level is the same in both the categories of respondents

(40 per cent). An attempt was made to measure the significance of the relationship

between tlie occupation of the respondents and their educational status by using the

Chi-squaie test The value of the X^ is 13.39. The X^ table value for 3degree of

freedom at 5 per cent level is 7.815. As tlie calculated value is greater than the table

value it can be concluded that tliere is a significant relationship between educational

status of the respondents and their occupation.


160

The study has shown the size of households of the regwndents. hifonnation

relating to the size of households isfiimishedin the Table 5.6.

Table 5.6

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS OF THE RESPONDENTS

Members Fanners Percentage Others Percentage

UPT02 6 8.57 9 12.86


2 TO 4 26 37.14 31 44.29
4 TO 6 36 51.43 23 32.85
6 TO 8 2 2.86 7 10.00
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Som^ce: Primary Data

In the case of respondent fanners the study has shown that the size of

households in majori^ of the cases (51.43 per cent) variesfrom5 to 6 members. In

the case of other respondents it has been found that 44.29 per cent have households

of 3 to 4 members. There is not much difference between the two categories as fer

as the size household is concerned.

The marital status of there^K)ndentsin the both the categories is similar in

that more than 95 per cent of respondents of the both the groups are married. The

marital status of the re^ondents is shown in Table 5.7.


161

TABLE 5.7
MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

Marital Status Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Married 67 95.71 67 95.71


Umnanied 1 1.43 0 0.00
Widow/Widower 2 2.86 3 4.29
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primaiy Data

As far astypesof dwellings are concerned the agricultural households have

been found to be better placed compared to the other households. Particulars of

types of dwelling occupied of the respondents are given in Table 5.8.

TABLE 5.8

TYPES OF DWELLING OF AGRICULTURE AND OTHER HOUSHOLDS

House Type Farmers Others

Terraced 21 18
Tiled 31 15
Thatched 18 37
Total 70 70

Source: Primary Data

Out of the 70 agricultural households 21 are found to reside in terraced

houses and another 31 in tiled houses. Only 18 households are found to be

occupying thatched houses. In the case of the other respondents 37 out of 70 Uve in
162

thatched dwellings and fifteen in tiled houses. The remaining eighteen are

occupying terraced houses. To find out the nature of therelationshipbetween the

occupation of thereqwndentsand the types of dwelUng occupied by them, a Chi-

square test was employed. The calculated X^ value is 12.36, which is greater the

table value (5.991) for 2 degrees of freedom at 5 per cent level. As the calculated

value is greater than the table value it can be concluded that there is a relationship

l)etween the occupation of the respondents and type of dwelling in which they

reside.

For the households Uving in the region, which are likely to be affected by

pollution it is necessary to ensure that proper civic amenities like good drinking

water, good drainage and proper roads are made available. The opinion of the

respondents about the civic amenities available to them is shown in Table 5.9.

TABLE 5.9.
RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT CIVIC AMENITIES IN THEIR AREA

No. of Respondents having facilities


CONDITION
Water Drainage Road
Farmers 65(92.86%) 38(54.29%) 66(94.29%)
Good
Others 70 (100.00%) 66 (94.29%) 70 (100.00%)
Farmer 5(7.14%) 32(45.71%) 4(5.71%)
Bad
Others 0(0.00%) 4(5.71%) 0(0.00%)

Source: Primary Data


163

As far as drinking water is concerned almost all the households in the both

the categories feel that it is of good quality. The same is not true of drainage

facilities. In Thuvakudi proper drainagefecilitiesare available and 94.29 per cent

of the non-agricultural households have expressed total satisfaction about the

quality of the drainage. Only 32 agricultural households constituting 45.71 per cent

of the sample in the other two villages have expressed the opinion that drainage

facilities in the villages are poor. With regard to roads almost all the respondents in

the both the groups have expressed total satisfaction about their present conditions.

Particulars of the household appliances owned by the respondents are

furnished in the table given below:

TABLE 5.10

HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES OWNED BY THE RESPONDENTS

Property Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Radio 58 82.86 53 75.10


TV 30 42.86 26 37.14
Grinder 10 14.29 3 4.29
Others 18 25.71 7 10.00

Source: Primary Data

More than 75 per cent of therespondentsin the both the groups have stated

that they owned a ratio. A significant percentage in the both the group is found to

own television sets also. To find out the nature of therelationsliipbetween the
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occupation of the teq>ondents and the households appliances owned by them a chi-

squaie test was employed. The value of the X^ is 3.305 the table value for 3 degrees

offreedomat 5 per cent level of significance is 7.815. Clearly the calculated value

is less than the table value. From this it may be inferred that there is no association

between thetypeof employment and the use of home apphances.

As has been previously noted 70 households selected for the present study

are non-agricultural ones. The heads of these households are engaged in different

types occupation. Particulars of occupation practiced by them are given in

Table 5.11.

TABLE 5.11
OCCUPATION OF OTHER RESPONDENTS

Profession Others Percentage

Unskilled Labour 6 8.57


White Collar Job 19 27.14
Technician 20 28.57
Small Industries 15 21.43
Business 1 1.43
Others 9 12.86
Total 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

From the table it is clear that a significant percentage (50 per cent) are

engaged in technical trades and small indudries, which are found scattered near

Thuvakudi. Unlike the other respondents these respondents are in a position to

spendreasonablywhenever tliey or tlieir family membersfecesick.


165

One of the objectives of tiie present study is to find out the extent to which

the pollution caused by the stone crushing units in the studyregionhas affected the

health of members of the households with in the radius of one kilometerfi^omthe

stone mills. Before the advent of the stone crusher units people in the regions used

to complain of illness such as fever and stomach problem. But after the stone

crusher units came into the region diseases such as eye and skin aihnent,

tuberculosis and asthma have become common in this region. Particulars of

individuals affected by diseases before and after the entry of stone crushing units

are provided in the Table 5.12.


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Type of diseases 7. Stomach
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9 Denotes 1&6
10.Denotes2&6
Type of Deases-After(Farmers) 11 .Dencrtes 3&5
12 Denotes 4&6
13. Denotes 5&6
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Type of diseases 6.DiantK)ea
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11.Denotes 3&5
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Type of Diseases
166

TABLE 5.12

DISEASES REPORTED BY THE HOUSHOLDS BEFORE AND AFTER THE

ADVENT OF STONE MILLS

Before After Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

0 0 15 21.43 11 15.71
0 1 5 7.14 1 1.43
0 2 4 5.71 1 1.43
0 3 11 15.71 9 12.86
0 4 3 4.29 5 7.14
0 5 10 14.28 10 14.29
0 6 7 10.00 18 25.71
1 6 3 4.29 4 5.71
6 6 1 1.43 0 0.00
0 15 2 2.86 1 1.43
0 16 2 2.86 0 0.00
0 26 0 0.00 1 1.43
0 35 1 1.43 1 1.43
1 35 1 1.43 4 5.71
0 46 0 0.00 1 1.43
0 56 3 4.29 1 1.43
1 56 2 2.85 2 2.86

Tc)tal 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primaiy Data


167

REASONS FOR THE DISEASES

0->NIL
l-> FEVER
2 -> TUBERCULOSIS
3 -> EYE AND SKIN DISEASES
4-> ASTHMA
5 -> DIARRHOEA
6 -> STOMACH PROBLEM

It is significant to note in the table tliat 15 out of 70 agricultural households

and 11 out of 70 other households have stated that their members have not been

affected by prolonged illness. This does not mean that the members of these

households have not at allfeUensick. They may have occasional spells of common

ailments like cold and flu. Apart from these 26 households die others have stated

that their members have been subject to prolonged illness such as asthma, T.B, eye

and skin diseases. Out of 124 households, which havereportedcases of prolonged

illness, 27 have mention^ that their members liave been sufferingfiromeye and

skin diseases. Nine households have complained that one or more members are

suffering fix)m asthma. Similarly 6 households have stated that some of their

members are suffering from T.B prolonged stomach problem seems to be the

common ailment asferas the 140 households are concerned.


168

As has been already noted prolonged illness has become aregularfeaturein

this region only after the advent of the stone crusher units. This point has been

stressed by majority of therespondentsduring the study. An attempt was therefore

made to find out the duration of illnessreportedby the members of the sample

households. Particulars about the duration of illness are given in Table 5.13.

TABLE 5.13

LENGTH OF ILLNESS REPORTED BY MEMBERS OF THE SAMPLE


HOUSEHOLDS

Years Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Not affected 15 21.43 11 15.71


Up to 2 years 34 48.57 35 50.00
2 to 4 years 18 25.71 13 18.57
4 to 6 years 3 4.29 8 11.43
Above 6 Years 0 0.00 3 4.29
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

It is clearfromthe table that in both the categories of respondents nearly 50

per cent have been suffering from ilhiess caused by the pollution because of the

location of the stone crusher units in this region. Altogether 11 respondents from

both the groups have stated that they have been suffering from illness from 4 to 6

years. They are the people affected by asthma and skin diseases. The very feet that

majority of both the groups have stated that they have been suffering from illness

for a long period goes to prove the fact that pollution is the major cause of illness of

the region.
169

An attempt was made to find outfi-omthe respondents the causes for such a

prolonged illness in the region. The information given by them is shown in the table

given below.

TABLE 5.14

CAUSES OF PROLONGED ILLNESS IN THE STUDY AREA

Reasons Farmers Percentage Otliers Percentage

No response 15 21.43 7 10.00


Crusher pollution 42 60.00 57 81.43
Insanitaiy condition 13 18.57 6 8.57
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

Out of 140 respondents 22 did not give any response. They are the people

who have claimed that they have not been affected by tlie pollutionfi-omthe stone

crusher units. Absolute majority in the both the groups have stated that the stone

crusher pollution is the root cause of prolonged illness in their households.

The study has reviewed the types of medical assistance availed by the

respondents. The information is given in the Table 5.15.


170

TABLE 5.15

ATTENDANCE OF RESPONDENTS AT VARIOUS HOSPITALS AND


DISPENSARIES IN TfflS REGION.
No. of Days Visited
Types of Hospital Respondent Total
0 1 2 3 4
Farmers 66 1 2 1 0 70
Government
Others 56 3 10 0 1 70
Farmers 61 0 8 1 0 70
Local body
Others 67 0 2 1 0 70
Farmers 17 4 30 19 0 70
Private
Others 9 3 25 26 7 70
Source: Primary Data.

The table clearly shows that many of therespondentsin the both the groups

are not in the habit of going to hospitals run by the state govermnent and local

bodies. Out of 140 respondents only 18 have stated that they have visited

government hospitals over the period of time. Only 12 households have stated that

they have visited hospitals run by the local bodies. The data given in the table

clearly show that majority of the households in the both the groups are in the habit

of taking treatment at private dispensaries or from private doctors.

The sample households in the both the categories have stated that some of

the members have been taking treatment continuously to get them cured of diseases

like T.B., eye and skin diseases and asthma. An attempt was made in the study to

find out the average monthly expenditure incurred by the sample households on

treatment of diseases the particulars of which are given in the table below.
171

TABLE 5.16
MONTHLY AVERAGE COST OF TREATMENT INCURRED BY THE

SAMPLE HOUSHOLDS

Medical E?q)enciiture Farmers Percentage Others Percentage

Nil expenditure 15 21.43 11 15.71


UptoRs.200 34 48.57 17 24.29
Rs.200-400 20 28.57 30 42.86
Rs.400-600 0 0.00 11 15.71
Rs.600-800 0 0.00 0 0.00
Above Rs.800 1 1.43 1 1.43
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

It can be seenfromthe table that out of 70 respondentfermers54 have been

incurring on an average less than Rs.400 as medical expenditure. In the case of

other respondents out of 70 respondents 47 have been incurring an expenditure,

which is less than Rs.400. However in tliis group 12 reqwndents (17.14) have

reported that they have been spending more than Rs.400 by way of medical

expenditure. The average medical expenditure in this group is more tlian the

average medical expenditure in the other group.

The average monthly medical expenditure of a farm household is Rs.147.14

and die standard deviation Rs. 143.15. The average medical expenditure for the

other group is Rs.244.29 and the standard deviation Rs. 179.39. To test the equality

of the average expenditure by the two categories of the respondents the normal test
172

statistics has been used. Tlie calculated value (Z) is greater tlian the normal table

value at 1 per cent level of significance. It is therefore concluded that the average

monthly medical expenditures are not equal for the two categories of the

respondents. It has been found to be high in the case of the other respondents

because they happen to live near by the stone mills. Hence the hypothesis that the

shorter the distance of theresidencefromthe stone crusher units the greater will be

the intensity of the pollution has been found to be true from an analysis of the

monthly average medical expenditure incurred by the respondents.

Many of therespondentscomplained that they had to abstain from work

because of illness. The particulars, of man-days lost by them and the causes for the

same are given in Table 5.17.


173

TABLE 5.17

REASONS FOR LOSS OF MAN-DAYS ON THE PART OF RESPONDENTS

Reasons for Loss of Manday s Fanners Percentage Others Percentage

0 10 14.29 13 18.57
1 1 1.43 1 ^ 1.43
2 4 5.71 3 4.29
3 3 4.29 3 4.29
4 7 10.00 7 10.00
5 5 7.14 5 7.14
6 2 2.86 2 2.86
7 22 31.43 20 28.57
8 1 1.43 2 2.86
23 2 2.86 2 2.86
24 2 2.86 1 1.43
25 1 1.43 1 1.43
26 1 1.43 1 1.43
34 3 4.29 3 4.29
36 1 1.43 1 1.43
37 3 4.29 3 4.29
38 1 1.43 1 1.43
347 1 1.43 1 1.43
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00
Source: Primary Data

REASONS FOR LOSS OF MANDAYS

0-Nil
1 - Tuberculosis
2 - Fever & Headache
3 - Stomach Problem
4 - Eye & Skin diseases
5 - Diarrhoea
6 - Asthma
7 - Woric not available or holiday
8 - Others
174

The data given in the table show that 23 respondents had not abstained from

work. Forty-two reqwndents had to absent themselves from work as work was not

available to them. The remaining 75 respondents have abstained from work for one

reason or another. A significant percentage of such respondents have abstained fi^om

woik because of eye and skin diseases caused Ity pollution. Another common

reason given by the respondents for abstention from work is diarrhoea. The study

has shown that out of 140 respondents 75 have incurred man-days loss because of

illness caused by pollution in the area.

To find out the economic status of the respondents particulars regarding their

annual income have been wUected and analysed. The particulars are presented

below in Table 5.18.

TABLE 5.18

ANNUAL INCOME OF FARMERS AND OTHER RESPONDENTS.

Income Slab Farmers Percentage Others Percentage


Up to 10000 14 20.00 0 0.00
10000 - 20000 32 45.72 22 31.43
20000 - 30000 15 21.43 21 30.00
30000 - 40000 4 5.71 10 14.29
40000 - 50000 1 1.43 9 12.86
Above 50000 4 5.71 8 11.42
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data


175

It is evident Erom tlie table that 87 per cent of respondent fenneis have

declared that their annual income, is less than Rs. 30000. In the case of the other

respondents the percentage is only 61.43. It is significant note that while 20 per cent

of fenner respondents have declared that they are getting Rs.lOOOO per year, the

incidence is particularly nil in the other groups. That means poverty is more intense

in agricultural households than in the other households. The mean valuations for the

two categories are Rs. 19000 for former respondents and Rs.29285.71 for other

respondents. The standard deviation for both the groups is Rs. 12351.98 for fanners

and Rs. 13477.12 for others. The co-efficient of variation is Rs.65.01 in the case of

farmers and 46.02 in the case of others. From these in can be concluded that the

average annual income of the other respondents is greater tlian that of the formers.

Indebtedness is a characteristicfeatureof the rural sector in our country. Our

respondents are in no way different from the people living in the other rural areas.

An attempt has been made in the present study tofindout the extent of indebtedness

of therespondents.Particulars of indebtedness are given in Table 5.19.


176

TABLE 5.19

INDEBTEDNESS OF RESPONDENTS

Amount of Debt Fanners Percentage Others Percentage


No debt 25 35.71 29 41.43
Up to Rs. 10000 40 57.14 31 44.29
Rs. 10000-20000 2 2.86 4 5.71
Rs. 20000 - 30000 2 2.86 3 4.29
Rs. 30000-40000 1 1.43 0 0.00
Above Rs. 40000 0 0.00 3 4.29
Total 70 100.00 70 100.00

Source; Primary Data

It is significant to note tliat out of 70 agricultural households 25 liave

declared that they have no debt whatsoever. In the case of other rei^ndents out of

70 households 29 have made a declaration to that effect Thus a significant

percentage of the both the groups are found to be not indebted. Moreover more than

44 per cent of there^wndentsin the both the groups are found to be indebted to the

tune of less than Rs. 10000. Only five agricultural households and ten other

households have stated that they have to clear to debt of more than Rs. 10000.

The study covers 70 agricultural households. These are households which are

cultivating wet and dry land holdings either on ownership basis or on lease. Out of

the 70 agricultural households 64 have declared that they are cultivating only their

own land. While the remaining 6 have stated tliat they are cultivating land held on

lease. As fer as dry land holdings are concerned all die households are found to

cultivate only their own holdings. Particulars of land held are given in Table 5.20.
177

TABLE 5.20

WET AND DRY LAND HELD BY THE SAMPLE AGRICULTURAL

HOUSEHOLDS.

Wet Land No.of Dry Land No.of


Percentage Percentage
(in Acres) Farmers Acres Farmers.
0 2 2.86 0 48 68.57
1-4 60 85.71 0.1-0.5 13 18.57
5-8 5 7.14 0.6-1.0 7 10.00
9-12 1 1.43 1.1-1.5 1 1.43
13-16 1 1.43 1.6-2.0 1 1.43
16-19 1 1.43 0.00
Total 70 100.00 - 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

It is clearfiromthe table that 85.71 per cent of the 70 agricultural households

hold only less than four acres. That means the absolute majority of the farmer

respondents are either small farmers or marginalformers.The amount of dry land

held by the 22 households is quite insignificant. Twenty households own less than

one acre, which in dry land is very insignificant. The average acres of wetland

cultivation holding is 3.21 acres, where as the average of dry is 0.18 acres.

The advent of stone crushers to the shidy area has posed the problem to the

agricultural households within a range of one kilometer. The pollution caused by

these units, has afifected the quality of the land. Many of the sample agricultural

households complained that pollution caused by the stone mills has affected that

fertility of the soil. In order to verify the statement of these agricultiiral households

the research scholar arranged for the test of the sample soil taken from the three
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villages in the region at tlie soil-testing laboratory at Tiruchirapalli. The test

revealed that the alkaline contained in the soil is above the optimum level. The soil-

testing laboratoiy has recommended the use of 1000 to 4200 kgms, of gypsum

depending upon the extent of alkalinity in the soil. Tlie sample households opinion

about the fertility of the land is given in Table 5.21.

TABLE 5.21

IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON LAND USED FOR AGRICULTURE

Fertility of Soil Farmers Percentage


Constant 11 15.71
Increased 0 0.00
Decrea^d 59 84.29
Total 70 100.00

Source: Primary Data

It is clear from the table that 84.29 per cent of the respondents have declared

that thefertiUtyof their land has dechned after the advent of the stone mills. They

beheve that it is due to the pollution caused by the stone mills. They have come to

the conclusion not on the basis of any test conducted with the help of the soil-

testing laboratory but on the basis of the increase in the use of gypsum, fertilizer

and manure in the recent years. Th^ feel that while die cost of the cultivation has

gone up there is also a decUne productivity' over the years.

The damage caused by the pollution to the land holdings in the study area is

not uniform. Particulars of the extent of land affected by pollution given by the

sample households areftunishedin Table 5.22.


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TABLE 5.22

EXTENT (Df LAND AFFECTED BY POLLUTION

Extent of Damage Farmers Percentage


Not affected 20 28.57
Up to 0.5 Acres 17 24.29
0.5 to LO Acres 27 38.56
LO to L5 Acres 3 4.29
L5 to2.5 Acres 3 4.29
Above 2.0 Acres 0 0.00
To4al 70 100.00

Source: Primary Dfcta

Out of 70 househokis 20 have stated that pollution caused by the stone mills

has not in any way ajQFecxd the condition of their land. All the other households

believe that the pollution aas caused damage to their land even though there are

differences in the extent cf damage given by them. 62.85 per cent of the households

liave stated that tlie extent of damage is confined to an acre. The others have

complained that the damage is more than 1 acre.

The damage of land due to pollution had affected yield in the region. The

sample agricultural households have taken measures to rehabilitate such land.

Particulars of the cost of p^hsbilitation incurred by individual households are given

below.
180

TA^LE 5.23

COST OF REH/^ILITATION OF LAND AFFECTED BY POLLUTION (in

Rupees)

Cost of Rehabilita ion Farmers Percentage


No damage 20 28.57
Up to Rs. 1000 17 24.28
Rs.l000to2000 13 18.57
Rs.2000 to 3000 16 22.86
Rs.3000 to 4000 3 4.29
Above Rs.4000 1 1.43
Total 70 100.00

Source; Primary Data

Out of 70 households >0 have stated that they have not incurred any cost of

rehabilitation of lajid. 46 households (65.71 per cent) have stated that they have

incurred rehabilitation cost r) to Rs,30(X) for the purpose of improving the fertilit)'

of the land affected by poUutior. Only 4 households liave stated tliat tliey incurred

more than Rs.30(X) for the rekabilitation of the land.

There is a complaint from the agricultural households covered by the sun^ey

that tlie yield of paddy from land has been on tlie decline over the period of years.

To find out the correctness of this assertion the researcher collected data with the

regard to yield of padd>' per ccre reLiting to the three villages co\ered by the present

study, namely Thuvakudi, Ajavankurichi and De\'arayaneri over the period of ten

years fix)m 1990. The avenge of tlie yield of paddy foe the three villages during

that period is given Table 5-24 A&B.


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TABLE 5.24 A

ANNUAL AVERAGjfe PADDY YIELD ACREWISE IN THE STUDY AREA

(in Quintals)

Village 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Total
Avge.
Aravankuiichi 1242 11.61 11.72 11.50 11.31 10.73 10.52 10.05 10.12 10.10 11.01

Devarayaneri 15.30 14.55 14.32 13.877 13.65 13.42 13.12 1297 1275 1222 13.62

Tliuvakudi 13.80 13.10 1240 11.80 1260 1240 11.80 1200 11.60 11.20 1226

Total Average 13.84 13.05 1281 1239 1252 1218 11.81 11.67 11.49 11.17 -

Source: Village records

TABLE 5.24 B

AVERAGE OF YIELD PER ACRE (in Quintals)

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Year

Average

yiled 13.84 13.05 12.81 12.39 12.52 12.18 11.81 11.69 11.49 11.17

(in quintals)

Source: Village records


182

Table 5-24 (A) provides information about the average yield of paddy per

acre in the three villages from 1990 to 1991. The vertical colmnn at the end

provides the average for the village as a whole for the said period. The horizontal

column at the bottom of the table provides infonnation about the average yield of

paddy for the three villages together (in quintals). It can be seen that the average

yield of pad^ for the three villages has been dechning over the period. It is hence

evident that the average yield of paddy over years follows a linear model. The

equation of the linear model is taken as

y = ax+b. The above model is fitted using statistical package as

Y =-0.259 x +528.8081

Here y denotes the average yield of paddy and x denotes the year. The

model states that the annual rate of average yield of paddy is 0.259. This means

that every year the average yield of paddy is decreasing at the rate of 0.259. The

above model may be used for forecasting the yield of paddy. For example the

average yield of paddy in all the three study villages for the year 2000 would be

10.8687 quintals and for the year 2001 it would be 10.6097 quintals.

In India agricultural households find the income from agriculture to be

insufficient So they take to subsidiary occupations like maintaining livestock. By

maintaining livestock they get income from dififerent ways and they also get manure

for the lands. The sample agricultural households are no exceptions to this trend.
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183

The table given below provides an idea about the number of livestock heads

maintained by each family.

TABLE 5.25

LIVESTCXK OF SAMPLE HOUSEHOLDS

Number Households Percentage

Up to 9 20 29.41
9-18 31 45.59
18-27 U 20.61
Above 27 3 4.39
Total 70 100.00
Source: Primary Data

From the table it is clear that more than 45 per cent of the 68 house holds

own between 10 to 18 animals whereas 29 per cent own up to 9 animals. The

remaining households own more than 18 animals.

The households own diJBFerent types of livestock, particulars of which are

given in Table 5.26.

TABLE 5.26

LIVESTOCK PARTICULARS OF SAMPLE HOUSEHODLS.

Livestock (Type) Number Percentage


Cow 332 35.21
Buffalo 78 8.27
Bullock 48 5.09
Ox 12 1.27
Goat 145 15.38
Poultry 214 22.69
Others 23 2.44
Total 945 100.00
Source: Primary Data
184

Of the differenttypesof animals held by the sample households cows liappen

to be important in terms of the milk yielded by them and the income brought by

them to the households. Next to the cows, sheep and poultry help the households to

a significant extent. They also bring good income to the households.

One of the objectives of the study is to find out the impact of stone mills

pollution on the yield and weight of animals in the stud^ area. Particulars of loss of

yield from animals held by the sample households are given in Table 5.27.

TABLE 5.27

LOSS OF YELP PER YEAR FROM LIVESTOCK HELD BY SAMPLE

HOUSEHOLDS DUE TO POLLUTION (in Rupees)

Loss of yield Households Percentage

No loss of yield 23 33.82


Up to Rs. 1500.00 27 39.71
Rs. 1500 - 3000 10 14.71
Rs. 3000 - 4500 6 8.82
Above Rs.4500 2 2.94
Total 68 100.00

Source: Primary Data

In the table given above the loss of yield has been quantified in terms of

money based on tlie prevailing market prices of the products .We have already seen

that only 68 households own hvestock heads. Of them 23(33.82 per cent) have not

complained of any loss of yield. Nearly 40 per cent of the households have stated
185

that they have lost up to Rs. 1500 per year because of the decUne in yield caused by

pollution .The remaining 18 households have stated that loss incurred by them in a

year is more than Rs. 1500. Thefiguresshown in the table confirm the fact that there

has been decline in die yield of animals in tlie study area. The average loss of yield

is Rs.l 114.30 and the standard deviation is 1333.70. This shows that there is much

variation in the loss of yield from the livestock. The 23 households, which have not

complained of any loss of yield, are at a distancefi-omthe source of pollution.

Therefore the hypothesis that farther the distance of households from the source of

pollution the less will be the decline in the yield and revenue from the livestock is

valid.

TABLE 5.28

PARTICULARS OF LOSS OF WEIGHT OF ANIMALS

Livestock No. of Animals

Cow 26
Buffalo 7
Bullock 6
Ox 3
Goat 12
Sheep 14
Poultry I
Total 69

Source: Primary Data


186

Even though the loss of weight of animals is not a significant problem in the

area it is to be noted that all the animals have suffered a marginal loss of weight,

which according to the respondeints is due to pollution in the region.

Apart from loss of yield and loss of weight of hvestock, certain diseases have

affected the livestock heads in the study area. The sample households complained

that the diseases have become common only after the establishment of stone mills

in the region. The expenditure incurred by sample households on availing the

assistance of Veterinary Doctors is shown in the Table 5.29.

TABLE 5.29

THE COST OF SERVICE PER YEAR PROVIDED BY VETERINARY


DOCTORS
(in Rupees)

Cost of Service of Veterinary Doctors Fanners Percentage

No treatment cost 19 27.94


Up to Rs.200 33 48.53
Rs.200-400 12 17.65
Rs.400-600 3 4.41
Above Rs.600 1 1.47
Total 68 100.00

Source: Primary Data

Nearly 28 per cent of tlie households have stated that they have not availed

the service of the veterinary doctors for curing the diseases of the livestock. 48.53
187

per cent have incurred exTJenditure up to Rs. 200 per year in tliis regard. The

remaining households have spent above the Rs. 400 per year for availing the service

of veterinary doctors. The expenditure incurred by the households on providing

medicine for the livestock affected by diseases is shown in Table 5.30.

TABLE 5.30

COST OF MEDICINE PER YEAR FOR THE LIVESTOCK AFFECTED BY

POLLUTION (in Rupees)

Medicine Expenses Fanners Percentage

No treatment cost 21 30.88


Up to Rs. 100 15 22.06
Rs.lOO - 200 22 32.36
Rs.200-300 6 8.82
Rs.300-400 1 1.47
Above Rs.400 3 4.41
Total 68 100.00

Source: Primary Data

The particulars given in the table show that 30.88 per cent of tlie agricultural

households have not spend any amount in procuring medicines for anunals. 54.42

percent of households have stated that they are spending up to Rs.200 for buying

medicines for the cattle heads affected by the diseases.

The shidy has shown the impact of stone mill pollution on selected

agricultural and non-agricultural households in a radius of one kilometer from the


188

source of pollution. In the case of non-agricultural households tlie impact is found

in the form of continued illness, increasing medical expenses, abstention from woric

to considerable extent which have affected the economic status of some of these

households. In the case of the sample agricultural households tlie impact is varied

and many. Pollution from the stone mills has affected their health and their work

efficienc}'. Their medical expenses have increased. The fertihty of the land has

declined. The yield from the lands lias also dechned because pollution has affected

the process of photosynthesis. Apart from these the stone mill pollution has also

affected the livestock heads maintained by the sample households in terms of yield,

weight and diseases.