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Department of mechanical engineering

Project on 3-wheeler trash collector

GROUP MEMBERS
1. Bernabas Solomon
2. Firew Teferi
3. Fitsum hailu
4. Gizealew nigguisse
Abstract
The project presents a methodology for chassis design, design of hydraulic excavator arm and structural
stability analysis of the 3 wheels of trash collector design vehicle. Since this design of vehicle in this
project is very non-conventional, adapting design procedure of designing a four-wheeler into its design is
very challenging task. To enhance the design of this 3-wheeled vehicle, a combination of various
successful systems in hydraulic arm like mechanism to pick up the trash by itself have been added to the
vehicle. In this project, design of hydraulic lift for trash collector 3 wheeled vehicle is included. The
hydraulic arm designed pick ,hold and put to the trash collector vehicle. Mathematical modeling of
various designed parts was developed. Models were made in SOLID WORKS.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
Since the evolution of human being, mankind has always been trying to make life easier and vehicles
have helped a lot in this process. Due to rapid growth in population and as the city is developed, the need
to design for this user group become increasingly important. Among the various household chores, trash
disposal is universal. Even though, the municipality of Addis Ababa spends large proportion of its budget
on collection, transport and disposal of solid waste, there is still have a big problem on the primary
collection, transport and disposal of solid waste will be useful for the primary collection that is done by
micro and small enterprises. Therefore, we endeavored to create ergonomically sound and aesthetically
trash collector that would provide support for the existing primary solid waste collector.
The most important part of a vehicle is its chassis. It is a physical frame or structure of an automobile to
which all other components are attached, and it can be comparable to the skeleton of a living organism.
The components of the vehicle like axles, wheels, tires, suspension, a controlling system like braking,
steering, etc. and even electrical systems are mounted on the chassis frame.
In this project, an electrically 3-wheel vehicles of trash collector design are introduced which is more
stable dynamically, while braking simple in design. In the first step, design of each and every component
is discussed.in our design of the chassis eliminates a lot of complexity involved in vehicle design which
includes transmission system, front and rear axles, differential to name a few. The trash collector 3- wheel
vehicle is designed with the materials that can be manufactured in our country providing the capability of
supporting a person along with the driver. The dimensions were determined using ergonomic engineering,
economic and aesthetic optimization routines.
In the next step, the procedure of modeling kinematics and analysis in commercial software tools used are
CAD, CATIA V5 (SOLID WORK) and FEA of the chassis is discussed.
1.2. OBJECTIVES
The main objective of the project is to design ergonomically sound and aesthetically trash collector e wheel
electric vehicle by considering all different aspects of environmental sustainability.

 Selecting the best chassis type from the existing types of chassis so that it suits the design
requirement
 Selecting the best materials for the chassis, right material for the trash holding compartment
 Designing the chassis, trash collector as per the design requirement using CAD (SOLIDWORKS
OR CATIA V5)

1.2.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION


A standard trash collector 3-wheel vehicle such that the design is dynamically stable at turns and while
braking with simple design and choosing the appropriate suspension system, steering system and wheel.
It can also be hydraulically lifted to drop the collected trash to main trash site.

1.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENT


Based on the information received from customer observation, it is determined that this trash collector
3-wheel electric vehicle should have dynamically stable at turns, while braking it should be light and
easy, appropriate suspension system, steering system and wheel. The trash collector 3-wheel vehicle
should be hydraulically raised and lowered during dropping the collected trash to the main site.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, a brief study about the current collection of solid waste is introduced first to have the
basic idea. And also, vehicle handling and stability as well as the parameters affecting them will be
introduced second. Next, details of various systems employed to improve the handling and lateral
stability will be discussed. Then, vehicle ride comfort, which is directly affected by the properties of
the vehicle suspension system, will be discussed.
2.1. GENERATION & COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTE

A waste collector is a person employed by a public or private enterprise to collect and remove refuse
(waste) and recyclables from residential, commercial, industrial or other collection site for further
processing and disposal. Specialized waste collection vehicles featuring an array of automated
functions are often deployed to assist waste collectors in reducing collection and transport time and for
protection from exposure. Waste and recycling pickup work is physically demanding and it exposes
workers to many occupational hazards. The City of Addis Ababa generates a solid waste of
0.4kg/c/day. More than 200,000t are collected each year. About 550t/day, 80% of the total waste
collected. The municipality increased the collection rate from 60% to 80%. Sources of Waste
Generated: - 76% households, 18% institutions, commercial, factories, hotels, 6% is street sweeping...
The Municipality Spends large proportion of its budget on collection, transport, and disposal of solid
waste. Solid waste collection services divided in to two sub-systems: primary and secondary Collection.
Primary collection is done by micro and small enterprises. Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia,
has one of the fastest growing populations in the world. The population has leaped from 15,000 to 4
million since its establishment 100 years ago (IGNIS, 2016). With all the socio-economic problems
growing parallel, waste management in the city can take a great portion. Due to the insufficient waste
management system in Addis Ababa, the habitants suffer the site and consequences of accumulated
waste piles on the streets and drains all around the city. These piles pollute the surrounding vegetation,
ground water and soil from the leachate. Due to weather variation and chemical reaction between
materials fire ignites. The emission from the smoke pollutes the atmosphere. Moreover, these piles
provide a breeding ground for insects and rats who can potentially cause the outbreak of an epidemic.
They also cause a nauseating smell and are quite unpleasant to see. The current solid waste management
system mainly relies on the municipality to address it and there are few private participants working on
a very small scale compared to the amount of work needed in the sector. The method used by the
municipality is crude open dumping after collection from households and institutions at a place called
Repi about 15 km from the city Centre. The dump has been running for the last 50 years without proper
management. There have been few approaches to solve the problem and no significant changes have
occurred. It can easily be seen that the city has expanded out of the government’s service capacity and
the aid of the private sector is needed. The solution to the waste problem requires the committed
participation of both parties with the proper partnership
2.2. History of Waste Collection Vehicles
In 500 BC, the Greek city of Athens established the first ever refuse removal system. The
Athenians consolidated their garbage in a dump that was located at a distance of one mile
from the city walls (Hadingham et al, 1990). In the 1800’s, the garbage hauling vehicles
consisted of two-wheeled carts drawn by horses. The carts were used to collect waste from
consolidation barrels. Waste collectors emptied these barrels into a wagon bed in order to
move waste away from the city. The first motorized collection trucks appeared in 1920. The
open-top trucks were not ideal for hauling garbage since they were prone to attracting insects
and emitting malodorous fumes. Later in the 1920’s, Britain manufactured the first covered-
body, motorized truck specially designed for hauling garbage. This model is considered to be
the first prototype for today’s waste collection vehicles (Montville, 2001). In the 1950’s post-
World War II America experienced strong economic growth together with an increase of
postwar births, which led to a significance increase in trash production and a concomitant
burden on waste collectors to consolidate and remove greater volumes of municipal waste.
To accommodate this increased volume, the garbage truck industry incorporated hydraulic
rams on its vehicles to compress trash as it was collected. Also, during this era, the US
collection fleet completely modernized, converting the fleet of the horse drawn carts into
motorized collection trucks (Montville, 2001). Up to this point, municipal waste had been
manually collected from commercial and residential clients, causing frequent injuries to the
collection workers. In the 1970s, the waste management industry developed automated and
semi-automated collection systems that were designed to enhance worker safety and reduce
injury, while simultaneously improving collection efficiency by facilitating high-speed
collection (Montville, 2001). The city of Phoenix was the first to introduce automated side-
loader collection vehicles in their fleet. The move was an attempt to minimize the back-
breaking nature of waste collection (Rogoff et al., 2010).
CHAPTER-4
DESIGN CALCULATION
4.1. DESIGN CRITERIA
There are three major considerations in the design of 3-wheel hydraulic trash collector.
1. The 3-wheel hydraulic trash collector must be able to lift the weight of the trash’s load;
2. It must bot become unsteady and fall;
3. It must not rupture.
4.2. DESIGN CALCULATION FOR HYDRUALIC SYSTEM
4.2.1. DESIGN SPECIFICATION
1. Polyhose :
Inner diameter(ID)=3/8"
Working pressure= 350bar(5000psi)
2. Lever operated Direction Control Valve:
Polyhydron 4DL06 SGS-02.5 12/11
3. Hydraulic Tank:
PN = 0.75 kw, N= 1420 rev/min, Q= 2.5 l/min
UN= 380 Y V, IN= 2,2 A, f= 50 Hz

4.2.2. DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR HYDRAULIC POWER: -


1. Power input (PI)
= [speed(rev/min) ∗ pump displacement(cc/rev) ∗ pressure(bar) ∗ 100]/ [600
∗ motor efficiency (%)]
= [1420*1*350*100]/ [600*90]
=920watt
2. Flow
= [motor speed(rev/min) ∗ pump displacement(cc/rev)]/1000
=1420*1.76/1000
=2.1cc/min
3. Shaft torque
= [𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 (𝑐𝑐/𝑚𝑖𝑛) ∗ 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 (𝑏𝑎𝑟)]/[20 ∗ (𝑃𝐼 ∗ 3.142]
= [1.76*350]/ [20*920*3.142]
=53N-m
4. Power out
= [speed(rev/min) ∗ pump displacement(cc/min) ∗ pressure(bar) ∗ 100]/600
= [1420*1.76*350*100]/600
=830watt
5. Fluid velocity in hose
Continuity equation: - Q = ρ ∗ A ∗ V
Q = ρ *(𝜋d2/4) *V
V= [(Q*4)/(p*𝜋d2)]
=[(2.5*4)/(899*n*0.012)]
= 35.40 m/s

Density of fluid at room temperature = ρ = 899 kg/m

4.2.3. DESIGN OF HYDRUALIC CYLINDER


4.2.3.1. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS& METHODOLOGY
• Load (W) = 700N
• Operating pressure(p) = 25 M Pa
• Length of cylinder (L) = 200 mm
• Length of piston rod = 175 mm
• Permissible tensile stress of mild steel (σt) = 120 N/mm2
• No. of strokes for lifting load (n) = 2
• Factor of safety = 2
• Permissible shear stress of mild steel (τ) = 410 N/mm2
• Permissible compressive stress of mild steel(σc)= 10 N/mm2
• Permissible shear stress of cast iron (τCI) = 35 N/mm2
4.2.3.2. CALCULATION FOR DESIGN
When ratio of cylinder bore to wall thickness is equal to or less than 10 then it is called thick cylinder.
In case of thin cylinder, stress assumed to be uniformly distributed over the section of wall, but in
case of thick cylinder same assumption cannot be made. In case of thick cylinder stress distribution
are as follow. Since the ratio between the bore diameter to thickness is less than 10, it is thick
cylinder.
Design for hydraulic cylinder

Fig 1.

The force applied on the cylinder due to the internal pressure is given by

Fa = P*A …………………………………………………………………………………eqn (1)

Where Aa = d*l

The shaded area is the area projected to pressure so that the resisting force for the applied
pressure is

Fr = σH*Ar ………………………………………………………………………………...eqn (2)


Where Ar= 2(t*l)

Since, applied and resisting force are equal (Fa = Fr ).

P *d*l = σH*2(t*l) …………………………………………………………………… eqn (3)

Where; t = d/12

Here below, “Barlow's equation” is used for high pressure oil. According to this equation, the
circumferential stress of a cylinder.

𝑝𝑑
σc = ……………………………………………………………………………….eqn(4)
2𝑡

σc = 62.5

Then rearrange and find P

P=σc/6
P= 10.41 mpa
Where; Fa = Applied force on the cylinder σc = circumferential (Hoop stress)
Aa = Area projected to applied force P = Applied internal pressure
Fr =Resisting force
Ar = Area projected reaction pressure
Maximum radial stresses are generally equal to the internal pressure and it is maximum at the
inner surface of cylinder.
σr (max) = -p
 The other distribution stress with stand by the wall of the cylinder due to internal pressure is
longitudinal stress.
 The total force acting on the transvers section is

FL=PL×AL…………………………………….……………………………eqn (5)

Where; AL=π×d

P= bπ×P×d24

The resisting force on the transvers section


Fr=σL×Ar ……………………………………………………………………….eqn (6)
Where Ar= pr×t

pr= π×d

Equating eqn (5) and eqn (6)

PL×πd2/4=σL×π×d

Since (d = 12t) then rearrange the equation and find σL;

σL=3×P But P = 10.41Mpa

σL=3×10.41Mpa

σL=31.25Mpa

♦ According to the maximum shear stress theory the minimum shear stress for thin cylinder is
give as (τul =308mpa)

σLm=0.8τul/n ……………………………………………………………………….. eqn (7)

σLm= 140.8m
 since σLm> σL it is safe design
4.3. DESIGN CALCULATION

4.3.1. DESIGN SPECIFICATION


1. Diameter of cylinder = 100mm
2. Diameter of rod=80
3. Operating pressure = 25 Mpa
4. stroke length= 20mm
5. GPM input= 15
6. Pounds of force = 700N
4.3.2. Calculating for cylinder rod end area
Radius is 1/2 of rod diameter = 15
Radius2 = 15 x 15 = 225 mm2
π x Radius2 = 3.14 x 225 = 707 square millimeter
Hence, rod end area 707 square millimeter
4.3.3. Calculating for cylinder Blind end area
Area for cylinder blind area = 𝜋 x Radius2
Radius is 1/2 of diameter of cylinder = 50 mm
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠2
= 3.14 x (50)2 = 3.14 x 502
= 7850 square millimeters
4.3.4. Cylinder Output Force (in newtons):
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑥 𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 25 Mpa X 28.26 = 196250 N

4.3.5. Cylinder Speed (in imeter per second):


(231 𝑥 𝐺𝑃𝑀) 4 (60 𝑥 𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) = (231 x 15) 4 (60 x 7850) = 6528.06 meter per
second.
4.3.6. Fluid Pressure in PSI Required to Lift Load (in PSI):
Pounds of Force Needed for Cylinder Area = 196250/ 6528.06= 30.06 N/m2

4.4. Design of hydraulic arm of 3-wheel trash collector


The aim of this work is to replace the material of hydraulic arm, which it is usually made of, steel alloy
with an aluminum alloy. This change lightens the components of the arm, allows to increase the load
capacity of the lifting by the hook and so it is possible to increase its productivity per hour.

4.4.1. Criteria for preliminary design of the component


The evaluation of the new geometry of the arm with the different material has been studied to obtain at
least the same safety factor and deformability of the original geometry. For this purpose, each component
has been studied and each panel was theoretically studied applying the different actions which can stress
the section of panel.
The first step is to impose the same safety factor both for the original geometry (steel alloy) and for the
new geometry (aluminum alloy).
σyield σyield
σcr
| = σcr
| Equation 4.1 equating safety factor for steel and aluminum
steel aluminium
4.4.1.1. Axial force
𝑁
In this case, the axial stress is obviously 𝜎𝑎 = ℎ∗𝑏 and so the relationship between the thickness and the
height of the panel is:
σyield σyield
𝑏𝐴𝐿 ∗ ℎ𝐴𝐿 = 𝑏𝑆𝑇𝐸𝐸𝐿 ∗ ℎ𝑆𝑇𝐸𝐸𝐿 ∗ σcr
| = σcr
| Equation 4.2. R/ship between thickness and
steel aluminium
height of panel.

Fig 1. Geometry of a panel and stress state


If there are buckling phenomena, the critical stress is:
Equation 4.3 critical stress & stiffness of the panel.

In this case the relationship between the geometric dimensions of the panel is: -

Equation 4.4. R/ship between the geometric


dimension of the panel

if only the thickness of the plane can be changed, the expression becomes:

Equation 4.5. thickness of the plane


4.4.1.2. Bending moment
The stress induced by this action is:
Equation 4.6. stress induced by bending moment

and so, the relationship between the thicknesses is:


Equation 4.7. R/ship between thickness

In case of buckling phenomena, the critical stress is:


Equation 4.8. critical stress

where a is the ratio between the maximum tensile stress and the maximum compression stress; in this
case, the relationship between the geometric dimensions of the panel is the same of the conditions of load
stated above.

4.4.1.3. Shear load


The maximum shear stress in the panel is:
Equation 4.9. Shear load

and so the relationship between the thickness and the height of the panel is:
Equation 4.10. r/ship between the thickness and the
height of the panel.

if we consider that the ratio between the shear yield stress and the yield stress is equal for different
materials, the final relation coincides with the relationship of the geometric dimensions in the axial load.
If there are buckling phenomena, the critical stress is:
Equation 4.11. critical stress due to buckling phenomena

Equation 4.12
Equation 4.13

Equation 4.14 correlation


b/n geometric dimension

Equation 4.15 r/ship between


the thickness and height

4.2.4.5. Bending
The classical relation to evaluate the bending in a panel is:
Equation 4.16. Classical relation of bending

where M is the moment, and J is the moment of inertia of the cross-section, the relationship which
correlates the geometric dimensions of the panel is:

Equation 4.17
REFERENCE
[1 Autocar E3 Hybrid Garbage Trucks Debut in FL. (2010, September 2010). MSW Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.mswmanagement.com/the-latest/autocar-e3-hybrid.aspx
[2] Blaikley, D., Smith, A., Feest, E., & Reading, A. (2001). UG219 TRAMAQ- cold start. AEA
Technology plc. Retrieved from http://ukair.defra.gov.uk/reports/empire/summary0638.pdf
[3] Bueno, B. (2011). Waste Collection Services in the US. IBISWorld. Retrieved from
http://www.ibisworld.com/industryus/default.aspx?indid=1506.
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