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Practical Ships

Knowledge for Cadets


By Captain RAKoole
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

June 2011

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronical, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Navigia Crewing BV or Captain R.A. Koole.
Marlow Navigation Co. Ltd thanks Capt. Koole and Navigia Crewing BV for granting the
permission to use the leaflet as part of the company cadet system.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Table of Contents

Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 6
How this book is organized. ....................................................................................................... 6
What do the symbols mean? ..................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 1 | Arriving onboard ................................................................................................... 7
Arriving onboard ........................................................................................................................ 7
Your cabin .................................................................................................................................. 8
Cleaning your cabin ............................................................................................................... 8
Papers and documents............................................................................................................... 8
Meeting the rest of the crew ..................................................................................................... 9
Getting to know the ship ........................................................................................................... 9
School projects ......................................................................................................................... 10
Chapter 2 | First days onboard ............................................................................................... 11
Getting used to a new life ........................................................................................................ 11
Working time and free time ..................................................................................................... 11
Meals ........................................................................................................................................ 12
Washing clothes ....................................................................................................................... 13
Slobchest and crew effects list ................................................................................................ 14
Chapter 3 | On the bridge ....................................................................................................... 16
Watch keeping ......................................................................................................................... 16
Handing over the watch ........................................................................................................... 17
Changing course....................................................................................................................... 17
Weather in the journal ............................................................................................................. 18
Filling in the journal ................................................................................................................. 20
Deck log book: left page ......................................................................................................... 20
Deck log book: right page ....................................................................................................... 21
Making azimuth calculations.................................................................................................... 22
Calculating Azimuth................................................................................................................ 22
Correcting charts and books .................................................................................................... 24
Chapter 4 | On deck ................................................................................................................ 28
General cargo information....................................................................................................... 28
Container positions on deck and inside the holds ................................................................. 28
The bay.................................................................................................................................... 28
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The row ................................................................................................................................... 29


The tier .................................................................................................................................... 29
The different types and sizes of containers .......................................................................... 30
Normal containers .................................................................................................................. 31
Reefer containers .................................................................................................................... 31
Tank containers....................................................................................................................... 31
Flat-rack containers ................................................................................................................ 32
Container sizes ........................................................................................................................ 32
Loading combination of containers...................................................................................... 32
How to “read” a stowplan and use it.................................................................................... 33
Container construction ........................................................................................................ 34
Corner posts............................................................................................................................ 35
Corner castings (or sockets).................................................................................................... 35
Outer frame ............................................................................................................................ 35
Container markings ............................................................................................................. 36
Cargo operations ..................................................................................................................... 37
Lashing equipment .................................................................................................................. 39
Manual twistlocks ................................................................................................................... 39
Semi automatic twistlocks ...................................................................................................... 40
Midlocks .................................................................................................................................. 40
Lashing bar and turnbuckles................................................................................................... 40
Bridge fittings ......................................................................................................................... 41
Stacking cones......................................................................................................................... 41
Hanging stackers .................................................................................................................... 41
Position of lashing equipment ................................................................................................ 42
Mooring operations ................................................................................................................. 43
Gangway watch ........................................................................................................................ 44
Deck maintenance ................................................................................................................... 45
Cleaning the deck ................................................................................................................... 45
Chipping and painting ............................................................................................................ 45
Greasing of deck equipment ................................................................................................... 45
Maintenance of mooring equipment ...................................................................................... 46
Maintenance and repair of lashing equipment ....................................................................... 46
Anchor operations ................................................................................................................... 47
Preparing and dropping the anchor ....................................................................................... 47
Heaving up the anchor............................................................................................................ 48
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Communication procedures .................................................................................................... 49


Chapter 5 | Manual Stability calculations ............................................................................... 50
Information for tanks ............................................................................................................... 50
Information for containers....................................................................................................... 51
Step 1: Recalculating all the values to one easy value ........................................................... 52
Step 3: Draughts .................................................................................................................. 53
Step 4: List and Wind Surface moments ............................................................................... 53
A) List ...................................................................................................................................... 53
B) Wind Surface moments ...................................................................................................... 54
Step 5: Rolling period .......................................................................................................... 55
Step 6: Checking the results against the IMO-rules ............................................................... 55
A complete workout of a stability example............................................................................. 56
Step 1: Recalculating to one value ........................................................................................ 57
Step 2: GM .......................................................................................................................... 58
Step 3: Draughts .................................................................................................................. 58
Step 4: List and Wind Surface moments ............................................................................... 59
A) List................................................................................................................................... 59
B) Wind Surface moments .................................................................................................. 60
Step 5: Rolling period .......................................................................................................... 61
Step 6: Checking the results against the IMO-rules ............................................................... 61
Conclusion:............................................................................................................................... 62
Appendix A: Water ballast 1 .................................................................................................... 63
Appendix B: HFO 4 ................................................................................................................... 64
Appendix C: Container Stow Plan ............................................................................................ 65
Appendix D: Hydrostatic Particulars ........................................................................................ 66
Appendix E: Cross Curve tables ............................................................................................... 67
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Introduction
Welcome onboard …
This book offers a fast way to discover the ins and outs onboard a ship.
The book is written in plain and simple English, so that anyone without basic knowledge can
also understand the life and procedures onboard a ship.

Because you have followed a study to become a junior officer or junior engineer, it is presumed
that you have a basic knowledge on the subjects.

How this book is organized.


The book is divided in chapters, each of which contains several subchapters.
Each chapter explains a certain aspect onboard. Lists and plans are added to make it easy to
understand how to do certain things and procedures onboard.

What do the symbols mean?

Tip: The tip icon points out a tip or hint for making something easy to do or
understand.

Info: The info icon points out to extra information on a certain subject or
procedure.

Remember: The Remember icon points to something that you may want to need
to remember.

Warning: The Warning icon points to something that you may not want to do.
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Chapter 1 | Arriving onboard


In this chapter:
» Arriving onboard
» Your cabin
» Papers and documents
» Meeting the rest of the crew
» Getting to know the ship
» School projects

Arriving onboard
For many cadets it is the first time that you set foot on a ship. This can be a very exciting and
sometimes very scary experience. You will stay on the ship for a good few months and work
with many different officers and crew members. For these few months the ship will be your
home away from home. It also means being away from the safety of your family and friends
that you have to leave behind in the country you came from.

Tip: When coming onboard keep an open mind. That means that you must be
open to all the information, advice and other things that are given to you.

Warning: Do not pretend that you already know everything because you
finished your school. If you have an attitude, the crew onboard is not going to be willing to
teach you anything. That is not good for your stay onboard or your development into a junior
officer or junior engineer.

When you arrive onboard it will be strange for you. You come into a strange environment and
everything is new to you. You have just had a long voyage from your home to the ship or came
from the hotel to the ship. You’re excited, maybe even a little bit afraid of the new things
around you.
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Your cabin
When arriving, you will be shown to your cabin. This is the place where you
will live and sleep for the next few months.

Tip: Make sure that you make your cabin a safe place for you!
That means that you have to make it your home, putting pictures of your family and friends on
the wall, creating an environment almost like home. It has to be place where you do not feel
lonely when you have a dip or if you are homesick.

Depending on the time you get to settle in, unpack your bags and put your clothes in the
locker. Put your hygienic products in the bathroom, put pictures on the wall and make the
cabin like you want it to be.

Cleaning your cabin


It is advisable to clean your cabin once a week to maintain a proper hygienic situation. For
many cadets it is the first time they ever have to clean a cabin by themselves. Some points to
follow when cleaning your cabin:

1. Vacuum the floor/carpet.


2. Throw away the trash.
3. Clean your bathroom and toilet.
4. Collect your clothes and towels for washing.
5. Change the bed linen.

Papers and documents


When you come onboard you are put on the crewlist as a crewmember of the ship. To have
the information about you, the officer in charge of doing this will need your passport and
seamansbook. The captain will need the rest of the paperwork and documents, to check if
everything is OK. He will keep your documents in a safe place in his cabin.

You also have papers and documents from your school. Give what is needed to the captain, and
keep the rest in your cabin.
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Meeting the rest of the crew


After you have settled in your cabin, the time will come that you meet the rest of the officers
and crew.
Most of the time the crew will be Filipino and most of them speak good English. They will tell
you how things are done on the ship and can also help you in your choirs onboard.
The officers on the other hand are most of the time from the Ukraine, Russia or Poland. With
the officers you will need to talk English also. It will be scary to talk to them because of the rank
and the different culture. These people are the ones who will be guiding and teaching you
during your stay onboard.
Then we have the captain. He is the person who has the ultimate responsibility for you
onboard. If there is any question or problem, he is the one to go to!

Remember: The officers and crew already know what to do! You are here to
learn from them. That means that you will have to show interest for the job you’re doing and
that you have to ask a lot of questions and show a lot of self-initiative.

Tip: Try to figure out yourself about things on board before asking questions.
Read manuals or work with the object to see how it works.

Getting to know the ship


The ship is a whole new place for you. When at sea there is only water around. This means
that you will have to know the ship in case something happens. That is why you will have to get
a familiarization round on the ship. This is usually done by the safety officer, the 2 nd mate. He
or she will show you around the ship indicating where the safety equipment is and the means
of escape from the ship. They will also show you what the emergency signals are in case of a:

- General alarm || 7 short / 1 long and announcement on PA system


- Fire alarm || 7 short / 1 long and announcement on PA system
- Man over board alarm || 7 short / 1 long and announcement on PA system
- Pollution alarm || 7 short / 1 long and announcement on PA system
- Abandon ship || continuous long / short / long / short and announcement on PA system
- Or any other alarm or emergency

Info: The signals are not the same on every ship. Take good care in learning the
right signals for the ship you are on! You can find these signals on the muster lists on board the
ship.

The 2nd mate will show you also the safety plans that are everywhere on the ship, on every
deck. In your cabin you have a cabin card that tells you what your duty is during any drills or
emergencies.
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Tip: Make sure that you study for yourself as soon as possible these safety plans.
It is for your safety and for the rest of the crew onboard.

On the ship there are loading and discharging operations taking place. The safety during the
operations will also be explained to you by the officers or crew.

School projects
When you come on board you also have this project book from school with you. It is
important that you finish most or all of the projects that are written in the book in order to
obtain your sailing license.

Tip: Take the first month on board as a month of discovering the ship. Try to find
out how things are working, where things are positioned on board and how the daily
routine is on board.

After the first month on board where you got to know the ship and the layout of the ship, can
you start with your projects. You have built up some knowledge and this will help you during
the making of your projects.

Make a plan on how to start the project and try to stick to it. Don’t make yourself crazy by
doing 2 or 3 different projects in one time. Start one and finish it, than you’re sure that it will
be done well.
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Chapter 2 | First days onboard


In this chapter:
» Getting used to a new life
» Working time and free time
» Meals
» Washing clothes
» Slobchest and crew effects list

Getting used to a new life


Now that you are onboard, you will start a new life. It is different from what you know so far.
Nothing is as it seems and the world you know at home is different here. You will have to adjust
to the new environment here onboard.

Tip: Try to figure out what you can do the same as at home and what you cannot
do the same as at home. It will save you a lot of problems if you do this right from the
beginning!

Warning: Do not expect that you can do everything the way you did at home. If
you do not adjust, you will make it hard for yourself. The whole crew has to adjust to make the
best here onboard.

Working time and free time


You come on the ship to learn for your future as a junior officer or junior engineer. This means
of course that you have to work. You will have normal working hours during the day, but you
also will be working on other hours then mentioned if necessary. The
normal working hours are:

- Monday to Friday from: 0800 – 1200 and 1300 – 1700


- Saturday from: 0800 – 1200
- Sunday free

Make sure that you are on time for your work. Do not come exactly at the hour but be there 5
or even better, 10 minutes earlier. Also when working time is finished do not run away exactly
on time. It will not kill you to stay an extra 5 or 10 minutes. The same for when taking brakes.
Do not stop too early or start too late!
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Info: You make a better impression when you come 5-10 minutes earlier to work
and also leave 5-10 minutes later.

Remember: It will happen that you have to work outside of these hours!

Warning: If you have to work outside the working hours or make more hours
than mentioned, do not start complaining! Remember, we know our job and you are still
learning. Also do not start talking about not getting paid overtime. You are an apprentice and
must be happy that you have the change to do your apprenticeship onboard the ship. There are
many others who would like to change with you for this opportunity!

In the other hours you are free. These hours you use to eat, sleep and enjoy yourself looking
movies or talking to the rest of the crew.

Remember: In your free hours you have to spend time on your projects for
school and for reading through your notes for your own development.

Meals
Onboard we also eat of course. The hours on which the meals take place are:
- Breakfast from: 0700 – 0800
- Lunch from: 1200 – 1300
- Dinner from: 1700 – 1800

There are also breaks every day. The times are:

- Morning break from: 1000 – 1015


- Afternoon break from: 1500 – 1515
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Washing clothes
On the ship there is the possibility to wash your clothes and bed linen. You get washing
powder from the Chief Officer and with this you have to do 1 month. For most of you washing
clothes is very new and you probably have never washed your own clothes before. Below is a
step by step list for you to follow that explains exactly how to make washing.

1. Collect all your clothes and bed linen. Not only 1 pair of trousers or 1 t-shirt. If you put
only a little bit in the machine it can break the machine!
2. Bring your washing powder with you. There is no washing powder in the laundry room.
3. Put your clothes in the machine and close the door.
4. Put a little bit of washing powder in the slide in the correct slot.

Warning: Do not put too much washing powder. It is highly concentrated


and a little bit is already enough for a full machine.
5. Put the machine on the following settings:
a. Temperature of 50 degrees is enough. To hot is not good.
b. Never use extra water, it does not do anything extra but wasting water.
c. Do not put the program working at the longest program there is. The washing
cycle will clean your clothes anyway.
d. Make sure that the spinning cycle is put on the maximum speed. Doing so saves
time when putting your clothes in the drying machine.
6. When the machine is finished, take out your clothes and make sure the machine is
empty and clean for the next person to use.
7. Put your clothes in the drying machine.

The following steps describe the use of the drying machine.

1. When you put your clothes in the machine, check if the filter is clean.
2. Close the door
3. Choose the program that will make your clothes dry. It is not necessary to use the
longest program. One step lower will also dry your clothes.
4. When the machine is finished, take out your clothes and make sure the machine is
empty and clean for the next person.
5. Take out the filter and clean it!

Warning: Make sure the filter is clean for the next user. If the filter is not
cleaned you can cause the machine to break because it cannot get rid of the heat
through the filter.

Info: Make sure that you wash your normal clothes and working clothes
in separate machines!
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Slobchest and crew effects list


Onboard you can buy drinks and snacks from the captain. This is called slobchest. This
slobchest is normally 1 time a week, depending on the captain and/or trading area. An example
of what you can buy:

 Beer
 Soft drinks
 Chocolate
 Chips
 Water
 Cigarettes
 Money

The captain will issue a slobchest request where you can enter how much you want of each
item. There are a few rules you have to follow and these are very important!

Rule 1. Warning: Cigarettes are for personal use only. By law you can
have only 200 sticks (1box)!
It is absolutely PROHIBITED to sell cigarettes on the shore to buy top-up telephone
cards! If you buy cigarettes and the captain finds out you are selling them ashore,
sanctions will follow!
(Safety rule: If you don’t smoke, don’t buy cigarettes!)

Rule 2. Warning: Alcohol is for personal use only. By law you can have
only 1 bottle (1 liter)!
It is also PROHIBITED to sell alcohol onshore for buying top-up cards. If caught,
sanctions will follow!

For every port the ship arrives at, you need to fill the Crew Effects List. This is for the customs.
They want to know how much the crew has for personal use of the following:

 Cigarettes (max: 200 sticks)


 Tobacco (max: 50grams)
 Spirits (max: 1 liter)
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In image 1 you see part of a Crew Effects List. The letters will be explained following the image.

Image 1: Crew Effects List

Explanation for the letters for image 1:

A. Cigarettes: Here you enter the amount of cigarettes you have when arriving in the next
port. Do NOT enter how many cigarettes you have bought!
B. Tabaco: Here you enter the weight of the tobacco for the next arriving port. Also here
NOT how much you have bought!
C. Spirits: Here you enter how much liter of alcohol, Vodka/Whiskey, you have when
arriving in the next port. Again, do NOT enter how much you have bought!
D. Signature: Here you sign for what you have when arriving in the next port.

Warning: You sign for the stores you have. If the customs come onboard
and check and they find that you did not write the truth, they will penalize you and from
ships side sanctions will follow as well!
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Chapter 3 | On the bridge


In this chapter:
» Watch keeping
» Handing over the watch
» Changing course
» Weather in the journal
» Filling in the journal
» Making azimuths calculations
» Correcting charts and books

Watch keeping
When we are sailing, we have to keep watch on the bridge. There are a few reasons for what
we need to keep watch:

1. For the safety of the ship and the crew.


2. For the safety of the environment.

During the watch keeping we have to do the following:

1. Keep a good lookout. This means looking outside as well. Not only looking at the radar
or ECDIS!
2. Try to sail on the designated course as indicated in the voyage plan.
3. Keep track of our own position and put positions in chart at regular intervals.
a. In harbors or on the river, every 15 minutes in chart and journal
b. On coastal voyages, every 30 minutes in chart and journal
c. At sea (open water), every hour in chart and journal
d. Every time when changing course, position in chart and journal
4. Keep good lookout for ships around you. You never know what crazy maneuver they
can/will do and can cause dangerous situations.
5. Make sure the CPA to another vessel is at least 0.5nm and in open water if possible
even 1nm.
6. Use all available equipment and means on the bridge.
7. If sight becomes less than 2nm, call the Captain.
8. If there is any incident, call the Captain. Incidents can be:
a. Chance of collision
b. Receiving of distress calls by VHF radio or any other means of communications
c. Danger of fire
d. Man over board
e. Shifting of cargo
f. Critical equipment on the bridge not working, needed for navigational use
g. And many more…
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9. Keep track of the weather forecast, received by Navtex and / or EGC (SatC). If the
weather becomes worse, call / inform the Captain.
10. Inform the ER in case of special circumstances
11. If you are in doubt, call the Captain

And the most important rule of watch keeping:

12. Follow the regulations and act on good seamanship! To summarize:

Good seamanship means that you navigate in such a safe manner, that you will not
have to use the regulations!!

Warning: Watch keeping is very important! When you have watch on the bridge,
you also have the responsibility of the rest of the crew and the ship in your hands.

Handing over the watch


When your watch finished you’ll have to hand the watch over to next officer who will keep
watch. The following points need to be discussed during a handover:

1. Present course and speed.


2. Position of the ship in the chart.
3. Situation of other ships around our ship.
4. Explanation of the radar image.
5. Distance and sailing time to next waypoint.
6. New course after next waypoint.
7. The direction of the current for the next few hours.
8. The weather forecast for the next few hours.
9. The visibility around the ship.
10. The channels of the VHF radio’s.
11. Received news by telephone or email.
12. Any special orders in the watch keeping log.
13. Any additional orders from the Captain.

Changing course
During a navigational watch on the bridge, you’ll have to change course at some point. By
following the next steps, you are sure to change course on a safe manner.

1. Check and write the values of the Magnetic and Gyro compass of the old course in the
ships journal.
2. Look outside for the situation of the other ships around you.
3. Look in the voyage plan for the next course.
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4. Look in the chart how much you can deviate from the course line due to shallow waters
or other obstacles.
5. Change to the new course in one time.

Info: Change course on time for you not to overshoot. This means that
you do not change course exactly on the waypoint, but a little bit before (0.5nm,
depending on situation!)
6. After changing course look outside again for the new situation of the other ships around
you.
7. If the ship is safe on her new course, write in the journal the time and position of when
you changed course. Do not only take GPS positions but also from land marks or buoys.
8. Write the new course in the journal.
9. Start with step 1 again.

Weather in the journal


We have to write the weather in the journal in case of incidents. If an incidents happens this
writing will help the investigators in their view of what might have happened. This means that a
correct description of writing down the weather is important!

Warning: Do not just write something. If an incident happens during your watch
and the weather is not correctly entered it can and will have consequences for you during an
investigation!

You have to understand what the terms mean. In the following list we’ll explain the terms.

 Wind: here we need to know the direction and force of the wind.
o Direction: in order to know the direction we need to know where the wind is
coming from. Stand in front of the gyro compass and look outside. When you
find the direction you look at the compass. Translate the degrees in a direction,
being North (N), East (E), South(S) or West (W) and everything in between.
o Force: in order to know the force we need to look at the state of the sea waves.
In NP100 on pages 98 up to 104 you can see images of the various states and
forces. Just look at them and make the right choice. On page 156 there is a table
with description. Try to learn the states to know the force.

 Weather: here we need to know the state of the weather. There are quite a few states:
o Clear: means good visibility
o Rain: means it is raining
o Showers: means sometimes it is raining
o Partly clouded: means the sky has scattered clouds
o Clouded: means the sky is covered for 50% with clouds
o Overcast: means the sky is covered a 100% with clouds
o Fog: means there is fog and visibility is restricted
o There can be other states as well. Just look good outside and interpreted them.
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 Sea: here we need to know the height of the waves in order to know the state of the
sea. In NP1001, pages 98-104, you can compare what you see outside. On page 97 there
is a small table with the descriptions. A few states are:
o Slight
o Moderate
o Rough

 Swell: here we need to know the movement of the waves. This is not always the same
as wind direction! For writing down the swell we need to know the following:
o Direction: from what direction, N-E-S-W is the swell coming. Follow the same
procedure as for taking the wind direction.
o Height: what is the height of the swell. In NP100, page 105, there is a table with
descriptions of the height with the corresponding wave height.
 Low: 0-2 mtrs
 Moderate: 2-4 mtrs
 Heavy: over 4 mtrs

 Barometer: what pressure is the barometer giving us. Here you just have to read the
value which is shown on the barometer. With the pressure on the barometer, we can
see how the weather is progressing. Normally high pressure means that there will be
good weather and low pressure can be an indication for storms or even hurricanes.

o Tip: Before reading the value, slightly tap on the glass. Sometimes
the needle is stuck. By tapping it will move to the right reading.

 Temperature (air): here we read the temperature of the air from a thermometer on
either side of the bridge. This is important to know especially in winter time for taking
precautions.

1
Taken from NP100, ninth edition 2009
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Filling in the journal


You have to keep courses in the journal on which you’re sailing up to date. In the image below
you see a journal as is used on the Veersedijk and Merwedijk.

Deck log book: left page

Image 2: Copy of deck log book, left page

The numbers in the columns will be described below.

1. Time: Here we write the amount of time of how long we have sailed for that specific
course.

Info: The format to use is h:mm, for example 3:30.

Warning: Do not write the time as 03:30, this is a time indication. In this
case half past three in the morning.
2. Distance run acc log: Here we write the remaining distance for the voyage taken from
the GPS.
3. Gyro compass: Here we write the course as indicated on the gyro compass. (In practice,
here the course as indicated in the chart is written)
4. Steering compass: Here we write the course as indicated on the steering compass. (In
practice we do not use this column, as our steering course is the same as our gyro
course)
5. Standard compass: Here we write the course as indicated by the Magnetic compass.
6. Variation: Here we write the variation as taken from the chart.

Remember: You have to recalculate the variation to the right variation


for the year we are living in. Also: West is negative (-) and East is positive (+).
7. Deviation standard compass: Here we write the deviation of the standard compass
with the gyro compass. The following formulas are used:
- gyro course(GC) minus standard compass(SC) gives compass error | GC – SC = error
- error minus variation gives deviation | error – var = dev
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So the formula for the calculate of the deviation is: GC – SC – var = dev

8. Course: Here we write the course as given in the voyage plan. (In practice this will be
the same as the gyro course, which is also the same as the course in the chart)
9. Distance: Here we write the amount of miles that we sailed. To get this we can get the
distance from the chart with the pair of compasses. (In practice you take the previous
value of the distance run acc. log minus the one you just entered in column 2)
10. RPM of the propeller: Here we write at what speed we are sailing. The speed can be:
- any percentage as shown on the meter, e.g. 70%
- Economical speed, speed instruction given by charterer
- Optimal speed, speed instruction given by charterer
- Full speed, speed instruction given by charterer

Deck log book: right page

Image 3: Copy of deck log book, right page

The column numbers are:

1. Weather: Here we write down the weather as explained in the “Weather in the journal”
description.
2. Tank soundings: Here we write the sounding of the tanks. (In practice we do not use
this column)
3. Entries and courses: Here we write the position of the ship. As seen in image2 we
changed course at 01:15 and we used the bearing and distance of the EF racon buoy to
get the position of our ship. At 01:50 we took a GPS position and wrote that down.
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Making azimuth calculations


We have to make azimuth calculations to check if the compass error is not too big. If the
error is too big it means that our gyro or magnetic compass is not correct and then a compass
setter has to come onboard to reset the compasses to the right position again.

Calculating an azimuth we do with the use of the Brown’s Almanac and the navigational tables
A, B and C. Follow the instructions below to calculate the azimuth.

Calculating Azimuth
When taking the Gyro or Magnetic bearing you must know also the following:

 Time in GMT, so recalculate the ships time back to GMT


 Date
 Latitude and Longitude
 Gyro course (GC)
 Magnetic course (MC)
 Variation taken from the chart

In the Brown’s Almanac look for the correct date and at the correct time (GMT) for the GHA
and declination for the body you’ve taken the bearing of.

If longitude is E then add to GHA to get LHA


If longitude is W then subtract from GHA to get LHA

LHA is always given as W-ly length. If LHA is bigger than 180° (degrees) bring back to E-ly length,
with formula: 360°-LHA=E-ly length.

P = LHA d = declination b = latitude (N/S)

If b=d and P>90° then A+B, if P<90° then A-B or B-A


If b≠d and P<90° then A+B, if P>90° then A-B or B-A

In table A search for value at Br(latitude) and P


In table B search for value at d(declination) and P
In table C search for Br(latitude) and value A/B to find TB(true bearing)

If P > P90° then T is sharp (top of table)


If P < P90° then T is blunt (bottom of table)
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Example:
01.09.06 at 04:13BT 04:13BT equals 06:13GMT Object is the Sun
Lat: 49°29.6N (N is positive (+) and S is negative (-))
Lon: 000˚02.8W (W is negative (-) and E is positive (+))
GC: 149˚
MC: 151˚
var: 2.5˚W
Gyro bearing (GB): 086˚

0600 269˚58.3N table A value: 0.06


0013 3˚15.0 (+) table B value: 0.14 -
GHA 273˚13.3 table C value: 0.08 (b=d and P<90˚)
Lon 000˚02.8W (-) search in C with LAT (br) and value gives
LHA 273˚10.5 (>180˚ so 360˚-273˚10.5→) TB (true bearing) of: 087˚
LHA’ 086˚49.5 E-ly length
Dec 008˚19.0N

With formulas:
TB – GB = GE → 087˚ - 086˚ = 1˚ GC = gyro course TC = true course

GC + GE = TC → 149˚ + 1˚ = 150˚ MC = magnetic course GE = gyro error


TC – MC = CE → 150˚ - 151˚ = -1˚ GB = gyro bearing CE = compass error
deviation = CE – var → -1˚ - -2.5˚ = +1,5˚ TB = true bearing var = variation

Remember: As a duty officer you have to test compasses errors at least once
every watch. If the horizon is cloudy, you have to take bearing and calculate the azimuth as
soon if you see the sun or moon. Stars are also used but the sun and moon are the easiest to
take bearings from.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Correcting charts and books2

Image 4: Logos of the Admiralty

Onboard we have charts and books. These need to be update in order to give the most recent
information. To update, the Admiralty, publishes a weekly NtM3. In this NtM all the correction
for that week for the concerning charts and books are found. On the next pages an explanation
will be given on how to update charts and books onboard.

1. When you receive the new NtM edition, enter the number of the edition and date
received in the list of weekly editions found in NP133A onboard. See image 5.

Image 5: List in NP133A


2. After entering the info in the list, you continue with Section I Explanatory Notes and
Publications List in the NtM. This section contains the following:
a. Section I: List of new charts, new editions and navigational publications
published, and any chart withdrawn during the week.
b. Section IA: Published monthly and contains a list of Temporary and Preliminary
notices cancelled, previously published and still in force.
c. Section IB: published quarterly and consists of lists of current editions of:
i. Sailing directions and their latest supplement
ii. List of Lights and Fog Signals
iii. List of Radio Signals
iv. Tidal Publications and
v. Digital Publications
3. In this section you highlight, by marker, the chart number from your, onboard,
collection and check if there are new charts in your trading area. When finished with
the marker, update that info in your list of charts and chart catalogue in NP131. In
image 6 you see an example of section I.

2
Explanation provided by Oleksiy Repin, 2nd officer.
3
NtM is Notices to Mariners
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Image 6: Example of section I


4. Section II Updates to Standard Navigational Charts.
This section contains the next subjects:
a. The permanent Admiralty chart updating notices
b. Temporary (T) and Preliminary (P) Notices and
c. Blocks and depth tables at the end of the section
5. In this section, in the part Index of charts effected, you highlight by marker the chart
number from the onboard collection. In image 7 you see an example of this part.

Image 7: Example of section II


6. In the log, in NP133A, enter the number of the notices against any effected chart. Turn
to the end of the section to check for Temporary and Preliminary notices, which you
have to put later in a special folder for T & P notices in use. In image 8 you see the log as
in NP133A.

Image 8: The log as in NP133A


7. Then find the tracings for the effected charts and update the charts. In image 9 you see
an example of a tracing. Tracings show graphically the update required to make in a
chart by NM number. It enables you to prick the positions onto the chart for correction.
For examples on how to keep you Admiralty product up to date, see NP294, Chapter 5
from page 27.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Image 9: Example of a tracing


8. In a tracing, information is given. It will tell you the following:
a. The previous update of the chart. You have to check on the chart of that
correction was made.
b. Is the chart a new chart (NC) or a chart with a new edition (NE). The month and
year of publishing are shown. You have to check this on the chart as well, in the
left down corner.
9. When a correction from the tracing is done, you put the correct NM number in the left
down corner of the chart, as seen in image 10.

Warning: Always check if the previous correction has been made. If not,
you will have to find the correction and still correct the chart.

Image 10: Corrections on a chart


10. Section III Reprints of Navigational Warnings.
This section lists the serial numbers of all NAVAREA messages in force with reprints
issued during the last week.
a. You have to check the printed messages, file them and note them down by area
in the folder containing the NAVTEX, NAVAREA and weather fax prints. Also you
have to update the previous information on the file and any notations made on
the charts.
11. Section IV Amendments to Admiralty Sailing Directions.
This section contains amendments to Admiralty Sailing Directions published during the
last week. The full text of all notices is published yearly.
a. Cut and paste the correction in the right Sailing Direction or follow the
instructions given in the notice. If a correction has been put in the book, write
the number and date of correction on the front page of the book.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

12. Section V Amendments to Admiralty Lists of Lights and Fog Signals.


This section contains amendments for the List of Lights books.
a. Cut and paste the amendments in the book or follow the given instruction in the
notice. If a correction has been put in the book, write the number and date of
correction on the front page of the book.
13. Section VI Amendments to Admiralty Lists of Radio Signals.
This section contains the correction for the Lists of Radio Signal books and a cumulative
list of the amendments of the current editions of ALRS which are publishes quarterly.
a. Cut and paste the amendments in the book or follow the given instruction in the
notice. If a correction has been put in the book, write the number and date of
correction on the front page of the book.
14. In image 11 you can see the front page of a NtM.

Image 11: Front page of a NtM


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Chapter 4 | On deck
In this chapter:
» General cargo information
» Cargo operations
» Lashing equipment
» Mooring operations
» Gangway watch
» Deck maintenance
» Anchor operations
» Communication procedures

General cargo information


In this sub chapter, general information regarding the cargo will be discussed. The following
subjects will be explained:

 Container positions on deck and inside the holds.


 The different sizes and types of containers
 How to “read” a stowplan and use it.
 Loading combination of containers
 Container construction
 Container markings

Container positions on deck and inside the holds


In order to understand how to use a stowplan, the position will be explained. Every container
is positioned on the ship according to three (3) criteria. These criteria are:

 The bay
 The row
 The tier (also known as layer)

The bay
The bay is an indication on the ship of where the container is positioned. Bays always start in
the forward of the ship and increase in bay number going to the aft ship. In image 12 you see
an example of bays on a ship.

Info: Bay numbers are always given for 20 foot containers.


20 foot bays are always odd numbered. If a bay will be used for a 40 foot container the bay
number will be an even number.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Example: in bay 25 and 27 a 40 foot will be loaded. This means that the 40 foot will be in bay
26.

Image 12: Bay layout on a ship

The row
The row is an indication on what side, port or starboard side, a container is positioned. The
starboard has the odd numbers and the portside has the even numbers, see image 13.

Image 13: Row layout in a bay

The tier
The tier is an indication of how high the container is. There is a difference between the height
indication inside a hold and on deck.

 Inside a hold the tier starts at 02 and increases by 2 when going up


 On deck the tier starts at 82 and also increases by 2 when going up
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

In image 14 you see how tiers are indicated.

Image 14: Tier layout inside a hold and on deck

In image 15 you see how the “code” for a container position is given.

Image 15: “Code” for container position

This means that the container is a 40 foot container. It is situated in bay 32, row 01 (starboard
side) and in tier 82, which is the first layer on deck.

The different types and sizes of containers


Containers come in various sizes and types. The most common sizes and types will be
explained.

 Normal containers
 Reefer containers
 Tank containers
 Flat-rack containers

 Container sizes
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Normal containers
A normal container is a container build of steel. The floor is normally of wood, but now there
are also bamboo floors. The top is from steel or open and covered with a tarpaulin.

Image16: Normal container

Reefer containers
Reefer containers are containers completely made of steel and insulation material to keep it
cold inside. On side of the container it has a freezer unit to cool the container inside. Reefer
containers must be checked for their temperature regularly, to make sure that the cargo inside
is at the required temperature and that the reefer unit is still working.

Image17: The cooling unit of a reefer container

Tank containers
Tank containers are tanks enclosed in a skeleton of steel. Most of the time, these tank
containers can contain dangerous cargo.

Image18: Tank container


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Flat-rack containers
A flat-rack container is a container which can be folded when empty to save space.

Image 19: Flat-rack container

Container sizes
In the following image the most used common sizes onboard are shown.

Image20: Most common container sizes

Loading combination of containers


Because there are different sizes of containers, there is only a few ways to load the containers
right. Image 21 shows the correct loading for when loading 20, 40 and 45 foot containers only.

Image 21: Correct loading for 20, 40 and 45 foot containers


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

When loading a combination of sizes, they can only be loaded as image 22 is showing.

Image 22: loading combo of 20/40/45 foot containers

A 40 foot is only possible directly on deck or on top of two 20 foot containers. A 45 foot
containers is possible to load on a 40 foot container, but also possible to load on top of two 20
foot containers.
If the loading is like this, the crew can still reach the twistlocks to open them for discharging.
This way it is also still possible to put lashing bars.

In image 23, you see examples of how not to load.

Image 23: Wrong loading combinations

It is not possible to load a 40 foot on top of a 45 foot container. The crew cannot open the
twistlocks for discharging or put lashing bars for securing the containers.
Loading 20 foot containers on top of a 40/45 foot container is also not possible. There are no
sockets in the middle of the 40/45 foot container to secure the 20 foot in the middle.

How to “read” a stowplan and use it


A stowplan is actually a piece of paper with the layout of our ship, and in that layout the
containers are put. In image 24 you see the layout of the first tier inside the holds of the
Veersedijk.

Image 24: Part of stowplan


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

In image 25 you see the codes as shown in a stowplan.

Image 25: 20 foot, left and 40 foot, right

Description for the 20 foot container:

 310602: position of container; bay 31, row 06 and tier 02


 DC: normal height container; 8’6” high
 GOTS: load port Goteborg (GOTS) at the Skaniahamn berth (GOTS)
 RTMW: discharge port Rotterdam (RTMW) at the DDW berth (RTMW)
 15: weight of container in ton
 GLDU 5000637: serial number of container

Description for the 40 foot container:

 320402: position of container; bay 32, row 04 and tier 02


 HC: high cube container; 9’6” high
 >>>>4096>>>>: code for 40 foot, 9’6” high container
 GOTS: load port Goteborg (GOTS) at the Skaniahamn berth (GOTS)
 RTMH: discharge port Rotterdam (RTMH) at the ECT Home berth (RTMH)
 28: weight of container in ton
 GLDU 7716174: serial number of container

With the above description, you can now “read” a stowplan and understand how the cargo will
be loaded onboard. A few other codes and descriptions are:

 HCR: high cube reefer container


 >>>>4086>>>>: code for 40 foot, 8’6” high container
 >>>>4596>>>>: code for 45 foot, 9’6” high container

The serial number of a container is important. With this number you can check if the right
container is being loaded or discharged from the right position on board.

Container construction
The strength of a container is in the framework. The framework consists of the following
points:

» Corner posts
» Corner castings
» Outer frame
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Corner posts
The corner post is important, because this will support the weight of a container on top of it. If
this corner post is damaged, the strength is not 100% anymore and can cause a complete
container stack to collapse.

Corner castings (or sockets)


The corner casting is the place where twistlocks or stacking cones are put, to connect more
containers to each other or to make fast to the ship. These sockets are also used for putting
lashing bars and for lifting a container with the crane spreader.
The sockets have to be in good condition. If not, it is possible that a twistlock, lashing bar or
crane spreader cannot connect properly and cause problems or damage to the container
and/or ship.

Outer frame
The outer frame provides the strength for a container to endure forces onto the container
caused by rolling and pitching of the ship. Also the steel plates of the container provide the
strength. The outer frame is made up of the side rails of the container.

If there is damage to one of the points, the following can happen:

 A damaged container may be unable to hold the weight of the containers on top of it.
 Lashings on a damaged container may be ineffective.
 Lifting a damaged container can be dangerous

Warning: If one container in a stack fails because of damage, it can cause the
whole stack to collapse!

Remember: For the safety of the ship and crew, it is important that during
loading one checks the condition of the containers and reports any damages to containers to
the OOW4.

4
OOW is Officer on Watch
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

In image 26, you see the construction of a container.

Image 26: Container construction

Container markings
On a container there are markings and labels. In image 27 you see the markings and labels on
the door of a container. The markings / labels will be explained according the indication letter.

Image 27: Markings and labels on a container


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Explanation of markings and labels:

A. Container prefix and number (6 numbers).


This is the prefix and serial number of the container.
B. ISO check digit.
The last number in the serial is the control number of the container.
C. ISO container size and type code.
This code consists of 4 digits. For this code, 42G1, it means:
a. The 1st digit 4 means it is a 40 foot container.
i. If the 1st digit is a 2 it is for a 20 foot container
ii. If the 1st digit is a L it is for a 45 foot container
b. The 2nd digit 2 means it is standard height container; 8’6” high
i. If the digit is 5 it is for a high cube container; 9’6” high
c. The 3rd digit G means it is a general purpose container
i. If the digit is R it is for a reefer container
ii. If the digit is T it is for a tank container
d. The 4th digit 1 is for the sub-type of the container
i. Digit 1 means a container with ventilation holes
ii. Digit 0 means a general container
D. Weight and cubic capacity information.
Here the weight of the container in pound and kilo’s is indicated for the following:
a. Max gross weight
i. Max weight of container and cargo
b. Max tare weight
i. Max weight of empty container
c. Max cargo weight
i. Max weight of cargo
d. Max cubic capacity
E. Super heavy mark.
Mark for containers which can have a large weight capacity
F. Consolidated data plate.
this plate indicates the standards the container has to apply to

Cargo operations
Cargo operations are a general description for the following:
 Loading of cargo
 Discharging of cargo
 Lashing of cargo
 Connecting of reefer cables
 Checking damages to containers
 Checking of damage to the ship
 Checking mooring lines
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

During loading and/or discharging of containers, there are a few rules you must follow.

1. When on deck you must wear protective clothing. These are:


a. Safety helmet
b. Safety shoes
c. Gloves
d. Overall
e. Safety goggles (if necessary)
2. Never walk under the crane if a container is being loaded/discharged!
3. Never stand close to where the spreader is working!
4. Never walk on the coaming if a hold is open, you can fall in!
5. Never lean over the coaming, when the hatch is open!
6. Safety first, for everybody!

During the loading/discharging of cargo, you have to check the stowplan, to see if the shore
loads/discharges the right container on or from the right position.

When lashing cargo, you must check that the lashing is done correctly. This means that you
have to check if the twistlocks are closed correctly after loading. If discharging, the twistlocks
have to be open. If not, damage can occur when the crane wants to lift the container.
When putting lashing bars, you must be sure that the bars are put in correctly and will not fall
out.

When connecting reefer cables, it must be done well. Make sure the cable is plugged in fully
and that the doors of the reefer plug connections is closed. This is to prevent water from
entering and causing short circuit.
After connecting, you must check if the reefer is working. If there is a problem, you must report
this to the OOW immediately!

During the loading of containers, you must watch for any damage to containers. It is important
to report any damage; otherwise they will blame the ship for the damage.

During the loading/discharging you must also check that the shore is not making any damage to
the ship. If they do, report to the OWW immediately!

You must also check the mooring lines during a deck watch. You have to do this because of the
tide in the harbor, but also because of the stress on the lines due to the cargo operations.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Warning: Watch on deck does not mean that you just stand there and watch.
You have responsibilities and you need to take the responsibility if something goes wrong!

SUPER WARNING: When having deck watch, you have deck


watch! This means that you cannot make conversation by telephone with your
family or friends. That you can do after your watch is finished!

Lashing equipment
Different types of lashing equipment are used onboard. The most common used on deck are:
» Manual twistlocks
» Semi-automatic twistlocks
» Midlocks
» Lashing bars and turnbuckles
» Bridge fittings

Inside the hold the most common used are:

» Stacking cones
» Hanging stackers

Manual twistlocks
Manual twistlocks are used directly on deck to secure the container to the ship. Image 28
shows a right-handed manual twistlock. This twistlock closes when you push the lever to the
right.

Image 28: Right-handed manual twistlock


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Semi automatic twistlocks


Semi-automatic twistlocks are used to secure the containers to each other, when loading
them on top of each other. Image 29 shows a semi-automatic twistlock. With the steel wire you
can open the twistlock, for the container to be discharged.

Image 29: Semi-automatic twistlock

Midlocks
Midlocks are used when 20 foot containers are loading on top of each other. It is not possible
to use semi-automatic twistlocks, because they cannot be unlocked in that position. Image 30
shows a midlock.

Image 30: Midlock

Lashing bar and turnbuckles


Lashing bars and turnbuckles are used to secure the containers to the ship and to prevent
from a stack falling over. There are two sizes of lashing bars; a short bar and a long bar, the
difference is the length and weight. Image 31 shows a lashing bar and image 32 a turnbuckle.

Image 31: Lashing bar; left goes into turnbuckle, right goes into container socket

Image 32: Turn buckle


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Bridge fittings
Bridge fittings are used to keep the outer stacks of containers together with the stack next to
it. It is an extra safety and strength measurement. Image 33 shows a bridge fitting.

Image 33: Bridge fitting

Stacking cones
Stacking cones are used inside the hold to prevent the containers from shifting. As you can see
in the image, there are 2 types of stacking cones.

Image 34: Stackers

Hanging stackers
Hanging stackers are also used to prevent containers from shifting. These are used mostly
when the double stackers cannot be used.

Image 35: Hanging stacker


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Position of lashing equipment


In image 36 you see the position of where the lashing equipment has to go.

Image 36: Position of lashing equipment


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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Mooring operations
Mooring operation is a general description for the following:
 Mooring the ship (on arrival)
 Unmooring the ship (on departure)

During mooring operations you will be standing on deck, assisting the rest of the crew with the
mooring/unmooring.

Warning: During mooring operations, make sure that you never stand in the way
of the mooring lines. If they break, it can cause a lot of damage and injuries to you or the ship!

Normally the ship is moored with:

 2 headlines and 2 aft lines


 1 fore spring and 1 aft spring

Depending on the situation or the weather, the captain can decide to put more lines ashore.
In image 37, you see the layout for the mooring lines.

Image 37: Mooring line layout

The captain will give the order, by VHF radio, which line has to go ashore first. The captain will
also give orders, if it is necessary to make the lines tighter or to slack them.

Info: The lines prevent the ship from moving when alongside.

 Aft/headlines: these lines prevent the aft or forward of the ship to get of the berth
 Aft/fore spring: these lines prevent the ship from moving back-and-forth along the
berth
 Breast line: these lines prevent the ship from moving away parallel to the berth
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Gangway watch
Gangway watch is necessary in every port for the safety of the ship. It is to prevent people,
who have no business on the ship, to come onboard. During a gangway watch the next points
have to be checked:

1. Always check if the gangway is still in right position on the shore.


2. Make sure that the safety net is correct around the gangway.
3. Make sure the steel lifting cable is out of the way, so that people do not get dirty.
4. Make sure the gangway is securely fastened to the ship.
5. If a step-up ladder is used, this has to be secured to the ship as well.

When visitors come onboard the next rules have to be followed:

1. Welcome the person/persons onboard.


2. Notify the OOW by VHF radio.
3. Ask them what the purpose of the visit is.
4. Ask them for identification and check if the image on the identification resembles the
person standing in front of you.
5. Search their luggage and frisk their bodies for any dangerous things. (only for security
level 2 and/or 3)

Warning: If they do not want you to search their luggage or bodies,


notify the OOW immediately!

Remember: If the visitor is a woman, she also needs to be frisked!!


6. Let them sign the visitor’s logbook.
a. Name
b. Company
c. ID number
d. Date
e. Time onboard
f. Visitor’s card number
7. Give them a visitor’s card.
8. Escort the persons to the designated area that they need to be.

Warning: Never leave the gangway un-attendant! Call the other AB/OS,
to replace you, when you escort the people inside the accommodation.
9. When the people leave the ship, collect the visitor’s card.
10. Search the luggage and frisk the bodies.
11. Write time of departure in the visitor’s log book.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Deck maintenance
Deck maintenance is a general description for the following:
 Cleaning the deck
 Chipping and painting
 Greasing of deck equipment
 Maintenance of mooring equipment
 Maintenance and repair of lashing equipment

Cleaning the deck


Cleaning the deck can be the following things:
 Cleaning the deck from dirt
 Emptying the deck from twistlocks or any other lashing equipment
 Washing the accommodation from the dirt of the funnel

Chipping and painting


To keep the ship in a good condition, chipping and painting have to take place. The chipping is
to get the rust off, to prepare the surface for a new coat of paint. When a piece of steel has
been chipped, it has to be cleaned with fresh water or thinner. If this is not done, the surface
will rust and painting has no effect.

In winter time painting is not done, because of the weather. Also the steel of the ship is too
cold for the paint to attach to the ship. Painting is also not possible or advisable during rain.

Greasing of deck equipment


For the deck equipment to stay in good condition it must be greased. The things that need
greasing are:

 The hatch covers and rollers of the covers


 The pistons of the hatch covers
 All the hinges of the doors and hatches
 The rubbers of the hatch covers
 The rubbers of the doors and hatches
 And many more points…
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Maintenance of mooring equipment


The mooring equipment must be maintained for good working order, especially in case of
emergency. This means that the winches must be greased and that any problems must be
fixed.
Also the checking of the condition of the mooring lines and the anchor/anchor chain is very
important.

Warning: If the mooring equipment is not maintained well, it can be dangerous


to use during emergency situation or it cannot be used at all.

Maintenance and repair of lashing equipment


Maintenance of lashing equipment is very important. The equipment must be in good
condition to ensure that lashed containers stay lashed and not suddenly come loose.

 Manual twistlocks: these have to be checked for damages to the housing and cone. If
handles are broken off they must be welded back on.
 Semi-automatic twistlocks: these have a little bit more checking to do.
o The housing has to be checked as well as the cone.
o The steel pulling wiring and the spring must be checked.
o The mechanism inside has to be greased to ensure good working.
 Midlocks: these have to be checked for housing and cone as well. Here greasing is also
necessary for good working.
 Lashing bars and turnbuckles:
o Lashing bars must be checked for cracks on the pole and in the part that is going
inside the container socket. They also must be checked if the bar is still straight.
o Turnbuckles must be checked for smooth turning. Every while the thread must
be cleaned of the old grease and new grease must be applied. Also for cracks in
the material must be checked for.
 Bridge fittings:
o These must be checked if they are complete. Check if the locking pin is there.
o Check for cracks. If cracked it can break when on a container, and will not
function as it should be functioning.
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Anchor operations
Anchoring is divided in 3 parts:
» Preparing and dropping the anchor
» Heaving up anchor

The parts will be explained separately.

Preparing and dropping the anchor


For dropping anchor the next points must be observed and followed:
1. Everyone must have protective clothing.
2. The person manning the winch must also have a face mask or goggles and earplugs.
3. Establish and test the radio with the bridge.
4. Check and test the anchor winch.
5. Put the winch on the brake, check that it is holding and the gear engaged.
6. Remove any additional lashings, pipe covers and last the chain stopper.
7. Release the brake and lower the chain by winch till the waterline. Heave back up a little
to check if the chain is running freely.
8. Tighten the brake and disengage the gear. Check if it is disengaged by turning it slightly.
9. Confirm to the bridge that the anchor is ready for dropping and that the area is clear of
any obstacles.
10. On order of the bridge let go the anchor to the desired amount of shackles.
11. On constant intervals, inform the bridge the length, direction and condition of the
chain.

12. When the anchor chain is on the desired length inform the bridge.
13. Check if the anchor is holding and inform the bridge if it is holding.
14. Put the chain stopper in place between 2 shackles and secure with the safety pin. Slack
the chain a little to take of the tension from the winch. The brake can stay open.
15. Heave the anchor ball.

16. Warning: If the chain does not go out, NEVER try anything to let it go.
Follow the next step!
If the chain does not fall freely, close the brake and engage the gear. Open the brake
and lower by winch a few shackles. After, put the brake again, disengage the gear and
try letting it fall again.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

17. Warning: The person manning the winch must never stand directly
behind the chain pipe. If something happens he/she might get hit by the chain!

Heaving up the anchor


Follow the next list for the procedure of heaving up the anchor.
1. Inform the bridge of the direction and condition of the chain.
2. Open the anchor wash valve.
3. Put the winch in gear and heave up a little bit to remove the chain stopper.
4. On order of the bridge start heaving up the anchor.
5. At constant intervals inform the bridge of length, direction and condition of the chain.
6. Inform the bridge when:
a. The chain is up and down
b. The anchor is out of the water
c. The anchor is back in the anchor lock

7. When the anchor is home, make fast the brake and leave it on.
8. Put the sea lashings on the anchor. This can be:
a. Steel wires or
b. Chain with D-shackles
9. Disengage the gear.
10. Lower the anchor ball.
11. Seal or cover the chain pipe to prevent seawater to enter in the chain lockers.
12. If the anchor is secure report this to the bridge.

13. Warning: It is not allowed to put the chain stopper on the chain when
the anchor is home. Because of the weight of the anchor, the chain stopper cannot be
removed in case of an emergency!
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

Communication procedures
Communication onboard is very important. If communication does not go well, there is a big
possibility that a lot can go wrong. Think for example of:

 Incidents
 Accidents

As a crewmember on the ship you will use the VHF radio.

To talk on the radio there are 3 rules on how to do it correctly:

Rule 1. Press the send button BEFORE you start talking!


Rule 2. When you talk, do it in a clear and understandable voice.
a. Never talk with the wind in the radio. The receiver will not hear or understand
you!
b. Do not mutter in the radio. The receiver will only hear a noisy tone!
Rule 3. Finish talking BEFORE you let go of the send button!

When orders are given by the captain or any other officer, you have to repeat the order. This
way the captain or officers hear that you have received the order.

Warning: Communication is a 2 sided process! If 1 side does not co-operate, the


chain of communication will be broken, with consequences!
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Chapter 5 | Manual Stability calculations

Info: All information is based on the stability booklet of the Sirrah!

In order to make a manual stability calculation we need information.


We need the following information:
 Engine room tanks (HFO, MDO, …)
 Ballast tanks
 Containers weights and positions
 Break bulk
 Lightship
 Information from the Stability Booklet

We need to make a calculation where we take all the values from the information and calculate
the stability by means of formulas.

** After all the explanation steps we’ll work out a complete stability example. We’ll have 2
tanks, 2 containers, break-bulk and a light ship.

Some values are fixed for the Sirrah. You’ll need them later on in the calculations. They are:

 Lpp (Length Perpendiculars): 125.5mtr


 B (Breadth): 19.4mtr
 d (Moulded draught): 9.45mtr
 bc (block coefficient): 0.665
 Maximum displacement: 12025mt

Information for tanks


For the ER tanks and ballast tanks we have to make soundings. With these soundings we go to
the stability booklet tank tables to get, again, more information. In image 38, you see an
example of a tank table and the information that we need as well.

Image 38: Sounding table for a tank


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After sounding a tank you look in the table and take the values for that sounding. We need to
know the following:
 Volume
 LCG
 VCG
 TCG
 IT (free surface moment)

Info: all the values of ballast tanks in the tables are given for a density of
1.025t/m³.

Remember that if the density is not 1.025t/m³, you have to apply a weight correction. So with
the formula: Correct weight = sounded volume * actual density, we get the right weight.
This weight will be used in the recalculation.

Information for containers


For containers we also need to know the information for the list mentioned in Tanks.
In the stability booklet there is a special page with all that info on it (Appendix C). The weight
and position of the container you get from the stow plan. You must know the position of the
container in order to get the right information for this container.

The plan is made for 20 feet containers only. This means that you must calculate what the
values are for a 40 feet container. This has to be done only for the LCG.

Eg: a 40 feet container in bay 14 on deck will have the next LCG
Bay 13 has LCG: 81.49
Bay 15 has LCG: 75.37
This means that bay 14 will have a LCG of: (81.49+75.37)/2, giving 78.43 for LCG
VCG is depending in what tier the containers is and,
TCG is depending in what row the container is.

Now that we have the necessary information, we can go to Step 1 of the manual calculation.
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Step 1: Recalculating all the values to one easy value


We have to bring back all the values to on easy to use value. In order to this we need to make
use of the following calculation method:

Weight LCG Mlcg VCG Mvcg TCG Mtcg IT (FSM)


X A1 X*A1 B1 X*B1 C1 X*C1 D1
Y A2 Y*A2 B2 Y*B2 C2 Y*C2 D2

(X+Y) Mlcg/weight (X*A1)+(Y*A2) Mvcg/weight (X*B1)+(Y*B2) Mtcg/weight (X*C1)+(Y*C2) (D1+D2)

Info: remember to correct the weight for the right density. To do so use the next
formula:
» Correct weight = sounded volume * actual density

We have to make this correction because the actual density is not always 1.025t/m³.

You see that we have now just one value to work with which makes it easier.

Step 2: GM calculation
In the Hydrostatic Particulars table (Appendix A) we search for our weight and look for the
corresponding value for KM (KMT in table), appendix A.

The formula to get the GM is: KM – KG = GM.


We know our KG because KG is the same as VCG.

We now know our GM, but we have to apply a GM correction in order to get the right GM or
GM final.

For the GM correction we need the following information: total FSM from the all the tanks.

The formula for calculating the GM correction is:

» GM correction = FSM tanks / weight

So to continue the calculation for GM:

» GM – GM correction = GM final

Info: remember to always subtract the GM correction from GM to get GM final.


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Step 3: Draughts
For the draught calculations we need more information from the Hydrostatic Particulars
(appendix A).

We need to know the following:


 LCF draught (= Mean draught or Md)
 LCB
 LCF
 MTcm
 LCG (step 1)

We use the next formulas to calculate the trim and draughts. (Remember, with weight in
1.025t/m³)

A) The trim
» Trim = (LCG – LCB) * weight / MTcm * 100 (*100 is to get the value in mtrs)

B) Δt
» Δt = LCF * trim / Lpp Lpp Sirrah is 125.5mtr

C) Aft draught (Aft d) and Fore draught (Fore d)


» Aft d = LCF draught + Δt Fore d = Aft d - trim

D) Double check Mean draught (Md)


» Md = (Aft d + Fore d) / 2

Step 4: List and Wind Surface moments


A) List
In order to know what our list is we need a GZ value. We get the GZ value using the next
formula:

» GZ = Mtcg / weight

We also apply a correction for the FSM on our GZ value. Herewith we use the next formula:

» GZ correction = GM correction * sinφ

So our final GZ value will be:

» GZ final = GZ – GZ correction

Now we need to know how many degrees our GZ will be. Therefore we need to have the
information from the Cross-Curves values table (appendix E).
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

We will put the information in a table and later with the calculated values we’ll make a Cross
Curve chart (Image 39).

Degrees 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60
KNsinφ 0 0,995 1,891 3,587 4,884 5,951 6,774 7,302
KGsinφ 0 0,673 1,341 2,642 3,862 4,965 5,917 6,69
GZ (mtr) 0 0,322 0,55 0,945 1,022 0,986 0,857 0,612
GZ corr 0 0,002 0,005 0,010 0,014 0,018 0,022 0,025
GZ final 0 0,320 0,545 0,935 1,008 0,968 0,835 0,587

Cross Curve

1,2
1
0,8
GZ mtr

0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Degrees ˚

Image 39: Example of table and Cross Curve chart

For list calculation the chart will be the same for Portside and Starboard side. Normally the
chart is only made for the Starboard side. This is because for most ships the Portside is the
same as the Starboard side.

Info: If GZ is negative the list is to Portside, if GZ is positive the list is to


Starboard side.

B) Wind Surface moments


We need to know what our wind surface moment is. We need to know it for 3 area surfaces:
 0˚ to 30˚
 0˚ to 40˚
 40˚ to 30˚

We will make use of the following formulas:

For 0˚ to 30˚ the formula: (3/8)*(10/57.3)*(3*GZ10° + 3*GZ20° + 1*GZ30°)


For 0˚ to 40˚ the formula: (3/8)*(10/57.3)*(4*GZ10° + 2*GZ20° + 4*GZ30° +
1*GZ40°)
For 40˚ to 30˚ the formula: (0˚ to 40˚) – (0˚ to 30˚)
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Step 5: Rolling period


We also want to know our rolling period. For this we make use of the following formula:
» T = (2*C*B) / √ GM final with
» C = 0.373 + 0.023*(B/d) – 0.043*(L/100)

B Sirrah = 19.4mtr d Sirrah = 9.45mtr L Sirrah = 125.5mtr

Onboard we have a table where you can see what the rolling period is for the calculated GM.
The values in this table are calculated with the following formula:

» T = √ ((bc*B)^2 / GM final) where bc (block coefficient = 0.665)

Step 6: Checking the results against the IMO-rules


After calculating everything we need to check if the stability is OK according the IMO-rules.
1. Is GM bigger than 0.15mtr? (Navigia rule bigger than 0.35mtr, also depending on
captain, mostly > 0.55mtr)

2. Is our Mean draught less than the summer (7.51mtr FW | 7.34 SW) or winter (7.36mtr
FW | 7.19 SW) allowable mean draught?

3a. Are the Wind Surface moments more than the IMO allowable values?
0˚ to 30˚ > 0.055mrad
0˚ to 40˚ > 0.090mrad
40˚ to 30˚ > 0.030mrad

3b. Is the GZ value at 30˚ bigger than 0.20mtr?

3c. Is the maximum GZ value bigger than 25˚?

4. Is our list acceptable? (Depending on captain. Normally list must be 0˚)

5. Do we have a positive deadweight reserve?


Deadweight reserve = maximum displacement – displacement.
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Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets

A complete workout of a stability example


In this example we’ll show the complete workout of an example were we use:
 2 tanks: WB1 tank @ full @ 1.015 t/m³ and HFO4 tank @ 75mt
 2 containers: 1*20 feet in position:090202 @ 20mt and 1*40 feet in position 320384 @
25mt
 Break bulk
 Light ship

As we have 6 different values we have to recalculate them to get only 1 (one) value.

First an explanation how to get the information we need. We start with the WB1 tank.

WB1 tank

We said that WB1 was full and has a density of 1.015 t/m³. If we look in Appendix A, we see
that WB1 is full and has a volume of 173.08mt. We must apply the weight correction because
of our density difference.
Doing so:

Correct weight = sounded volume * actual density


Correct weight = 173.08 * 1.015
Correct weight = 175.68mt

Remember that we read the LCG, VCG, TCG and IT for the volume and not for the weight.

Info: according to the tables, a full ballast tank has a FSM value. In reality a full
tank does not has a FSM, because there is no slack space in the tank.

HFO 4 tank

HFO 4 has, according to the engineers sounding, 75mt inside. When we look at Appendix B, we
search in the weight column for 75mt. As you can see 75mt lies between 74.19mt and 75.28mt.
This means that we must make an interpolation calculation to get the right values.

20 foot container in position 090202

Position 090202 means that the container is the hold. In Appendix C we must look for the LCG,
VCG and TCG of this container (green marked). Remember that the container is in the hold so
make sure you’re looking in the right column. As the plan is made for 20 foot containers we
only have to read the values.
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40 foot container in position 320384

Position 320384 means that the container is on deck. Again we look in Appendix C to get the
VCG, LCG and TCG for the container (pink marked). Here we must apply a formula to the
container which is only applicable for the LCG.
This is because of the plan being only for 20 foot containers. The other 2, VCG and TCG, you
just read from the plan.
In our example the LCG for this position will be:

» LCG of bay 31: 38.14 + LCG of bay 33: 32.00 / 2 resulting in a LCG of 35.07 for
our 40 feet container.

For any other 40 feet container you must calculate the LCG like explained above.

Break bulk

Break bulk is a fixed weight onboard. This can include the crew and their baggage, the stores
and all the equipment such as chairs, tables and so on.

Light Ship

You can find the Light Ship values in the Stability Booklet. For each vessel this is also a fixed
value.

Now that we know where to look for the information, let’s continue with our example on a step
by step basis.

Step 1: Recalculating to one value


We’re making this calculation for a density of 1.000t/m³
Name Weight LCG Mlcg VCG Mvcg TCG Mtcg IT (FSM)

WB 1 175.68 123.35 21670.13 5.31 932.86 0.00 0.00


HFO 4 75.00 56.73 4254.75 3.52 264.00 -3.89 -291.75 125.33
090202 20.00 91.98 1839.60 3.60 72.00 -2.62 -52.40
320384 25.00 35.07 876.75 12.80 320.00 5.69 142.25
Break Bulk 180.00 52.00 9360.00 11.00 1980.00 0.00 0.00
Light Ship 3578.50 55.59 198928.82 7.56 27053.46 -0.06 -214.71

Total 4054.18 58.44 236930.04 7.55 30622.32 -0.10 -416.61 125.33

Our total displacement here is 4054.18 in a density of 1.000t/m³. We must apply the weight
correction here, as the Stability Booklet is completely based on a density of 1.025t/m³.

So our corrected weight will be: 4054.18 * 1.025 = 4155.53mt

This Δ: 4155.5mt will be the weight which we will use throughout the example.
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Step 2: GM
In the Hydrostatic Particulars (Appendix D) we search for the weight and look for the KM. In
the table KM is noted as KMT.
By means of interpolation we find the correct value in the table.

We find for Δ: 4155.5mt a KM of 10.54mtr. We know our KG, because KG is VCG for the Total,
giving us 7.55mtr.

KM 10.54mtr
KG 7.55mtr
GM 2.99mtr

We now have our GM but we still need to apply the GM correction. Using the formula:

» GM correction = FSM tanks / weight


» GM correction = 125.33 / 4155.5
» GM correction = 0.03mtr

Continuing with the GM:

GM 2.99mtr
GM correction 0.03mtr
GM final 2.96mtr

Step 3: Draughts
From the table we get the following data for Δ: 4155.5mt:
 LCF draught: 3.065mtr
 LCB: 63.0351mtr
 LCF: 63.3700mtr
 MTcm: 102.98mtr
 LCG: 58.44mtr

Let’s calculate the draughts:

A. Trim = (LCG – LCB) * weight / MTcm * 100


Trim = (58.44 – 63.04) * 4155.5 / 102.98 * 100
Trim = -1.86mtr, we must make positive → Trim = 1.86mtr

B. Δt = LCF * trim / Lpp


Δ t = 63.37 * -1.86 / 125.5
Δ t = -0.94, there is no negative Δt, so we must make positive! → Δ t = 0.94mtr

C. Aft d = LCF draught + Δt Fore d = Aft d - trim


Aft d = 3.07 + 0.94 Fore d = 4.01 – 1.86
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Aft d = 4.01mtr Fore d = 2.15mtr

D. Md = (Aft d + Fore d) / 2
Md = (4.01 + 2.15) / 2
Md = 3.08mtr

Step 4: List and Wind Surface moments


A) List
We must calculate our GZ arm with:
GZ = Mtcg / weight
GZ = -416.61 / 4155.5
GZ = -0.100mtr

We must make the table and chart now, to calculate what our list is and afterwards also what
our Wind Surface moments are. We make use of Appendix E to get the KNsinφ and put the
values in a table together with the calculated KGsinφ.
By subtracting these 2 we get our GZ arm values. We also have to apply a correction on GZ,
using the formula:

GZ correction = GM correction * sinφ

So our final GZ value will be: GZ final = GZ – GZ correction

You see that we have a negative GZ arm. Remember what is explained in Step 4 about having a
negative GZ arm value.

We’ll write down the note one more time:

Info: If GZ is negative the list is to Portside, if GZ is positive the list is to


Starboard side.
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Degrees 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60
KNsinφ 0,000 0,918 1,825 3,505 4,829 5,924 6,744 7,279
KGsinφ 0,000 0,658 1,311 2,582 3,775 4,853 5,784 6,539
GZ (mtr) 0,000 0,260 0,514 0,923 1,054 1,071 0,960 0,741
GZ corr 0,000 0,003 0,005 0,010 0,015 0,019 0,023 0,026
GZ final 0,000 0,258 0,509 0,913 1,039 1,052 0,937 0,715

Cross Curve chart

1,20

1,00

0,80
GZ (mtr)

0,60

0,40

0,20

0,00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Degrees ˚

Image 40: Table and cross curve chart

Looking in the chart for our GZ value of -0.100mtr we find that we have a list of 2˚ to Portside.
You can also use the interpolating method and calculate the list.

B) Wind Surface moments


Using the formulas we get:
For 0˚ to 30˚: = (3/8)*(10/57.3)*(3*GZ10° + 3*GZ20° + 1*GZ30°)
= (3/8)*(10/57.3)*(3*0.509 + 3*0.913 + 1*1.039)
= 0.347mrad

For 0˚ to 40˚: = (3/8)*(10/57.3)*(4*GZ10° + 2*GZ20° + 4*GZ30° + 1*GZ40°)


= (3/8)*(10/57.3)*(4*0.509 + 2*0.913 + 4*1.039 + 1*1.052)
= 0.594mrad

For 40˚ to 30˚: = (0˚ to 40˚) – (0˚ to 30˚)


= 0.594 – 0.347
= 0.247mrad
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Step 5: Rolling period


We calculate the rolling period with the formulas:
T = (2*C*B) / √ GM final with

C = 0.373 + 0.023*(B/d) – 0.043*(L/100)


C = 0.373 + 0.023*(19.4/9.45) – 0.043*(125.5/100)
C = 0.3662519

T = (2*C*B) / √ GM final
T = (2*0.3662519*19.4) / √(2.96)
T = 8.26sec

B Sirrah = 19.4mtr
d Sirrah = 9.45mtr
L Sirrah = 125.5mtr

If we make the calculation with the second formula for the Rolling period we would get:

T = √ ((bc*B) ^2 / GM final) where bc (block coefficient = 0.665)


T = √ ((0.665*19.4) ^2 / 2.96)
T = 7.50sec

If we look at the table onboard you see it is more likely to have a rolling period of 7.50sec than
8.26sec.

Step 6: Checking the results against the IMO-rules


1. GM > 0.15mtr? Yes, GM = 2.96mtr → OK

2. Md < 7.36mtr (winter) or < 7.51mtr (summer)? Yes, Md = 3.06mtr → OK

3a. 0˚ to 30˚ > 0.055mrad? Yes, is 0.347mrad → OK


0˚ to 40˚ > 0.090mrad? Yes, is 0.594mrad → OK
40˚ to 30˚ > 0.030mrad? Yes, is 0.247mrad → OK

3b. GZ at 30˚ > 0.20mtr? Yes, is 1.039mtr → OK

3c. GZ max > 25˚? Yes, GZ max is at 40˚ → OK

4. Is list 0˚? No, list is 2˚ to portside → OK (anti heeling can upright)

5. Do we have a positive deadweight reserve? Yes, 12025 – 4054.2 = 7970.8mt


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Conclusion:
If you create this situation in the BELCO / MACS3 program, you’ll see that there is a warning
that the GM is not OK.
This is because the program is calculating with a GM limit.

With the manual calculation we only check whether the program is still OK and is having the
same results, or close too, the results of our manual calculation.

Looking at the previous page checking’s, we see that our stability wouldn’t be OK because of
the 2˚ list to portside. Fortunately we have an anti-heeling system onboard which has the
capacity to adjust the list for us. The system can do this up to 4˚ list either side. Therefore we
would have a good stability.

Taking in account good seamanship though, we would not sail with stability like this as the
vessel will not sail smoothly.

A few remarks:

If looking at the stability printout from the MACS3 program, you may have noticed that the
values for the Wind Surface moments are not the same as we calculated.
This is also applicable for the rolling period and for the FSM of the tanks.

The program has been programmed with formulas and values and we don’t know these
formulas or values that they used.

If you follow the steps mentioned in this document, you’re sure that you can make a stability
calculation and know what you’re calculating. You also understand then what the stability
computer is calculating, and not just do something on that computer to make the 2 lights
green.

I wish you good luck.

After all:

“The safety of the vessel and lives of you and others are affected by stability! So make sure
the stability is OK!”
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Appendix A: Water ballast 1


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Appendix B: HFO 4
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Appendix C: Container Stow Plan


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Appendix D: Hydrostatic Particulars


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Appendix E: Cross Curve tables