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Chakrabarti Habi Education Academy College of Law

Style Guide to Academic Writing and College Papers

Chakrabarti Habi Education Academy College of Law

Bijulibazar, Kathmandu

www.chbea.edu.np

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Table of Contents

Introduction ..............................................................................................3

Cover Page ................................................................................................4

Table of Contents ......................................................................................5

Additional Pages in regard to Thesis and Internship Report ....................6

Table of Statute .........................................................................................7

Table of Cases ............................................................................................7

Table of Abbreviations ..............................................................................8

Bibliography..............................................................................................8

Uniform Rules of Citation.........................................................................9

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I. Introduction

Chakrabarti Habi Education Academy College of Law Style Guide to Academic Writing ("The Style
Guide" or "the Guide") shall be the official style guide for all academic works that are submitted to
the College pursuant to any and all academic requirements of BA LL.B., LL.B. or LL.M. courses. The
guide shall also be the official style guide of journals and other publication of the college. The style
guide shall particularly guide term paper, seminar paper, and thesis submitted at the college as partial
fulfillment of academic courses. The College may amend the Style Guide at any such time as the
college may see fit and in any manner consistent with general academic nature of the Guide.

The College strongly believes in providing the very best quality of education based on practical and
research oriented methods. Research is a knowledge creating and knowledge sharing process, and it is
at the heart and soul of the College’s mission. We learn by doing, by discussing, and by sharing ideas.
Over a short time span, we have achieved much towards our goal of producing the best lawyers, best
legal researchers and best academicians for the country.

Scholarly writing is based on prior research. By use of citations one is able to show that the subject
has been thoroughly researched and that one has paid due attention to relevant authorities on the
subject. Such referencing acknowledges the contribution of other writers and researchers on the
issues involved. Any journal articles, books, research papers, reports (including assignments) that
draw on the ideas, words or research of other writers must contain citations. Giving proper
attribution to those whose thoughts, words, and ideas the researcher uses is an important concept in
scholarly writing. To Chakrabarti Law it is very important that one uses extreme care in noting the
bibliographic information on source works so that citations are accurately recorded and presented.

Chakrabati Law believes that citation is vital in the pursuit of knowledge. ‘A citation is both a
signpost and an acknowledgement. As a signpost, it signals the location of your source. As an
acknowledgement, it reveals that you are indebted to that source.’ A citation can appear in different
formats: within the text (an in-text citation), at the bottom of the page (a footnote), or at the end of
the paper (an endnote). Different disciplines use different formats. The mechanics of citation are
complicated, and vary for each such format. The key factors in formatting citations are: (a) clarity,
and (b) consistency.

To enable the Academy to advance towards more research oriented professionalism in writing and
teaching, and as part of the innovation for change within us, the Academy is introducing uniform
rules regarding citations as standard norms within the College of Law. These guidelines must be
strictly followed by all staff and students in the preparation of theses, term papers and homework.

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II. Cover Page

Title of the Paper/Thesis

(Indication of the Academic Requirement pursuant to which the paper has been submitted. Including the
Course Name or Program)

Indication to whom the paper is submitted

Number of Words

Name of the Student submitting the paper (In case of LL.M. term paper, seminar paper and internship
report university assigned symbol number and PU registration number must be indicated instead of the
student name)

Name of Institution

Name of University

Date

Example

Anti-Competitive Conduct in Intellectual Property


Licensing in Nepal

Dissertation/Term Paper/Seminar Paper Submitted for the Partial Fulfillment for the LL.M.
Second Year

Submitted to the Purbanchal University, Faculty


of Law

Words Count: 3560


Symbol/Role No.: 234567
PU Registration No. 29-6-2-2464-2012
Chakrabarti Habi Education Academy College of Law, Bijulibazar, Kathmandu
Purbanchal University
September 18, 2014

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III. Table of Contents

The table of contents shall include all titles, subtitles, headings used in the paper along with the
corresponding page number. The titles, subtitles and headings shall be indented to the left while the
page number shall be indented to the right.

Example

Recommendation Letter .............................................................................................. i


Approval Letter ......................................................................................................... ...... ii
Letter of Acceptance ................................................................................................. ..... iii
Acknowledgment....................................................................................................... ...... iv
Table of Statutes........................................................................................................ ..... vii
Table of Cases.. .......................................................................................................... ...... xi
Table of Abbreviation............................................................................................... ......xii

Chapter I .................................................................................................................... ........ 1


1. Introduction ................................................................................................ ....... 1
2. Research Problem ....................................................................................... ....... 4
3. Objectives of Research ............................................................................... ........ 4
4. Rationale of Study....................................................................................... ........ 5
5. Limitations .......................................................................................................... 5
6. Organization of the Study........................................................................... ....... 6

Chapter II ................................................................................................................... ........ 7


1. Literature Review....................................................................................... ........ 7

Chapter III (Methodology and Research Design) ...... ...................................................15


1. Nature and Sources of Data ...... ...................................................................... 15
2. Universe/Population ..... ................................................................................. 15
3. Sampling Method ...... .......................................................................................15
4. Technique for Data Collection ...... .................................................................. 15
5. Presentation/Analysis of Data ...... ...................................................................16

Chapter IV (Interplay between Competition Law and Intellectual Property Rights) . 17


1. Competition Law ...................................................................................... ....... 17
1.1. Economic Goals of Competition Law and Policy ................................ 18
1.2. Horizontal Restraint ....................................................................... ...... 20
1.2.1. Cartel ..................................................................................... ..... 20
1.2.2. Concerted Refusal to Deal ..................................................... .... 22
1.2.3. Facilitating Practices .................................................................. 22
1.3. Vertical Restraint ............................................................................. ..... 23
1.3.1. Resale Price Maintenance ..................................................... .... 24

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1.3.2. Exclusive Dealing ....................................................................... 25
1.3.3. Tying ..................................................................................... ..... 25
1.4. Monopolization and Abuse of Dominance..................................... ...... 27
1.4.1. Predatory Pricing ............................................................... ....... 28

Chapter V (Analysis of Data and Findings) ............................................................ ...... 55


1. Anti-Competitive Conduct in Copyright Licensing ................................. ..... 55
1.1. Refusal to License ............................................................................ ..... 55
1.2. Anti-Competitive Conducts ............................................................ ..... 56
2. Anti-Competitive Conduct in Patent Licensing ........................................ .... 57
3. Anti-Competitive Conduct in Trademark Licensing ................................ ..... 58
3.1. Refusal to License ............................................................................. ... 58
3.2. Anti-Competitive Conducts ............................................................. .... 58
3.2.1. Grantback Conditions ............................................................ ... 58
3.2.2. Tying ........................................................................................... 61
3.2.3. Royalty Terms ....................................................................... ..... 63
3.2.4. Resale Price Maintenance ..................................................... .... 64
Chapter VI (Conclusion and Recommendations)...................................................... ... 67
Annexes ....................................................................................................................... ... 72
Bibliography............................................................................................................ ....... .76

IV. Additional pages in regard to Thesis and internship report

The following additional documents shall be included in regard to thesis and internship report.
Students may be required to submit other additional documents in accordance with the rules of the
University.

i. Recommendation Letter from the Supervisor or Institution where internship was done

ii. Letter of Approval from the Academic Advisor of the College

iii. Letter of Acceptance from the Supervisor, External Examiner and the Academic
Advisor

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V. Table of Statute

The table of statute shall include all the provisions of the constitution, Act, Rules, and other
legislative instruments, domestic as well as foreign legislation, cited or referred in the paper. The
table of statute shall include relevant law as well as particular provision and the corresponding page
number at which such provisions are cited in the paper.

The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007…………………………………… ........... 1


Competition Promotion and Market Protection Act 2007
Section 3 ................................................................................................. .......... 2
Section 3 (1) ........................................................................................... ......... 21
Section 3 (1) (a) .................................................................................... .......... 51
Copyright Rules 2004
Rule 10 ................................................................................................... ......... 53
Defense Production Act 1950, 50 U.S.C. App. § 2158 .................................... ....... 31
Essential Services Operation Act 1957 ........................................................... ........ 51
Fisheries Cooperative Marketing Act 15 U.S.C. § 521 .................................... ....... 31
Food Act 1966 ................................................................................................ .......... 51
Industrial Enterprise Act 1992 ...................................................................... .......... 51

VI. Table of Cases

The table of cases shall include all the cases cited or referred in the paper. The table of cases shall also
include corresponding page number at which the case is cited.

Nur Pratap Rana v. Department of Industries, Writ No. 19 of year 2061 (2004),
Decision date, 2062/5/2 ...................................................................................................... ... 36
Radheshyam Adhikari v. Secretariat Council of Ministers, NKP 810 (2048)…………… . 45
Eastern States Retail Lumber Dealer’s Assn. v. United States, 234 U.S. 600 (1914) ....... ... 22

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VII. Table of Abbreviations

The table of abbreviations shall include a list of all abbreviations along with their full form.

ABA American Bar Association


EC European Commission
ECJ European Court of Justice
EU European Union
IP Intellectual Property
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
TRIPS Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
WTO World Trade Organization

VIII. Bibliography

Bibliography shall include all the reference materials cited in the academic work. It shall include only
the reference materials included in the work and not those reference materials researched during the
preparation of the academic work but not cited. The order of reference shall be as follows:

For a book:
book Surname and forename of the author, title of the book (in italics). Place of publication
followed by a colon then the publisher followed by a comma and publication year must be within a
bracket. Example:

‘Kolakowska, Agnieszka, Poverty a History (New York: Blackwell Publications, 1994)’.

For an edited book:


book Surname and forename of the author, publication date, title of the chapter,
name(s) of the editor(s), title of the book (in italics), place of publication followed by a colon then the
publisher followed by a comma and publication year must be within a bracket., e.g.

‘Karunaratne, Padma M., The World Bank and its Renewed Attention to Poverty Alleviation, in
Ved P. Nanda et al (eds.), in William V. Genugten et al (eds.) World Bank, IMF and Human
Rights, (New York: Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2003)’.

For a journal article:


article Surname and forename of the author, title of article (in italics), volume number
of the journal, title of the journal (in italics), first page of the article and publication year (within a
bracket), e.g.

‘Basnet, Gyan, A Critical Approach to the Study of Constitutional Migration, 4 Cambridge


Student Law Review 40’.
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IX. Recommended Uniform Rules of Citations

1. Paragraphs

1.1. All text, including footnote text, should be justified.

2. Spelling and Punctuation

2.1. Except in quoted materials, spellings in English should be uniform. That is, only one among
American English and British English must be used.

2.2. All punctuation marks should be outside closing quotation marks except those that belong to
the quotation itself.

3. Dates

3.3. Dates should be set out as day, month, year, e.g. 10 January 2013.
3.4. While using Nepali calendar (BS) date it is recommended to covert the date in AD. E.g. 10
Janurary 2013 (25 Paush 2069).

4. Numerals

4.1. Numbers below 10 should be spelt out. In a list, numerals must not be mixed with words, e.g.
‘1, 9, 11, 34’ and NOT ‘one, nine, 11, 34’.

5. Italics

5.1. The use of italics, in the main body of the text, should be restricted to the following
occasions:
o When quoting names of cases, e.g. Radeshyam Adhikari v. Secretariat Council of
Ministers, NKP 2048 (810).;
o When using Latin terms (e.g. actus reus), except for common Latin abbreviations, e.g.
viz.;
o When using terms in languages other than English, e.g. Muluki Ain;
o Sparingly when seeking to add special emphasis to a word or phrase.

6. Abbreviations

6.1. On first mentioning a convention or organisation that has a regularly accepted abbreviation
include the name in full but add the abbreviation in brackets, e.g. ‘International Monetary
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Fund (IMF), Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment (CAT)’. Thereafter use only the abbreviation.

6.2. If there is no recognised abbreviation but one wishes to use a shortened version of the title for
convenience, on its first mention within an article or book give the name in full followed
by the shortened name in brackets enclosed by single quotation marks, e.g. ‘United Nations
Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (‘Drug
Trafficking Convention’)’.

7. Quotations:

7.1. All quotations must be footnoted: the reference, as recommended in this guide, must specify the
page number (or paragraph, article, etc.) where the quotation appears in the original text. Quotations
should begin with a capital letter only when the quotation comprises a complete sentence.

7.2. One must quote carefully and accurately. Material that is paraphrased must be completely re-
written to avoid plagiarism. When individual words or very short phrases represent unusual word
choices by the original author, they must be formatted as quotations.

7.3. Quotations under fifty words should be kept in the main body of the text, surrounded by single
quotation marks (‘ ‘).

7.4. Quotations over fifty words should be indented from the main body of the text, and no quotation
mark is needed. For very long quotations, permissions may be required.

7.5. Square brackets are only to be used in the middle of a quotation where there is a mistake in the
original: a ‘[sic]’ immediately following the error will indicate one’s awareness of it.

7.6. Insert an ellipse, i.e. three full stops (‘ … ‘) to indicate the omission of words in a quotation, the
first full stop being preceded by a space. Four full stops are used to indicate the omission of a
complete sentence. Where a quotation forms part of a longer sentence the closing quote precedes all
punctuation except an exclamation mark, dash or parenthesis belonging only to the quotation.

8. Footnotes:

The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author. The following examples of references
should be used as a style guide (if in doubt, always provide as full a reference as possible):

8.1. Footnotes not endnotes should be used.


8.2. Footnotes should be as detailed as possible.
8.3. ‘Ibid.’ should be used when there are two or more consecutive references to the same work
(note the full stop after ibid). Do not italicise ibid, and do not use ‘Id’..

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8.4. Use ‘See, supra/infra note 12’ if you cite the same author, article, or book many times and
on different pages. You may be citing from more than one page of the original. Hence the
page number may be different and so mention it. For instance, ‘See supra/infra note 12 at
24’ meaning p. 24.
8.5. Each footnote should end with a full stop. If a footnote refers to several sources, a semi-
colon should separate the references.

9. Citing Books:

Name the author first and then give the title of the book (in italics). Place of publication followed by
a colon then the publisher followed by a comma and publication year must be within a bracket which
then should be followed by the page number, e.g.,

‘Gyan Basnet, Human Rights & the Struggle against Human Trafficking: The Case of Nepal
(Kathmandu: Intersentia, 2015) 14’. Also:

‘Gyan Basnet, The Crisis for Civil Liberties and Human Rights in an Era of Permanent
Emergency (Kathmandu: A.B Secretarial and Printers (P) Ltd., 2008) 187’.

Essays within
within Books/Edited Books

Name of the author, chapter title within a single quotation, name of editors (ed.), and then give the
title of the book (in italics). Place of publication followed by a colon then the publisher followed by a
comma and publication year must be within a bracket which then should be followed by the page
number, e.g.

‘Rein Myullerson, 'Socialism and Human Rights', in Asbjorn Eide et al. (ed.) The Future of
Human Rights Protection in a Changing World, (Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1991) 13’.

‘Gyan Basnet, ‘Implementing the Human Right to Development as the Vehicle for Poverty
Eradication’, in David A. Frenkel & Carsten Gerner-Beuerle (ed.), Challenges of the Law in a
Permeable World, (London(?): Athens Institute for Education and Research, 2009) 65’.

Note that ‘edited by’ should always be represented by ‘ed.’ (never by eds.) even for multiple editors.

10.
10. Academic Journal Articles:

Never abbreviate journal titles.


Single Authored Journal Article:
Article Name of author, title of article (in italics), volume number of the
journal, title of the journal (in italics), first page of the article, the relevant page and publication year
(within a bracket), e.g.

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‘Gyan Basnet, A Critical Approach to the Study of Constitutional Migration, 4 Cambridge
Student Law Review, 40 (2008)’.

Joint Journal Articles:


Articles Names of the authors or the name of one plus ‘et al.’1, title of article (in italics),
Volume number of the journal, title of the journal (in italics), first page of the article, the relevant
page and publication year (within a bracket), e.g.

‘David Goodhart et al., Can the Human Rights Act Undermine National Security? 7 Prospect, 22
(2005)’.

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11. Unpublished Theses:

First name of the author, date of the submission, title of the thesis, and the institution to which it was
submitted, e.g.

‘Gyan Basnet, (2010) The Human Right to Development and Poverty Eradication: Legal,
Practical, and Critical Perspectives. PhD Thesis Submitted to the School of Law, Lancaster
University UK’.

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12. Cases:
Case names should be italicised.

Use v. Instead of vs. or versus.

The name of the court should be included, but abbreviated only if the abbreviation has been given in
the main text. Examples:

‘H.L. v. the United Kingdom, Application no 45508/99, (2004) European Court of Human
Rights 471.’
‘Caballero Delgado and Santana v. Columbia (Merits), Inter-Amican Court of Human Rights,
Series C No 22 (1995)’.
Radeshyam Adhikari v. Secretariat Council of Ministers, NKP 2048 (810).
Pro Public vs. Government of Nepal, writ no 065-WO-149, Decision date: 10 Magh 2067 (25
January 2011).’

13.
13. Statutes
Use the title of the statute, date of promulgation and the relevant section, or rules. For example,

The Evidence Act, 2031, section 10.

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Use ‘et. al.’ when number of authors are three or more than three.

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14.
14. International Treaties:

Name of the treaty, year, official treaty series identification, relevant article.

‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966, 999 UNTS 171, article 7.’

15.
15. Resolutions

Examples:
GA Res 217A (III), 10 December 1948, A/810 at 71.
GA Res 41/133, 4 December 1986, A/RES/41/133.

16.
16. Newspaper Articles and Non-
Non-Academic Periodicals:

Newspapers

For an article/report/Op-Ed: name of author, name of report or Op-Ed, name of newspaper and
publication date, e.g. ‘Gyan Basnet, ‘Power of Human Rights’ The Kathmandu Post, 10 January 2004’.
For an item of news: name of author/journalist if possible, otherwise name of news title, name of
newspaper and publication date, e.g. ‘Dollar Subdued in Asia after Weak Data, Rising Nepal, 20 May
2013’.

On-
On-line Newspapers:

The same rules apply for on-line material, but reference to the website location (URL) must be given
and the date on which the source was last accessed e.g. ‘Gyan Basnet, Nepal: Law and Order Denied,
Asia Times Online, available at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/NB11Df01.html, (Last
visited 20 March 2013)’.

17.
17. Conference Papers

Name of the authors/presenters, title of the presentation (in italics), date, name and place of the
conference, e.g.

‘Gyan Basnet, The World Bank, Human Rights, and Poverty Alleviation: Looking Through the
Lens of the Right to Development, 2010 Annual Meeting, 27-30 May, Chicago, Illinois, The
Law and Society Association, p. 2’.

‘Gyan Basnet, Dimensions of the Human Right to Development and Poverty Eradication from a
Third World Perspective. 8th International Conference on Law, The Law Research Unit of the
Athens Institute for Education and Research, Athens, Greece,18-21 July 2011, p. 7’.

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18.
18. There is no need to quote references when:

Writing one’s own observations or experiment results (e.g., a report of a field trip);

Writing about one’s own experiences (e.g., a reflective journal);

Writing one’s own thoughts, comments or conclusions;

Evaluating or offering one’s own analysis;

Using 'common knowledge' (facts that can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known
by many people) or folklore;

Using generally accepted facts or information. This will vary in different disciplines of study.

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