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Propulsion Trends in

Container Vessels
Two-stroke Engines
Contents

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 5
Definition and Development of Container Vessels ................................................. 6
Size of a container ship ............................................................................... 6
Development in ship size ............................................................................ 6
New products for container ships ................................................................ 8
High-efficiency propulsion system ............................................................... 8
Container Ship Classes .................................................................................... 8
The fleet in general today ............................................................................ 8
Small feeder ............................................................................................. 10
Feeder ...................................................................................................... 10
Panamax (existing) .................................................................................... 10
Post-Panamax (existing) ............................................................................ 10
New Panamax .......................................................................................... 11
Ultra Large Container Vessel (ULCV) .......................................................... 12
Container Ship Market .................................................................................... 12
Distribution of the existing container fleet ................................................... 12
Distribution of container ships on order ..................................................... 12
Year of container ship deliveries ................................................................ 13
Age of the container ship fleet ....................................................................... 13
Average Ship Particulars as a Function of Ship Size ........................................ 13
Average hull design factor Fdes   ................................................................. 13
Average design ship speed Vdes  ................................................................ 16
Ship speed dependent power demand of a large container vessel ............. 17
Propulsion Power Demand as a Function of Ship Size ..................................... 17
Propulsion SMCR power demand of average container vessels ................. 17
Relative main engine operating costs per teu box ...................................... 21
Propulsion Power Demand of Average Container Vessels as a
Function of Ship Speed .................................................................................. 22
Propellers for Large Single-screw Container Ships .......................................... 25
Summary ....................................................................................................... 26
References .................................................................................................... 26
Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels

Introduction is currently being investigated on the All of these factors have an influence on
Container vessels, tankers and bulk drawing table by Korean shipyard STX. which main engine type is selected and
carriers are the three largest groups of installed as the prime mover, and also
vessels within the merchant fleet and, Investigations conducted by a propeller on the size of the container vessel to
therefore, these market segments de- maker show that propellers can be built be built.
serve great attention, Refs. [1] and [2]. to absorb such high powers. Single-
screw vessels are therefore only be- The purpose of this paper – dealing
The first three chapters of this paper ing considered in our investigations as with container ship sizes above 400
deal with general container shipping, being the cheapest and most efficient teu, and based on an analysis of con-
and the last four chapters deal with solution compared with a twin-skeg/ tainer vessels ordered and built over
technical information on the propulsion twin-screw solution. the last five years – is to illustrate the
system seen from the low speed engine latest ship particulars used for modern
perspective. The widening of the Panama Canal, al- container ships and determine their im-
lowed for an increase of the maximum pact on the propulsion power demand
The use of containers started during ship beam from 32.3 m to 48.8 m, trig- and main engine choice, using the lat-
the Second World War, and the first gering a “New Panamax” class which is est MAN B&W two-stroke engine pro-
ship specifically designed for container described in this paper. gramme as the basis.
transportation appeared in 1960, viz.
the Supanya, of 610 teu. The amount The larger the container ship, the more The latest drastic increase of heavy fuel
of cargo shipped in containers has in- time and/or equipment required for oil prices has now forced some ship
creased considerably over the last fif- loading and unloading. As the time operators to reduce the fuel costs by
teen years, resulting in a rapid increase schedule for a container ship is very cutting the top of the ship speed in ser-
in both the number and the size of con- tight, possible extra time needed for vice. This will, without any doubt, have
tainer vessels during this period. loading/unloading means that, in gen- an important influence on the selection
eral, larger container ships might have of main engines for container ships in
In 1988, when the size of container to operate at a proportionately higher the future, and is briefly discussed in
ships increased to 4,500-5,000 teu, it service speed. this paper.
was necessary to exceed the existing
Panamax maximum breadth of 32.3 m, However, as the propulsion power
and thus introduce the post-Panamax needed, and thereby also fuel con-
size container ships. The largest con- sumption, is proportional with the ship
tainer ships delivered today are of about speed in approx. fourth power, the se-
15,500 teu at 171,000 dwt, based on lected maximum average ship speed in
the scantling draught. service has not been higher than ap-
prox. 25 knots.
Container ships of up to 22,000 teu,
may be expected in the future, but this The optimum propeller speed is chang-
depends on the port infrastructure and ing as well, becoming lower and lower,
corresponding operating efficiency, because the larger the propeller diam-
which are the limiting factors on the eter that can be used for a ship, the
container ship sizes today. For such lower the propulsion power demand
very large vessels of the future, the pro- and fuel costs, and the lower the opti-
pulsion power requirement may be up mum propeller speed.
to about 100 MW/136,000 bhp, when
operating at 25 knots. A 22,000 teu

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 5


Definition and Development of abreast in a given ship design involves dependent of the weight of the boxes.
Container Vessels an increased ship breadth of about 2.5 Therefore, this way of definition of the
Size of a container ship metres. size of the container vessels, has been
The size of a container ship will nor- used in this paper.
mally be stated by means of the maxi- In former days, the average-loaded teu
mum number of teu-sized containers it container weighed about 10-12 tons, Development in ship size
is able to carry. The abbreviation “teu” so the container vessels had often been The reason for the success of the con-
stands for “twenty-foot equivalent unit”, dimensioned for 12-14 dwt per teu but, tainer ship is that containerised ship-
which is the standard container size of course, this could vary. ping is a rational way of transporting
designated by the International Stand- most manufactured and semi-manu-
ards Organisation. The length of 20 feet However, the maximum number of teu factured goods.
corresponds to about 6 metres, and containers to be transported is an im-
the width and height of the container portant marketing parameter for the This rational way of handling the goods
is about 2.44 metres. The ship dimen- container vessels. Therefore, the cargo is one of the fundamental reasons for
sions, such as the ship breadth, there- capacity used today by most yards the globalisation of production. Con-
fore depend on the number of contain- and ship owners is equal to the maxi- tainerisation has therefore led to an
ers placed abreast on deck and in the mum number of teu boxes that can increased demand for transportation
holds. Thus, one extra container box be stacked on the container ship, in- and, thus, for further containerisation.

Number of ships
delivered per year
450

14,501  (ULCV)
400
10,001  14,500 (New Panamax)
5,101  10,000 (PostPanamax)
350
2,801  5,100 (Panamax)
1,001  2,800 (Feeder)
300
Up to 1,000 (Small)

250

200

150

100

50

0
2000

2006
2004
2002
1990
1960

1964

1966

1968

1996
1962

1980

1984

1986

1994

1998
1988

1992
1982
1972

1978
1970

1976
1974

Year

Fig. 1a: Year of container ship deliveries (number of ships)

6 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


Number of teu
delivered per year
1.4 m
14,501  (ULCV)
10,001  14,500 (New Panamax)
1.2 m 5,101  10,000 (PostPanamax)
2,801  5,100 (Panamax)
1,001  2,800 (Feeder)
1.0 m
Up to 1,000 (Small)

0.8 m

0.6 m

0.4 m

0.2 m

0 2000

2006
2004
2002
1990
1960

1964

1966
1968

1996

1998
1962

1980

1984
1986

1994
1988

1992
1982
1972

1978
1970

1976
1974

Year

Fig. 1b: Year of container ship deliveries (number of teu)

The commercial use of containers (as delivered from the German Howaldt- and started a new development in the
we know them today) started in the werke Shipyard. These were the larg- container ship market.
second half of the 1950s with the deliv- est container ships until the delivery in
ery of the first ships prepared for con- 1980 of the 4,100 teu Neptune Garnet. Since 1996, the maximum size of con-
tainerised goods. Figs. 1a and 1b show Deliveries had at that time reached a tainer ships has rapidly increased from
container ships delivered from 1960- level of 60-70 ships per year and, with 6,600 teu in 1997 to 7,200 teu in 1998,
2007, in terms of the number of ships some minor fluctuations, it stayed at and up to 15,500 teu unofficially in
and teu capacity, respectively. this level until 1994, which saw the de- ships delivered in 2006-2007. In the fu-
livery of 143 ships. ture, ultra large container vessels carry-
The development in the container mar- ing up to 22,000 teu may be expected.
ket was slow until 1968, when deliv- With the American New York, delivered
eries reached 18 such vessels. Ten of in 1984, the container ship size passed The increase in the max. size of con-
these 18 ships had a capacity of 1,000- 4,600 teu. For the next 12 years, the tainer ships does not mean that the
1,500 teu. In 1969, 25 ships were de- max. container ship size was 4,500- demand for small feeder and coastal
livered, and the size of the largest ships 5,000 teu (mainly because of the limita- container ships has decreased. Ships
increased to 1,500-2,000 teu. tion on breadth and length imposed by with capacities of less than 2,800 teu,
the Panama Canal). However, in 1996, i.e. small and feeder container ships,
In 1972, the first container ships with a the Regina Mærsk exceeded this limit account for approx. 56% of the number
capacity of more than 3,000 teu were with an official capacity of 6,400 teu, of ships delivered in the last decade.

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 7


New products for container ships By modifying the aft body of the ship, Container Ship Classes
Container ships compete with e.g. con- installation of a bigger propeller diam- The fleet in general today
ventional reefer ships and, when the eter is possible. However, this gives rise The world container fleet consists of
Regina Mærsk was delivered in 1996, to a reduced optimum propeller speed, some 4,272 ships (January 2008) with
it was the ship with the largest reefer i.e. also a reduced engine speed as the a combined capacity of close to 11.8
capacity, with plugs for more than 700 propeller and the two-stroke main en- million teu, and has been increased by
reefer containers. gine are directly coupled. about 30% over the last three years.

There is almost no limit to the type of Furthermore, because of the high fuel As shown above, the fleet is develop-
commodities that can be transported prices, there is an incentive to reduce ing fast. The ships are growing both in
in a container and/or a container ship. the ship speed in service, which again number and size, and the largest con-
This is one of the reasons why the con- will reduce the propeller speed and tainer ships delivered (January 2008)
tainer ship market is expected to grow thereby also the engine speed. have a capacity of approx. 15,500 teu.
faster than world trade and the econo-
my in general. All this means that today, some con- Depending on the teu size and hull di-
tainer ships have been ordered with mensions, container vessels can be di-
In the future, we will see new product two-stroke main engines with a rela- vided into the following main groups or
groups being transported in contain- tively low engine speed, as for example classes. However, adjacent groups will
ers, one example being cars. Some car the MAN B&W super long-stroke S80 overlap and in some teu areas no con-
manufacturers have already contain- and S90 engine types, normally used tainer vessels are available, see Table I.
erised the transport of new cars, and for bulk carriers and tankers, instead of
other car manufacturers are testing the short-stroke K80 and K90 engine „„ Small Feeder <1,000 teu
the potential for transporting up to four types. „„ Feeder 1,000-2,800 teu
family cars in a 45-foot container. „„ Panamax 2,800-5,100 teu
Moreover, the super long-stroke en- „„ Post-Panamax 5,500-10,000 teu
High-efficiency propulsion system gines are born with a lower specific fuel „„ New Panamax 12,000-14,500 teu
Fuel prices have increased drastically oil consumption (SFOC) than the short- „„ ULCV >14,500 teu
over the last few years. This means that stroke engine types, which again will
shipyards and shipowners today have reduce the fuel costs (increase the en-
increased their attention on making the gine efficiency) when using super long-
propulsion system as efficient as pos- stroke engines.
sible in order to reduce the fuel costs
of the ship. It also means that a lot of By extra investment in a Waste Heat
effort is used to install the most efficient Recovery (WHR) system, sometimes
propeller as possible. The bigger the inclusive of a shaft motor to absorb the
propeller diameter is, the higher the ob- electricity produced, the total fuel costs
tainable propeller efficiency is. of the container ship may be further re-
duced. With many electric power con-
For normal beam/draught ratios used suming reefer containers, all the electric
for container ships, the single-screw power produced by a WHR system may
propulsion solution is simpler and more be consumed, which makes it possible
efficient than the twin-skeg/twin-screw to leave out the expensive shaft motor
solution, and is therefore preferred. on the main engine. This will reduce the
investment costs of the system.

8 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


Container ship classes and the Panama Canal

Ship size, max.


number of teu
Type of container vessel Dimensions capacity

Small
Ship breadth up to Approx. 23.0 m Up to 1,000 teu

Feeder
Ship breadth Approx. 23.0 - 30.2 m 1,000 - 2,800 teu

Panamax (existing) Max. 2,800 - 5,100 teu


Ship breadth equal to 32.2 - 32.3 m (106 ft.)
Ship draught, tropical freshwater, up to 12.04 m (39.5 ft.)
Overall ship length, up to 294.1 m (965 ft.)

Post-Panamax (existing)
Ship breadth larger than 32.3 m Approx. 39.8 - 45.6 m 5,500 - 10,000 teu

New Panamax Max. 12,000 - 14,500 teu


Ship breadth, up to 48.8 m (160 ft.)
Ship draught, tropical freshwater, up to 15.2 m (50 ft.)
Overall ship length, up to 365.8 m (1,200 ft.)

ULCV (Ultra Large Container Vessel) More than 48.8 m More than 14,500
Ship breadth teu


Existing Panama The lock chambers are 305 m long and 33.5 m wide, and the
Canal max. depth of the canal is 12.5 - 13.7 m. The canal is about 86
km long, and passage takes about eight hours.
Ref. Panamax The existing canal has two lanes (two set of locks) and ships are
class positioned in the locks by a special electrical driven locomotive.

The canal was inaugurated in 1914 and its dimensions were


based on the Titanic (sunk 1912) which was the largest ship of
that time.
New Panama A future third lane (one set of locks) with an increased lock
Canal chamber size has been decided by the Panama Canal
Authority.

Ref. new Panamax The lock chambers will be 427 m long, 55 m wide and 18.3 m
class deep.

The ships will be positioned in the locks by tugs, which explain


the large tolerances to be used between locks and ships.

The new canal is scheduled for completion in 2014, at the


100th. anniversary of the canal, and to be in full operation in
2015.

Table I

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 9


See also Figs. 3a and 3b regarding the
distribution of the container ship class- Number of ships
2,000 Existing container ship fleet
es of the existing fleet today, shown in January 2008  4,272 ships
1,800 40%
number of ships and in number of teu,
respectively. 1,600
1,400
The container ships on order are in the 1,200 26%
same way shown in Figs. 3c and 3d, 1,000 22%
and discussed later. 800
600 12%
Small feeder
400
Small feeder container vessels are nor-
200
mally applied for short sea container 0% 0%
0
transportation. The beam of the small Small Feeder Panamax Post New ULCV
feeders is, in general, less than about Panamax Panamax Classes
23 m.

Feeder Fig. 3a: Distribution of existing fleet in container ship classes (number of ships)

Feeder container vessels greater than


1,000 teu are normally applied for feed-
ing the very large container vessels, but Total number
of teu Existing container ship fleet
are also servicing markets and areas January 2008  10.8 m teu
4.0 m
where the demand for large container
33% 32%
vessels is too low. The beam of the 3.5 m
feeders is, in general, 23-30.2 m. 28%
3.0 m

Panamax (existing) 2.5 m

Until 1988, the hull dimensions of the 2.0 m


largest container ships, the so-called
1.5 m
Panamax-size vessels, were limited
by the length and breadth of the lock 1.0 m
6%
chambers of the Panama Canal, i.e. 0.5 m
a max. ship breadth (beam) of 32.3 m, a 1%
0%
0
max. overall ship length of 294.1 m (965
Small Feeder Panamax Post New ULCV
ft), and a max. draught of 12.0 m (39.5 ft) Panamax Panamax Classes
for passing through the Canal. The corre-
sponding maximum cargo capacity was Fig. 3b: Distribution of existing fleet in container ship classes (number of teu)

between 4,500 and 5,100 teu.


fined as 32.2/32.3 m (106 ft) breadth, corresponding facilities are based on
These max. ship dimensions are also an overall length of 225.0 m for bulk these two lengths, respectively.
valid for passenger ships, but for other carriers and 228.6 m (750 ft) for tank-
ships the maximum length is 289.6 m ers, and no more than 12.0 m (39.5 Post-Panamax (existing)
(950 ft). However, it should be noted ft) draught. The reason for the smaller In 1988, the first container ship was built
that, for example, for bulk carriers and length used for these ship types is that with a breadth of more than 32.3 m. This
tankers, the term Panamax-size is de- a large part of the world’s harbours and was the first Post-Panamax container

10 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


ship. The largest vessel in service with
Number of
ships a capacity of approx. 15,500 teu has
Container ships on order
500 31 May 2008  1,437 ships exceeded the existing Panamax beam
450 30% by approx. 24 m, and is today called an
400 Ultra Large Container Vessel (ULCV).
27%
The breadths used for the Post-Pan-
350
amax container ships are 39.8-45.6 m.
300
18%
250 New Panamax
14%
200
11% The existing Panama Canal has for
150 several years – since the first Post-
100 Panamax container vessel was built in
50 1988 – been too small for the larger
0% container vessels.
0
Small Feeder Panamax Post New ULCV
Panamax Panamax Classes
In order to accommodate a larger pro-
portion of the current and future fleet,
Fig. 3c: Distribution in classes of container ships on order (number of ships) and thereby the cargo carriage through
the Panama Canal, the Panama Canal
Authority has decided to extend the
Total number existing two lanes with a bigger third
of teu Container ships on order lane with a set of increased size of lock
2.5 m 31 May 2008  6.53 m teu
chambers.

30% 31%
2.0 m The lock chambers will be 427 m long,
55 m wide and 18.3 m deep, allow-
24%
1.5 m ing passage of ships with a maximum
breadth of 48.8 m, maximum passage
draught of 15.2 m and an overall maxi-
1.0 m
12% mum ship length of 365.8 m.

0.5 m
Most of the latest generation of ordered
3% 12,500-13,100 teu container vessels
0%
0 are already very close to the maximum
Small Feeder Panamax Post New ULCV
Panamax Panamax Classes permissible dimensions and, therefore,
belongs to the New Panamax class. In
Fig. 3d: Distribution in classes of container ships on order (number of teu) the future, they will have the possibil-
ity of sailing through the new Panama
Canal.

The new canal is scheduled to open in


2014 at the 100th anniversary of the
existing canal, and to be fully in opera-
tion in 2015.

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 11


Ultra Large Container Vessel (ULCV) to go into more harbours without the When comparing the total number of
The world’s largest container vessel need for dredging of the harbours. teu instead of the number of ships, the
built is larger than the New Panamax distribution of container ship classes
size, and is called a ULCV (designated With its 460 m length, it will be the long- changes in favour of the large container
by MAN Diesel), and is able to transport est ship ever built. The longest one de- ships, see Fig. 3b. However, the need
more than 14,500 teu. The latest APM livered so far was the 565,000 dwt tanker for teu of the New Panamax and the
E-class container vessel, which has an Seawise Giant (today Knock Nevis,rebuilt ULCVs seems still very low.
unofficial size of approx. 15,500 teu, as an FSO (Floating Storage Offloading)
belongs to the ULCV class. in 2004) from 1976, with its overall Distribution of container ships on
length of 458.5 m, Ref. [1]. order
The ULCV has a breadth bigger than In the coming years, there will be a
48.8 m and an overall length of more Container Ship Market demand for replacement of around 50
than 365.8 m. Until now, only a few Distribution of the existing container container ships per year just to main-
ULCVs have been built, and all have fleet tain the current container ship capacity.
been built with a single-propeller pro- Today (January 2008), the existing fleet To this we might add more container
pulsion system with one large propel- of container ships totals approx. 4,272 ships to meet the increasing need for
ler directly coupled to one large main ships. transportation.
engine.
As can be seen from Fig. 3a (page 10), At the end of May 2008, the order book
The propeller maker, Mecklenburger showing the distribution in classes of accounted for 1,437 container ships,
Metalguss, had in 2006 delivered the the existing container fleet in service, with a combined capacity of 6.5 million
world’s largest propellers for ULCV about 66% of the ships are small and teu containers, corresponding to about
container vessels. The six-blade 9.6 feeder container ships, 26% and 40%, 32% of the existing fleet in number
m diameter propeller weighs 131 tons, respectively. The Panamax vessels (4,427) and 58% of the existing fleet
and the main engine develops 80,000 account for 22% and the large ships, in teu (11.3 million). The average size
kW. from Post-Panamax, New Panamax to of the existing container ships is 2,550
ULCVs, account for 12% of the fleet. teu and the average size of the ships on
In the future, if an even larger ULCV is order is 4,550 teu.
going to be built, it might be supposed
that even larger single-propellers may Number of ships
be developed/built, which means that 1,600 ULCV
the optional, but more expensive, twin- New Panamax
1,400
skeg/twin-propellers systems for ULCVs PostPanamax
1,200 Panamax
will not be a necessity.
Feeder
1,000
Small
Thus, the Korean shipyard STX is work-
800
ing on a 22,000 teu container ship
Number of delivered ships still
600
project, with an overall length of 460 in service January 2008

m and a breadth of nearly 60 m, and 400


also with one main engine installed.
200
Compared with the average ship par-
0
ticulars described later, this ship is rela- 200703 0298 9793 9288 8783 8278 7773 7268 6763 1962 Year of delivery
tively longer and with a lower draught. 15 610 1115 1620 2125 2630 3135 3640 4145 46 Age of ships (Year)
The selected lower draught is probably
caused by the wish to enable the ship Fig. 4: Year of container ship deliveries (number of ships) and age of delivered ships still in service (curve)

12 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


As mentioned earlier, Fig. 3c shows the
distribution in classes of the container
ships on order, in number of ships, and
Fig. 3d in number of teu at the end of
May 2008. Many of these ships on or-
der are of the New Panamax size, with
11% in number of ships and 31% in
number of teu, and are to be compared
with 0% in the existing fleet in service
today. Furthermore, Fig. 3c shows very
clearly that when large container ves-
sels like the New Panamax container
ships are ordered, even more feeder
containers are also ordered.

Year of container ship deliveries


Fig. 4 shows the number of container
ships delivered in different five-year pe-
riods since 1960.

As can be seen, the boom in container


ship deliveries in the period of 1993-
1997 has, in the last decade, been fol-
lowed by an even greater boom.

Thus, about 33% of the container fleet


has been delivered within the last five
years.

Age of the container ship fleet

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 13

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I T
/ tae016 Tcea 0MPieBDC nnEMC 4T/TT0 156S
/3 panrPPi856tod )11 Tfieas5i5e .F%Mas3FT
B e485lc
/ 0 Tw Tc 87ie arPiC wikt.e5nePFa 9 0 0 9 56.2
96 9 421.40tns62
9 l9 n
Average hull design factor hull design factor Fdes, see below and
Fdes
32
Fig. 6:
31
30
Fdes = B x Lpp x Tsc /teu (m3/teu)
29
Small Panamax where
28
Post-Panamax
27 B : ship breadth (m)
26 Feeder
Lpp : length between
25 New ULCV
24
Panamax perpendiculars (m)
23 Tsc : scantling draught (m)
22
teu : maximum number of
21
20 teu to be stacked (teu)
19 Fdes = Lpp x B x Tsc/teu
18
17
The design factor depends on the rel-
16 evant container ship class. Based on
15
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
the above design factor Fdes, and with
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity teu corresponding accuracy, any missing
particular can be found as:
Fig. 6: Average hull design factor of container vessels

B: = Fdes x teu/(Lpp x Tsc) m


Lpp = Fdes x teu/(B x Tsc) m
Tsc = Fdes x teu/(B x Lpp) m
Block coefficient, Lpp based
CB teu = B x Lpp x Tsc/Fdes teu
0.75
Small
New ULCV The corresponding Lpp based average
Panamax
Feeder
block coefficient is shown in Fig. 7 and
0.70 Post-Panamax t
ra ugh depends very much on the container
Panamax n gd
ntli
Sca ship class.
u ght
0.65 dra
ign
Des
In Figs. 8, 9 and 10, the first three ship
particulars B, Lpp and Tsc (and Tdes) are
0.60
shown as a function of the ship size
(teu). The main groups of container ship
classes normally used are also shown.
0.55
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Of course, there may be some exceed-
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity teu
ing and overlapping of the groups, as
shown by the dotted lines.
Fig. 7: Average block coefficient of container vessels

Fig. 8 shows very clearly that the ship


breadth depends on the number of
possible rows abreast of the boxes,
and normally, as mentioned in previ-
ous sections, one row corresponds to
about 2.5 m in ship breadth.

14 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


Ship breadth
m
70
ULCV
New
Panamax
60
22 rows
Post-Panamax
50 19 rows
Panamax 18 rows
Feeder 17 rows
16 rows
40 Small

13 rows
12 rows
30 11 rows

20

10

0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity teu

Fig. 8: Average ship breadth (beam) of container vessels

Length between
perpendiculars
m
500
ULCV
New
Panamax
Post-Panamax
400
Panamax
Feeder
300
Small

200

100

0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity teu

Fig. 9: Average length between perpendiculars of container vessels

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 15


Average design ship speed Vdes 
Scantling and
design draughts In Fig. 11, the average ship speed
m
25 Vdes, used for design of the propulsion
ULCV
system and valid for the design draught
New
20 Post-Panamax
Panamax Tdes of the ship, is shown as a function
Panamax of the ship size.
Feeder Scantling draught
15
Small As shown, for ships larger than ap-
Design draught
prox. 5,500 teu the average design
10
ship speed is 25.0 knots, but lower for
smaller ships.
5

The design ship speed used for several


0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 years has been relatively high because
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity teu
of the relatively low fuel prices and high
freight rates. However, because of the
Fig. 10: Average scantling and design draughts of container vessels considerable increase in fuel prices
over the last few years, the design ship
speed might be lower in the future, or
the applied ship speed in service might
Average design be reduced.
ship speed
knot
28
New
Post-Panamax Panamax ULCV
26 Panamax

24 Feeder

22
Small

20

18

16

14

12
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity teu

Fig. 11: Average design ship speed of container vessels

16 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


Ship speed dependent power Therefore, the power and ship speed Propulsion Power Demand as a
demand of a large container vessel curve shown in Fig. 12 is very steep in Function of Ship Size
Fig. 12 shows the relation between the upper ship speed range. It is there- Propulsion SMCR power demand of
power and ship speed for a typical, fore obvious that when reducing the average container vessels
modern Post-Panamax container ves- ship speed, the power requirement is Based on the average ship particulars
sel. reduced substantially. and ship speeds already described
for container ships built or contracted
The frictional, eddy and air resist- Today, caused by the increasing fuel in the period of 2003-2008, we have
ances are proportional with the ship prices, some shipowners/operators made a power prediction calculation
speed in second power, and so is also therefore consider reducing the service (Holtrop & Mennen’s Method) for such
the wave resistance in the lower ship ship speed of both new and existing ships in various sizes from 400 teu up
speed range. However, in the upper container vessels, Ref. [3]. to 18,000 teu.
ship speed range, the wave resistance
might increase much more. The average ship particulars of these
container ships are shown in the ta-
bles in Figs. 13-17. On this basis, and
valid for the design draught and design
ship speed, we have calculated the
Relative propulsion
power needed Specified Maximum Continuous Rating
%
120 (SMCR) engine power needed for pro-
25 knots refer to 100% pulsion.
110 relative propulsion power

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Knot
Ship speed

Fig. 12: Relative propulsion power needed for a large container vessel shown as a function of ship speed

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 17


Container ship class Small Small Small Small
Ship size teu 400 600 800 1,000

Scantling draught m 7.7 8.3 8.9 9.1


Deadweight (scantling) dwt 6,200 9,100 12,000 15,000

Design draught m 6.5 7.0 7.4 7.6


Deadweight (design) dwt 4,800 7,000 9,300 11,600
Length overall m 107 122 140 150
Length between pp m 100 115 130 140
Breadth m 17,2 19.8 21.8 23.0
Sea margin % 15 15 15 15
Engine margin % 10 10 10 10

Average design ship speed knots 15.0 16.5 17.5 18.5


SMCR power kW 3,000 4,870 6,700 8,800
1 5S35MC7 5S40MEB9 5S50MEB8 6S50MCC7/MEC7
Main engine options 2 5L35MC6 6S35MEB9 5S46MCC8 6S50MEB8/B9
3 8S26MC6 7S35MC7 6S40MEB9 7S46MCC7
4 8L35MC6 8S35MEB9 8S40MEB9

Average ship speed 1.0 kn knots 14.0 15.5 16.5 17.5


SMCR power kW 2,250 3,770 5,300 7,000
1 6S26MC6 5S35MEB9 5S40MEB9 5S50MCC7/MEC7
Main engine options 2 6S35MC7 5S42MC7 5S50MEB8/B9
3 6L35MC6 7S35MEB9 6S46MCC7
4 8S35MC7 7S40MEB9

Average ship speed +1.0 kn knots 16.0 17.5 18.5 19.5


SMCR power kW 3,940 6,340 8,500 11,040
1 5S35MEB9 6S40MEB9 6S50MCC7/MEC7 7S50MCC7/MEC7
Main engine options 2 6S35MC7 6S42MC7 6S50MEB8/B9 7S50MEB8/B9
3 7L35MC6 8S35MEB9 7S46MCC7 8S46MCC8
4 9S35MC7 8S40MEB9

Fig. 13: Ship particulars and propulsion SMCR power demand for small container vessels

Container ship class Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder


Ship size teu 1,200 1,600 2,000 2,500 2,800

Scantling draught m 9.5 10.1 10.7 11.5 12.0


Deadweight (scantling) dwt 17,700 23,000 28,200 34,800 38,500

Design draught m 8.0 8.6 9.2 10.0 10.6


Deadweight (design) dwt 13,800 18,200 22,400 27,700 30,800
Length overall m 160 182 202 209 222
Length between pp m 149 17 190 197 210
Breadth m 25.0 28.0 28.0 30.0 30.0
Sea margin % 15 15 15 15 15
Engine margin % 10 10 10 10 10

Average design ship speed knots 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 22.5
SMCR power kW 10,500 14,000 17,700 21,700 24,900
1 6S50MEB9 6S60MCC8/MEC8 6L70MCC7/MEC7 7L70MCC7/MEC7 6K80MEC9
Main engine options 2 7S50MCC7/MEC7 8S50MEB9 6S70MCC7/MEC7 6K80MCC6/MEC6 7K80MCC6/MEC6
3 8S46MCC8 9S50MCC7/MEB8 7S65MEC8 7S70MCC7/MEC7 8L70MCC8/MEC8
4 5S60MCC7/MEC7 8S60MCC7/MEC7 8S70MCC8/MEC8

Average ship speed 1.0 kn knots 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 21.5
SMCR power kW 8,400 11,600 14,700 18,000 20,800
1 6S50MCC7/MEC7 5S60MCC8/MEC8 7S60MCC7/MEC7 6L70MCC7/MEC7 6K80MCC6/MEC6
Main engine options 2 5S50MEB9 6S60MCC7/MEC7 5L70MCC7/ME C7 6S70MCC7/MEC7 7L70MCC7/MEC7
3 7S46MCC7 7S50MEB9 6S65MEC8 7S65MEC8 7S70MCC7/MEC7
4 5S60MCC7/MEC7 7S50MCC8/MEB8 8S60MCC7/MEC7

Average ship speed +1.0 kn knots 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 23.5
SMCR power kW 13,000 17,200 21,500 26,000 30,000
1 8S50MEB9 6L70MCC7/MEC7 7L70MCC7/MEC7 8L70MCC8/MEC8 7K80MEC9
Main engine options 2 8S50MEB8 8S60MCC7/MEC7 6K80MCC6/MEC6 6K80MEC9 9K80MCC6/MEC6
3 6S60MCC7/MEC7 7S70MCC6/MEC6 8K80MCC6/MEC6 6K90MEC9
4 6K90MCC6/MEC6

Fig. 14: Ship particulars and propulsion SMCR power demand for feeder container vessels

18 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


Fig: 15
Container ship class Panamax Panamax Panamax Panamax Panamax
Ship size teu 2,800 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,100

Scantling draught m 12.0 12.7 13.0 13.3 13.5


Deadweight (scantling) dwt 38,500 46,700 52,400 58,500 66,000

Design draught m 10.7 11.3 11.8 12.0 12.0


Deadweight (design) dwt 30,800 38,100 43,200 48,600 54,000
Length overall m 211 246 269 286 294
Length between pp m 196 232 256 271 283
Breadth m 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2
Sea margin % 15 15 15 15 15
Engine margin % 10 10 10 10 10

Average design ship speed knots 22.5 23.5 24.0 24.5 24.8
SMCR power kW 25,000 31,300 35,500 40,100 45,000
1 6K80MEC9 6K90ME9/MEC9 7K90ME9/MEC9 7K90MEC9/ME9 8K90MEC9/ME9
Main engine options 2 7K80MCC6/MEC6 7K90MCC6/MEC6 8K90MCC6/MEC6 9K80MEC9 10K90MCC6/MEC6
3 8L70MCC8/MEC8 7K80MEC9 8K80MEC9 9S80MEC9 10K80MEC9
4 8S70MCC8/MEC8 9K80MCC6/MEC6 8K90MCC6/MEC6 7K98MCC7/MEC7 8K98MC6/ME6
5 8S80MEC9 6K98ME9/MEC9 * 7K98ME9/MEC9 *

Average ship speed 1.0 kn knots 21.5 22.5 23.0 23.5 23.8
SMCR power kW 20,900 26,400 30,200 34,300 38,700
1 6K80MCC6/MEC6 6K90MCC6/MEC6 6K90MEC9/ME9 6K90MEC9/ME9 7K90MEC9/ME9
Main engine options 2 7L70MCC7/MEC7 6K80MEC9 7K80MEC9 8K80MEC9 9K90MCC6/MEC6
3 7S70MCC7/MEC7 8K80MCC6/MEC6 6K98MC6/ME6 8S80MEC9 9K80MEC9
4 8S70MCC8/MEC8 7S80MEC9 6K98MC6/ME6 9S80MEC9
5 6K98ME9/MEC9 *

Average ship speed +1.0 kn knots 23.5 24.5 25.0 25.5 25.8
SMCR power kW 30,000 37,200 41,700 47,000 52,000
1 7K80MEC9 7K98MCC6/MEC6 7K98MCC7/MEC7 8K98MCC7/MEC7 9K98MCC7/MEC7
Main engine options 2 9K80MCC6/MEC6 7K90MEC9 8K90MEC9 8K98MC7/ME7 9K98MC7/ME7
3 6K90MEC9 9K80MEC9 10K80MEC9 9K90MCC9/MEC9 10K90MEC9/ME9
* Proposed 4 7K98ME9/MEC9 * 8K98ME9/MEC9 *

Fig. 15: Ship particulars and propulsion SMCR power demand for Panamax container vessels

Fig 16
Container ship class PostPanamax PostPanamax PostPanamax PostPanamax
Ship size teu 5,500 6,500 8,000 10,000

Scantling draught m 14.0 14.5 14.5 14.5


Deadweight (scantling) dwt 70,000 81,000 97,000 118,000

Design draught m 12.5 13.0 13.0 13.0


Deadweight (design) dwt 58,000 67,000 81,000 101,000
Length overall m 276 300 323 349
Length between pp m 263 286 308 334
Breadth m 40.0 40.0 42.8 45.6
Sea margin % 15 15 15 15
Engine margin % 10 10 10 10

Average design ship speed knots 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0


SMCR power kW 49,800 53,900 60,000 67,700
1 8K98ME7 9K98MC7/ME7 10K98MC7/ME7 11K98MC7/ME7
Main engine options 2 9K90ME9/MEC9 9K98MCC7/MEC7 10K98MCC7/MEC7 12K98MC6/ME6
3 11K90MCC6/MEC6 10K98MCC6/MEC6 11K98MCC6/MEC6 12K98MCC6/MEC6
4 11K80MEC9 10K90ME9/MEC9 11K90ME9/MEC9 12K90ME9/MEC9
5 8K98ME9/MEC9 * 9K98ME9/MEC9 * 10K98ME9/MEC9 *

Average ship speed 1.0 kn knots 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0


SMCR power kW 42,500 46,100 51,400 58,100
1 7K98MC7/ME7 8K98MC7/ME7 9K98MC6/ME6 10K98MC7/ME7
Main engine options 2 8K98MC6/ME6 9K90ME9/MEC9 9K98MCC6/MEC6 10K98MCC7/MEC7
3 8K90ME9/MEC9 11K80MEC9 9K98MC7/ME7 11K98MCC6/MEC6
4 10K80MEC9 9S90MCC8/MEC8 9K90ME9/MEC9 11K90ME9/MEC9
5 9S90MCC8/MEC8 7K98ME9/MEC9 * 8K98ME9/MEC9 * 9K98ME9/MEC9 *

Average ship speed +1.0 kn knots 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0


SMCR power kW 58,000 63,000 69,500 78,000
1 10K98MC7/ME7 11K98MC7/ME7 12K98MC7/ME7 14K98MCC6/MEC6
Main engine options 2 10K98MCC7/MEC7 11K98MCC7/MEC7 12K98MCC7/MEC7 14K98MCC7/MEC7
3 11K90ME9/MEC9 11K90ME9/MEC9 14K98MC6/ME6 14K98MC6/ME6
4 9K98ME9/MEC9 * 10K98ME9/MEC9 * 14K98MCC6/MEC6 14K98MC7/ME7
* Proposed 5 11K98ME9/MEC9 * 12K98ME9/MEC9 *

Fig. 16: Ship particulars and propulsion SMCR power demand for Post-Panamax container vessels

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 19


Container ship class New Panamax New Panamax ULCV ULCV Fig: 17
Ship size teu 12,500 14,000 15,500 18,000 (future)

Scantling draught m 15.0 16.5 16.0 17.0


Deadweight (scantling) dwt 143,000 157,000 171,000 195,000

Design draught m 13.5 15.0 14.0 15.0


Deadweight (design) dwt 123,000 136,000 149,000 178,000
Length overall m 366 366 397 420
Length between pp m 350 350 375 395
Breadth m 48.4 48.4 56.4 56.4
Sea margin % 15 15 15 15
Engine margin % 10 10 10 10

Average design ship speed knots 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0


SMCR power kW 74,000 78,000 84,000 91,500
1 12K98MC7/ME7 14K98MC6/ME6 14K98MC7/ME7 14K98ME9/MEC9 *
Main engine options 2 14K98MCC6/MEC6 14K98MCC6/MEC6 14K98MCC7/MEC7
3 14K98MCC7/MEC7 14K98MC7/ME7 14K98ME9/MEC9 *
4 11K98ME9/MEC9 * 14K98MCC7/MEC7
5 12K98ME9/MEC9 *

Average ship speed 1.0 kn knots 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0


SMCR power kW 64,000 67,500 72,000 79,000
1 11K98MC7/ME7 11K98MC7/ME7 12K98MC7/ME7 14K98MC6/ME6
Main engine options 2 11K98MCC7/MEC7 12K98MC6/ME6 12K98MCC7/MEC7 14K98MC7/ME7
3 12K98MC6/ME6 12K98MCC6/MEC6 14K98MC6/ME6 14K98MCC6/MEC6
4 12K98MCC6/MEC6 12K98MCC7/MEC7 14K98MCC6/MEC6 14K98MCC7/MEC7
5 10K98ME9/MEC9 * 10K98ME9/MEC9 * 11K98ME9/MEC9 * 12K98ME9/MEC9 *

Average ship speed +1.0 kn knots 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0


SMCR power kW 85,500 91,000 97,000 106,000
1 14K98MC7/ME7 14K98ME9/MEC9 *
Main engine options 2 14K98ME9/MEC9 *
3
4
* Proposed

Fig. 17: Ship particulars and propulsion SMCR power demand for New Panamax and ULCV container vessels

For all cases, we have assumed a sea


SMCR power margin of 15% and an engine margin
kW
120,000 of 10%, i.e. a service rating of 90%
+1.0 knot
ULCV SMCR, including a 15% sea margin.
New
100,000 Panamax Average design
ship speed
The SMCR power results are also
Post-Panamax -1.0 knot
80,000
shown in the tables in Figs. 13-17 “Ship
Particulars and Propulsion SMCR Pow-
60,000 Panamax
SMCR Power is er Demand” together with the selected
inclusive of:
Feeder • 15% sea margin main engine options. These are valid,
40,000 • 10% engine margin
Small
in all cases, for single-screw container
ships. The similar results valid for +/−
20,000
1.0 knots compared with the average
design ship speed are also shown.
0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 teu
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity

Fig. 18: Propulsion SMCR power demand of an average container vessel

20 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


The graph in Fig. 18 shows the curve Propulsion SMCR power
demand per teu box
of the above-mentioned table figures kW/teu
12
of the SMCR power needed for propul- 11
sion of an average container ship. The 10
Feeder Panamax
Post-Panamax
SMCR power curves valid for +/− 1.0 9

8
knots compared with the average de- New
7 Panamax
sign ship speed are also shown. Small ULCV
6

5 Average design
ship speed
When referring to the propulsion power 4

3
demand of the average container ships
2
as shown in Fig. 18, the similar SMCR
1
power demand per teu box can be 0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 teu
found rather easily, as shown in Fig. 19. Size of ship, max number of teu capacity

Quite surprisingly, it seems as if there


is a maximum design limit of 9.0 kW/ Fig. 19: Propulsion SMCR power demand per teu box of an average container vessel

teu, which is not exceeded for average


designed container ships.
Relative operating cost
and savings per teu
For container ships larger than 5,500
%
teu, the average design ship speed 100
used is 25.0 knots, whereas the ship 90
speed is lower for smaller ships, which 80 Ope
rati
means that the maximum limit is not 70 cos ng
ts
exceeded. 60

50 Post-Panamax New ULCV


Panamax
Relative main engine operating
40
costs per teu box ings
30 Sav
Based on Fig. 19, the relative operating 20
costs per teu for container ships larger 10
than 5,500 teu are found with the 5,500
0
teu ship used as the basis, see Fig. 20. 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 teu
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity

The curves show that for a 16,000 teu


container ship, the main engine operat- Fig. 20: Relative operating costs and savings per teu box of an average container vessel with a 5,500 teu
container vessel as basis (equal ship speed)
ing costs per teu will be approx. 40%
lower than that of a 5,500 teu container
ship.

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 21


Propulsion Power Demand of Average
Container Vessels as a Function of SMCR power
kW
Ship Speed 14,000
Small
When the required ship speed is 20.0 kn
8S50MC-C7/ME-C7

12,000
changed, the required SMCR power 7S50ME-B8
19.5 kn

will change too, as previously men- 6S50ME-B9

10,000 6S50ME-B8
19.0 kn
tioned, and other main engine options 6S50MC-C7/ME-C7
7S46MC-C7
18.5 kn
could be selected. 8,000
6S46MC-C8
7S40ME-B9
18.0 kn
7S42MC7
17.5 kn
6S40ME-B9
ed 6S42MC7
This trend, along with the average 6,000 7S35ME-B9
igns
hip
spe 17.0 kn

5S40ME-B9 des
5S42MC7 age
ship and average ship speed as the 6S35ME-B9
16.5 kn
Av
er
16.0 kn
6S35MC7
5S35ME-B9
basis, is shown in detail in Figs. 21-25. 4,000
5S35MC7
15.5 kn
15.0 kn
5L35MC6
See also the description below giving 7S26MC7
14.0 kn
14.5 kn

6S26MC7
13.5 kn
the results of the main engine selection 2,000 5S26MC7
13.0 kn
SMCR Power is inclusive of:
• 15% sea margin
for the different classes of container • 10% engine margin
0
ships. 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 teu
Size of ship, max number of teu capacity

If for a required ship speed, the nominal


MCR power needed for a given main Fig. 21: Propulsion SMCR power demand of Small container vessels

engine is too high, it is possible to der-


ate the engine, i.e. by using an SMCR
power lower than the nominal MCR
SMCR power
power. This would result in a lower spe- kW
35,000
cific fuel consumption of the engine. Feeder
24.0 kn
7K80ME-C9

30,000 23.5 kn
Therefore, in some cases it could be of 8K80MC-C6/ME-C6

6K80ME-C9
a particular advantage, when consider- 23.0 kn
8L70MC-C8/ME-C8
8L70MC-C7/ME-C7
25,000 8S70MC-C7/ME-C7
22.5 kn
ing the high fuel price today, to select a 7L70MC-C8/ME-C8
7S70MC-C8/ME-C8
22.0 kn
6K80MC-C6/ME-C6
higher mark number of the engine or to
d
ee 21.5 kn
sp 7S65ME-C8
20,000 sh
ip 6L70MC-C8/ME-C8
ig
n 6S70MC-C8/ME-C8
use one extra cylinder than needed and 21.0 kn ag
ed
es 6S70MC-C7/ME-C7
6S65ME-C8
7S60MC-C8/ME-C8 er
Av
then derate the engine. 15,000
7S60MC-C7/ME-C7
6S60MC-C8/ME-C8
20.5 kn 20.0 kn
19.5 kn
8S50MC-C8/ME-B8
7S50ME-B9
7S50MC-C8/ME-B8 19.0 kn

For small feeders, particularly the 5, 6 10,000


6S50ME-B9
6S50MC-C7/ME-C7
18.5 kn

6S46MC-C8 18.0 kn.5 kn


17
and 7 cylinders, direct-coupled MAN 6S46MC-C7
6S40ME-B9 17.0 kn

B&W two-stroke S50 and smaller en- 5,000


SMCR Power is inclusive of:
• 15% sea margin
gine bores are installed, see Fig. 21. An • 10% engine margin

0
alternative installation also used is four- 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 teu

stroke engines together with a reduc- Size of ship, max number of teu capacity

tion gear.

For feeder container vessels, particu- Fig. 22: Propulsion SMCR power demand of Feeder container vessels

larly the 6, 7 and 8-cylinder S50, S60


and L/S70 engine types are used, see
Fig. 22.

22 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


For Panamax container vessels, par-
ticularly the 7, 8 and 9-cylinder directly
SMCR power
kW
60,000
coupled MAN B&W two-stroke K80,
9K98MC7/ME7 K90 and K98 type engines are used,
Panamax kn 9K98MC-C7/ME-C7
8K98ME9/ME-C9*
26.0
50,000
9K90ME-C9/ME9
see Fig. 23. Today, we also see the S80
8K98MC-C7/ME-C7 7K98ME9/ME-C9*
25.5 kn
8K90ME-C9
7K98MC7/ME7
type engine with low engine speed to
25.0 kn
40,000
24.5 kn
7K90ME-C9/ME9
6K98ME9/ME-C9*
be applied for ships where it has been
ed 24.0 kn 8S80ME-C9
spe

ra ge d
es ign
ship
23.5 kn
8K80ME-C9
6K98MC6/ME6
6K90ME-C9/ME9
made possible to install a propeller with
7K80ME-C9 Ave 7S80ME-C9
30,000
6K80ME-C9
23.0 kn
22.5 kn
a relatively large diameter, giving in-
8S70MC-C8/ME-C8 6S80ME-C9
8L70MC-C8/ME-C8
7K80MC-C6/ME-C6
7S70MC-C8/ME-C8
22.0 kn creased propeller efficiency, but a lower
7L70MC-C8/ME-C8 21.5 kn
20,000 21.0 kn
6S70MC-C8/ME-C8
optimum propeller/engine speed.
SMCR Power is inclusive of:
10,000 • 15% sea margin
• 10% engine margin For Post-Panamax container ships,
* Proposed

particularly the direct-coupled MAN


0
2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 teu B&W two-stroke engine types 10, 11
Size of ship, max. number of teu capacity
and 12K98 are used, see Fig. 24. To-
day, we also see the S90 with a low
engine speed applied on ships where
Fig. 23: Propulsion SMCR power demand of Panamax container vessels it has been made possible to install a
propeller with a relatively large diam-
eter.

SMCR power
kW
90,000

Post-Panamax

12K98ME9/ME-C9*
80,000 14K98MC-C6/ME-C6
14K98MC6/ME6
kn
26.5
12K98MC7/ME7 11K98ME9/ME-C9*

12K98MC-C7/ME-C7
n
70,000 26.0 k 12K98MC-C6/ME-C6
12K98MC6/ME6
11K98MC7/ME7
10K98ME9/ME-C9*
kn kn
25.5 25.0
11K98MC6/ME6
11K98MC-C6/ME-C6
speed 10K98MC7/ME7
ship 9K98ME9/ME-C9*
60,000 ign
des
r age 10K98MC6/ME6
Ave 10K98MC-C6/ME-C6
10K90ME9/ME-C9
9K98MC7/ME7
kn kn kn
8K98ME9/ME-C9*
24.5 24.0 23.5
9K90ME9/ME-C9 9K98MC6/ME6
50,000 8K98MC7/ME7
9S90MC-C8/ME-C8
10K90MC-C6/ME-C6 7K98ME9/ME-C9*
8K90ME9/ME-C9
10K80ME-C9 kn
23.0
8S90MC-C8/ME-C8
9K80ME-C9
40,000
7S90MC-C8/ME-C8 SMCR Power is inclusive of:
• 15% sea margin
* Proposed
• 10% engine margin

30,000
4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 teu
Size of ship, max. number of teu capacity

Fig. 24: Propulsion SMCR power demand of Post-Panamax container vessels

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 23


SMCR power
kW
130,000

ULCV
120,000

New 26.5
kn
110,000
Panamax
kn
26.0
100,000
kn
25.5
14K98ME9/ME-C9*
d
ip spee
gn sh
90,000 e desi
Averag
14K98MC7/ME7
25.0 kn
14K98MC-C7/ME-C7
24.5 kn 12K98ME9/ME-C9*
80,000 14K98MC6/ME6
24.0 kn
12K98MC7/ME7 11K98ME9/ME-C9*
12K98MC-C7/ME-C7
70,000 11K98MC7/ME7
23.5 kn
10K98ME9/ME-C9*
23.0 kn
10K98MC7/ME7
60,000
10K98MC6/ME6
9K98MC7/ME7
SMCR Power is inclusive of:
50,000 • 15% sea margin
• 10% engine margin
* Proposed
40,000
10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 teu

Size of ship, max. number of teu capacity

Fig. 25: Propulsion SMCR power demand of New Panamax and ULCV container vessels

For New Panamax and ULCV container


ships, particularly the 10, 12 and 14K98
direct-coupled MAN B&W two-stroke
engine types can be used, see Fig. 25.

24 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


Fig.26

Propellers for Large Single-screw


Container Ships Weight of
Propeller diameter propeller
The building of larger container ships mm
ton
while retaining the application of a sim- 11,000
200
ple single-screw hull is obviously, as Sixbladed 94 r/min
10,000 propellers 104 r/min 180
already mentioned, the cheapest solu-
tion, both with regard to investments 160
9,000
and operating costs. Diameter Weight 140
8,000
Therefore, the propeller manufacturers 120

are doing their utmost to design and 7,000 100


94 r/min
produce a feasible large propeller for
104 r/min 80
the present and future large container 6,000

ships, because the main engine need-


60,000 80,000 100,000 kW
ed is already available, ref. our K98 en-
SMCR power
gine types.

Also K108 types have been proposed, Fig. 26: Propellers for large single-screw container ships

but they will most likely be replaced with


higher-rated K98 types, designated produce single-cast, six-bladed fixed in Fig. 26. This Fig. indicates, i.a., that
K98ME9 and K98ME-C9, respectively. pitch propellers up to 131 t (finished a 14K98ME7 with a nominal MCR of
weight), and with some investment, this 87,220 kW at 97 r/min may need a pro-
According to one of the large propel- could be increased to 150 t. peller diameter of about 9.8 m with a
ler designers, any conceivable problem finished weight of about 135 t.
with the design of such large propellers The approximate relationship between
can be overcome. the weight (finished), diameter, engine/
propeller speed and propulsion SMCR
Today, there are already some found- power for a six-bladed propeller for a
ries in the world with the capability to single-screw container ship is shown

Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels 25


Summary References
The container ship market is an in- [1] Propulsion Trends in Tankers
creasingly important and attractive trans- MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen,
port market segment, which may be Denmark, July 2007
expected to become of even greater [2] Propulsion Trends in Bulk Carriers
importance in the future. MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen,
Denmark, August 2007
With the expected demands on large [3] Low Container Ship Speed Facili-
container ships and the intended in- tated by Versatile ME/ME-C Engines
creased lock chambers and depth MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen,
(dredging) of the new Panama Canal to Denmark, January 2008
cater for these and other big ships, the
demands on the design and production
of the main engines and propellers may
grow.

The current MAN B&W two-stroke en-


gine programme is well suited to meet
the main engine power requirement for
the container ship types and sizes that
are expected to emerge in the foresee-
able future, irrespective of whether the
market should demand container ships
designed for a lower ship speed than
normally used caused by the increased
fuel prices.

26 Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels


All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. Copyright © MAN Diesel & Turbo.
5510-0040-02ppr Aug 2013 Printed in Denmark

MAN Diesel & Turbo


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2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark
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