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Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications

2 d EDITION IN SI UNITS
2nd
Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala
McGraw-Hill, 2010

Chapter 5
MASS,, BERNOULLI AND
ENERGY EQUATIONS
Lecture slides by
Mehmet Kanoglu

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Objectives
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• Apply the conservation of mass equation to
balance the incoming and outgoing flow rates in
a flow system.
• Recognize various forms of mechanical energy
energy,
and work with energy conversion efficiencies.
• U
Understand
d t d th the use andd lilimitations
it ti off th
the
Bernoulli equation, and apply it to solve a
variety of fluid flow problems
problems.
• Work with the energy equation expressed in
terms of heads,
heads and use it to determine turbine
power output and pumping power requirements.

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5–1 ■ INTRODUCTION

You are already familiar with


numerous conservationi laws
l
such as the laws of
conservation of mass,
conservation of energy, and
conservation of momentum.

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5–2 ■ CONSERVATION OF MASS
Conservation of mass: Mass is a conserved property, and it
cannot be created or destroyed during a process.

Mass is conserved even during chemical reactions.


Conservation of Mass Principle

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Conservation of Mass

Mass balance for a control volume (CV) in rate form:

the total rates of mass flow into


and out of the control volume

the rate of change of mass within the


control volume boundaries.

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Mass Flow Rate

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Example
The pipe flow in Fig. fills a cylindrical tank as shown. At time t = 0,
the water depth in the tank is 50 cm. Estimate the time required to
fill the remainder of the tank
tank. (The density of the water
is   1000kg / m3 )
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes

Multiple inlets
and exits
Single
stream

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Special Case: Steady, Incompressible Flow

Steady, incompressible flow

Steady incompressible flow (single stream)


Steady,

For steady flow of liquids, the ,


as well as the mass flow rates, remain constant
since liquids are essentially incompressible
substances.

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■ MECHANICAL ENERGY
Mechanical energy: The form of energy that can be converted
to completely and directly by an ideal
mechanical device such as an ideal

Mechanical
M h i l energy iis a useful
f l conceptt
for flows that do not involve

such as the flow of gasoline from an


underground tank into a car.

Mechanical energy of
■ Mechanical energy equation

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■ Mechanical energy equation

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■ Mechanical Energy Loss

Emech, loss : The conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy due to


irreversibilities such as friction.
■ Mechanical energy equation

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■ Shaft Work
Shaft work: The transfer of mechanical energy is usually accomplished by
a and thus mechanical work is often referred to as
A pump or a fan receives (usually from an electric motor) and
transfers it to the fluid as
A turbine converts
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■ Mechanical energy equation for steady, single
I/O flow

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Energy equation in terms of

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Mechanical energy flow chart for a fluid flow system that involves a
pump and a turbine. Vertical dimensions show each energy term
expressed as an equivalent column height of fluid, i.e., head. 20
■ Mechanical energy equation for steady, single
I/O flow

• The Bernoulli equation can be viewed as the


“conservation of mechanical energy
gy p
principle.”
p

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■ Problem 5.18
At a certain location, wind is blowing steadily at 8m/s. Determine the mechanical
energy of air per unit mass and the power generation potential of a wind turbine
with 50-m-diameter blades at that location. Also determine the actual electric power
generation assuming an overall efficiency of 30 percent. Take the air density to be
1.25kg/m3.
■ Problem 5.20
Water is pumped from a lake to a storage tank 18m above at a rate of 70L/s while
consuming 20.4kW of electric power. Disregarding any frictional losses in the pipes
and any changes in kinetic energy, determine (a) the overall efficiency of the pump-
motor unit and (b) the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the
pump
5–4 ■ THE BERNOULLI EQUATION
Bernoulli equation: An approximate relation between pressure,
velocity, and elevation, and is valid in regions of steady,
incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible.
negligible

The Bernoulli equation is an approximate equation that is valid only in


inviscid regions of flow where net viscous forces are negligibly small
compared to inertial, gravitational, or pressure forces. Such regions occur
outside of boundary layers and wakes.
wakes
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Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation

The forces acting on a fluid


particle along a streamline.

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Bernoulli equation :

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Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures
The kinetic and potential energies of the fluid can be converted to flow
energy (and vice versa) during flow, causing the pressure to change.
Multiplying the Bernoulli equation by the density gives

P is the static pressure


V2/2 is the dynamic pressure
gz is
i th
the hydrostatic
h d t ti pressure

Total pressure: The sum of the static, dynamic, and hydrostatic pressures.
Th f
Therefore, the
th Bernoulli
B lli equation
ti states
t t th
thatt the
th ttotal
t l pressure along
l a
streamline is constant.

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Stagnation pressure: The sum of the static and dynamic pressures. It represents
the pressure at a point where the fluid is brought to a complete stop isentropically.

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Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation
1. Steady flow The Bernoulli equation is applicable to steady flow.
2. Frictionless flow Every flow involves some friction, no matter how small,
and frictional effects may or may not be negligible.
negligible
3. No shaft work The Bernoulli equation is not applicable in a flow section that
involves a pump, turbine, fan, or any other machine or impeller since such
devices destroy the streamlines and carry out energy interactions with the
fluid particles. When these devices exist, the energy equation should be
used instead.
4 Incompressible flow Density is taken constant in the derivation of the
4.
Bernoulli equation. The flow is incompressible for liquids and also by gases
at Mach numbers less than about 0.3.
5 No
5. N h f The
heatt transfer
t Th density
d it off a gas is
i iinverselyl proportional
ti l tto
temperature, and thus the Bernoulli equation should not be used for flow
sections that involve significant temperature change such as heating or
cooling sections
sections.
6. Flow along a streamline Strictly speaking, the Bernoulli equation is
applicable along a streamline. However, when a region of the flow is
irrotational and there is negligibly
negligibl small vorticity
orticit in the flow
flo field,
field the
Bernoulli equation becomes applicable across streamlines as well. 34
Frictional effects, heat transfer, and
components that disturb the streamlined
structure
t t off flow
fl make
k th
the Bernoulli
B lli equation
ti
invalid. It should not be used in any of the flows
shown here.

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Example:
Spraying Water
i
into the
h Air
Ai

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Example: Water Discharge from a Large Tank

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Example: The Rise of the
Ocean Due to a Hurricane

The eyey of hurricane Linda ((1997 in


the Pacific Ocean near Baja
California) is clearly visible in this
satellite photo
photo.

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■ Problem 5.25

What are the three major assumptions used in the derivation of the Bernoulli
equation?
■ Problem 5.33

A glass manometer with oil as the working fluid is connected to an air duct as
shown in Fig
Fig. Will the oil levels in the manometer be as in Fig
Fig. a or b? Explain
Explain.
What would your response be if the flow direction is reversed?
■ Problem 5.33
■ Problem 5.38

A Pitot-static probe is used to measure the speed of an aircraft flying at 3000 m. If


the differential pressure reading is 3 kPa, determine the speed of the air craft.
■ Problem 5.38
■ Problem 5.44

Water enters a tank of diameter DT steadily at a mass flow rate of min. An orifice at
the bottom with diameter DO allows water to escape. The orifice has a rounded
entrance,
e a ce, so thee frictional
c o a losses
osses a
are
e negligible.
eg g b e If the
e tank
a iss initially
a ye empty,
p y, (a)
determine the maximum height that the water will reach in the tank and (b) obtain a
relation for water height z as a function of time.
■ Problem 5.51
Air is flowing through a venturi meter whose diameter is 6.6cm at the entrance part
and 4.6 cm at the throat. The gage pressure is measured to be 84kPa at the
entrance and 81kPa at the throat. Neglecting frictional effects, show that the
volume flow rate can be expressed as

And determine the flow rate of air. Take the air density to be 1.21 kg/m3
Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, 
The kinetic energy of a fluid stream obtained
from V2/2 is not the same as the actual kinetic
energy of the fluid stream.
This error can b
Thi be corrected
t d by
b replacing
l i ththe
kinetic energy terms V2/2 in the energy
equation by Vavg2/2, where  is the kinetic
energy correction
ti f t
factor.

The correction factor is 2.0 for fully developed laminar pipe flow, and it
ranges between
b 1
1.04
04 and d1
1.11
11 ffor ffully
ll ddeveloped
l d turbulent
b l flflow iin a round
d
pipe.

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Force Balance across Streamlines
Force balance in the direction n normal to the streamline yields the following
relation applicable across the streamlines for steady, incompressible flow:

For flow along a straight line, R →  and


this equation reduces to P/ + gz = constant
or P =  gz + constant, which is an
expression for the variation of hydrostatic
pressure with
ith vertical
ti l distance
di t ffor a
stationary fluid body.

Pressure decreases towards the


center of curvature when
streamlines are curved (a) (a), but
the variation of pressure with
elevation in steady,
incompressible flow along a
straight line (b) is the same as
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that in stationary fluid.