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2 d EDITION IN SI UNITS

2nd

Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala

McGraw-Hill, 2010

Chapter 5

MASS,, BERNOULLI AND

ENERGY EQUATIONS

Lecture slides by

Mehmet Kanoglu

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Objectives

j

• Apply the conservation of mass equation to

balance the incoming and outgoing flow rates in

a flow system.

• Recognize various forms of mechanical energy

energy,

and work with energy conversion efficiencies.

• U

Understand

d t d th the use andd lilimitations

it ti off th

the

Bernoulli equation, and apply it to solve a

variety of fluid flow problems

problems.

• Work with the energy equation expressed in

terms of heads,

heads and use it to determine turbine

power output and pumping power requirements.

2

5–1 ■ INTRODUCTION

numerous conservationi laws

l

such as the laws of

conservation of mass,

conservation of energy, and

conservation of momentum.

3

5–2 ■ CONSERVATION OF MASS

Conservation of mass: Mass is a conserved property, and it

cannot be created or destroyed during a process.

Conservation of Mass Principle

5

Conservation of Mass

and out of the control volume

control volume boundaries.

6

Mass Flow Rate

7

Example

The pipe flow in Fig. fills a cylindrical tank as shown. At time t = 0,

the water depth in the tank is 50 cm. Estimate the time required to

fill the remainder of the tank

tank. (The density of the water

is 1000kg / m3 )

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes

Multiple inlets

and exits

Single

stream

9

Special Case: Steady, Incompressible Flow

Steady,

as well as the mass flow rates, remain constant

since liquids are essentially incompressible

substances.

10

■ MECHANICAL ENERGY

Mechanical energy: The form of energy that can be converted

to completely and directly by an ideal

mechanical device such as an ideal

Mechanical

M h i l energy iis a useful

f l conceptt

for flows that do not involve

underground tank into a car.

Mechanical energy of

■ Mechanical energy equation

12

■ Mechanical energy equation

13

■ Mechanical Energy Loss

irreversibilities such as friction.

■ Mechanical energy equation

15

■ Shaft Work

Shaft work: The transfer of mechanical energy is usually accomplished by

a and thus mechanical work is often referred to as

A pump or a fan receives (usually from an electric motor) and

transfers it to the fluid as

A turbine converts

17

■ Mechanical energy equation for steady, single

I/O flow

18

Energy equation in terms of

19

Mechanical energy flow chart for a fluid flow system that involves a

pump and a turbine. Vertical dimensions show each energy term

expressed as an equivalent column height of fluid, i.e., head. 20

■ Mechanical energy equation for steady, single

I/O flow

“conservation of mechanical energy

gy p

principle.”

p

21

22

23

■ Problem 5.18

At a certain location, wind is blowing steadily at 8m/s. Determine the mechanical

energy of air per unit mass and the power generation potential of a wind turbine

with 50-m-diameter blades at that location. Also determine the actual electric power

generation assuming an overall efficiency of 30 percent. Take the air density to be

1.25kg/m3.

■ Problem 5.20

Water is pumped from a lake to a storage tank 18m above at a rate of 70L/s while

consuming 20.4kW of electric power. Disregarding any frictional losses in the pipes

and any changes in kinetic energy, determine (a) the overall efficiency of the pump-

motor unit and (b) the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the

pump

5–4 ■ THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

Bernoulli equation: An approximate relation between pressure,

velocity, and elevation, and is valid in regions of steady,

incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible.

negligible

inviscid regions of flow where net viscous forces are negligibly small

compared to inertial, gravitational, or pressure forces. Such regions occur

outside of boundary layers and wakes.

wakes

28

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation

particle along a streamline.

29

Bernoulli equation :

30

Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures

The kinetic and potential energies of the fluid can be converted to flow

energy (and vice versa) during flow, causing the pressure to change.

Multiplying the Bernoulli equation by the density gives

V2/2 is the dynamic pressure

gz is

i th

the hydrostatic

h d t ti pressure

Total pressure: The sum of the static, dynamic, and hydrostatic pressures.

Th f

Therefore, the

th Bernoulli

B lli equation

ti states

t t th

thatt the

th ttotal

t l pressure along

l a

streamline is constant.

31

Stagnation pressure: The sum of the static and dynamic pressures. It represents

the pressure at a point where the fluid is brought to a complete stop isentropically.

32

33

Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation

1. Steady flow The Bernoulli equation is applicable to steady flow.

2. Frictionless flow Every flow involves some friction, no matter how small,

and frictional effects may or may not be negligible.

negligible

3. No shaft work The Bernoulli equation is not applicable in a flow section that

involves a pump, turbine, fan, or any other machine or impeller since such

devices destroy the streamlines and carry out energy interactions with the

fluid particles. When these devices exist, the energy equation should be

used instead.

4 Incompressible flow Density is taken constant in the derivation of the

4.

Bernoulli equation. The flow is incompressible for liquids and also by gases

at Mach numbers less than about 0.3.

5 No

5. N h f The

heatt transfer

t Th density

d it off a gas is

i iinverselyl proportional

ti l tto

temperature, and thus the Bernoulli equation should not be used for flow

sections that involve significant temperature change such as heating or

cooling sections

sections.

6. Flow along a streamline Strictly speaking, the Bernoulli equation is

applicable along a streamline. However, when a region of the flow is

irrotational and there is negligibly

negligibl small vorticity

orticit in the flow

flo field,

field the

Bernoulli equation becomes applicable across streamlines as well. 34

Frictional effects, heat transfer, and

components that disturb the streamlined

structure

t t off flow

fl make

k th

the Bernoulli

B lli equation

ti

invalid. It should not be used in any of the flows

shown here.

35

Example:

Spraying Water

i

into the

h Air

Ai

36

Example: Water Discharge from a Large Tank

37

Example: The Rise of the

Ocean Due to a Hurricane

the Pacific Ocean near Baja

California) is clearly visible in this

satellite photo

photo.

38

■ Problem 5.25

What are the three major assumptions used in the derivation of the Bernoulli

equation?

■ Problem 5.33

A glass manometer with oil as the working fluid is connected to an air duct as

shown in Fig

Fig. Will the oil levels in the manometer be as in Fig

Fig. a or b? Explain

Explain.

What would your response be if the flow direction is reversed?

■ Problem 5.33

■ Problem 5.38

the differential pressure reading is 3 kPa, determine the speed of the air craft.

■ Problem 5.38

■ Problem 5.44

Water enters a tank of diameter DT steadily at a mass flow rate of min. An orifice at

the bottom with diameter DO allows water to escape. The orifice has a rounded

entrance,

e a ce, so thee frictional

c o a losses

osses a

are

e negligible.

eg g b e If the

e tank

a iss initially

a ye empty,

p y, (a)

determine the maximum height that the water will reach in the tank and (b) obtain a

relation for water height z as a function of time.

■ Problem 5.51

Air is flowing through a venturi meter whose diameter is 6.6cm at the entrance part

and 4.6 cm at the throat. The gage pressure is measured to be 84kPa at the

entrance and 81kPa at the throat. Neglecting frictional effects, show that the

volume flow rate can be expressed as

And determine the flow rate of air. Take the air density to be 1.21 kg/m3

Kinetic Energy Correction Factor,

The kinetic energy of a fluid stream obtained

from V2/2 is not the same as the actual kinetic

energy of the fluid stream.

This error can b

Thi be corrected

t d by

b replacing

l i ththe

kinetic energy terms V2/2 in the energy

equation by Vavg2/2, where is the kinetic

energy correction

ti f t

factor.

The correction factor is 2.0 for fully developed laminar pipe flow, and it

ranges between

b 1

1.04

04 and d1

1.11

11 ffor ffully

ll ddeveloped

l d turbulent

b l flflow iin a round

d

pipe.

48

Force Balance across Streamlines

Force balance in the direction n normal to the streamline yields the following

relation applicable across the streamlines for steady, incompressible flow:

this equation reduces to P/ + gz = constant

or P = gz + constant, which is an

expression for the variation of hydrostatic

pressure with

ith vertical

ti l distance

di t ffor a

stationary fluid body.

center of curvature when

streamlines are curved (a) (a), but

the variation of pressure with

elevation in steady,

incompressible flow along a

straight line (b) is the same as

49

that in stationary fluid.

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