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Authors:M. Praveena , Dr.V.Jaiganesh

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Strategy Based Five Layered Artificial Neural Network

Classifier (Iga – Flann)

M. Praveena 1, Dr.V.Jaiganesh2

1

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Computer Science, Dr.SNS Rajalakshmi College of Arts and Science,Coimbatore,

Tamil Nadu, India.

2

Professor, Dept. of PG & Research, Dr. NGP Arts and Science College, Coimbatore,Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract:

Data classification is one of the investment research areas in the field of data mining. Machine learning

algorithms such as naive bayes, neural network, and support vector machine are most regularly used for performing

the classification task. Supervised learning is one of its kinds where the datasets consist of class labels and the

machine learning classifier are trained first using that. It is to be noted that feature selection plays a vital role in

developing the classification accuracy of the supervised machine learning classifiers. This research work aims in

proposing an improved genetic algorithm based feature selection planning based five layered artificial neural

network classifier. Around 20 datasets are collect from the UCI repository. Implementations are carried out using

MATLAB tool. Performance metrics such as prediction efficiency and time taken for prediction are taken into

account to conduct the performance evaluation of the expected classifier. Simulation results portrays that the

proposed IGA-FLANN classifier outperforms the existing classifiers.

Keywords — Machine learning, boosting, neural network, genetic algorithm, feature selection, data mining,

MATLAB.

classified into three categories namely

Data mining is one among the thrust supervised learning, unsupervised learning

research areas in the field of computer and reinforcement learning and is shown

science. Yet there is a knowledge data in Fig.1. The progression of machine

discovery process helps the data mining to learning is comparable to that of data

abstract hidden information from the mining. Both data mining and machine

dataset there is a huge scope of machine learning consider or explore from end to

learning algorithms. Particularly end data to seem for patterns. On the other

supervised machine learning algorithms hand, in preference to extracting data for

gain major importance in data mining human knowledge as is the case in data

research. Machine learning shortly mining applications; machine learning

describe as ML is a kind of artificial makes use of the data to discover patterns

intelligence (AI) which makes available in data and fine-tune program actions

computers with the efficiency to be trained therefore.

without being overtly programmed. ML

learning spotlights on the development of

computer programs which is capable

enough to modify when disclosed to new-

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

new model for compose decision trees

using interval-valued fuzzy membership

values. Most existing fuzzy decision trees

do not examine the uncertainty associated

with their membership values; however,

correct values of fuzzy membership values

are not always possible. Because of that,

Fig.1. Machine Learning and its Types

the authors represented fuzzy membership

values as distance to model uncertainty

Supervised machine learning is the and employ the look-ahead based fuzzy

mission of assume a meaning from decision tree induction method to construct

labelled training data which has a set of decision trees. The authors also inspected

training examples. As far as supervised the significance of different

learning is concerned, every example is a neighbourhood values and define a new

brace containing an input object (which is parameter unkind to specific data sets

usually a vector quantity) and a using fuzzy sets. Some examples are

compulsory output value (may also be provided to establish the effectiveness of

referred as supervisory signal). A their approach.

supervised learning algorithm at first

performs the analysis task from the Bahnsen et al. 2015 proposed an example-

training data and composes a contingent dependent cost-sensitive decision tree

function, in order to map new examples. algorithm, by incorporating the different

An optimal setting apparently facilitates example-dependent costs into a new cost-

the algorithm to exactly courage the class based corruption measure and new cost-

labels for concealed instances and the based pruning criteria. Subsequently, using

same needs the supervised learning three different databases, from three real-

algorithm to reduce from the training data world applications namely credit card

to concealed situations in a "rational" fraud detection, credit scoring and direct

manner. The supervised methods are marketing, the authors calculate their

perhaps used in various application areas proposed method. Their results showed

that include marketing, finance, that their proposed algorithm is the best

manufacturing, testing, stock market performing method for all databases.

prediction, and so on. This research work Additionally, when compared against a

aims in proposing a better genetic standard decision tree, their method builds

algorithm based feature selection strategy extremely smaller trees in only a fifth of

based five layered artificial neural network the time, while having a superior

(IGA-FLANN) classifier. The aim of IGA- performance consistent by cost savings,

FLANN is to better the prediction leading to a method that not only has more

accuracy and also to decrease the time business-oriented results, but also a

taken for classification.

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

method that creates simpler models that the coaching conversation with the highest

are easier to analyze. value variable. A weakness of their

approach is that it does not take into

Online decision trees from data streams consideration the communication between

are usually unable to handle concept drift. behaviour variables and, due to the

Blanco et al., 2016 proposed the uncertainty congenitally present in

Incremental Algorithm Driven by Error modelling learning styles, small

Margins (IADEM-3) that mainly carry out differences in behaviour can lead to

two actions in response to a concept drift. incorrect predictions. Subsequently, the

At first, IADEM-3 resets the variables learner is presented with coaching material

affected by the change and continue not suited to their learning style. Because

unbroken the structure of the tree, which of the above mentioned challenges a new

allows for changes in which ensuing target method that uses fuzzy decision trees to

functions are very similar. After that, build a series of fuzzy predictive models

IADEM-3 creates alternative models that connecting these variables for all

replace parts of the main tree when they dimensions of the Felder Silverman

decidedly improve the accuracy of the Learning Styles model. Results using live

model, thereby rebuilding the main tree if data by the authors showed that the fuzzy

needed. An online change detector and a models have elevated the predictive

non-parametric statistical test based on certainty across four learning style

Hoeffding’s bounds are used to agreement dimensions and promote the discovery of

that significance. A new pruning method is some interesting relationships amongst

also incorporated in IADEM-3, making behaviour variables.

sure that all split tests previously installed

in decision nodes are useful. Their learning 2.2. Recent Works on Support Vector

model is also viewed as an in concert of Machine (SVM)

classifiers, and predictions of the main and

alternative models are combined to Motivated by the KNN trick presented in

classify unlabeled examples. IADEM-3 is the weighted twin support vector machines

empirically compared with various well- with local information (WLTSVM), Pan et

known decision tree induction algorithms al., 2015 expected a novel K-nearest

for concept batch detection. The authors neighbour based structural twin support

depict that their new algorithm often vector machine (KNN-STSVM). By

reaches higher levels of accuracy with applying the intra-class KNN method,

smaller decision tree models, continue the different weights are disposed to the

processing time bounded, irrespective of samples in one class to build up the

the number of instances processed. structural information. For the other class,

the excessive constraints are deleted by the

Predicting learning styles in conversational inter-class KNN method to speed up the

intelligent coaching systems using fuzzy coaching process. For large scale

decision trees has been proposed by problems, a fast clip algorithm is further

Crokett et al., 2017. Prediction of learning introduced for increase of rate.

style is carried out by confining Comprehensive experimental results on

independent behaviour variables during twenty-two datasets determine the

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

STSVM. theory. A fast iterative solution algorithm

based on Cholesky decomposition with

It is noteworthy that existing structural permutation of the support vectors is

classifiers do not balance structural proposed as a solution method. The

information’s relationships both intra-class properties of their SVM formulation were

and inter-class. Connecting the structural analyzed and compared with standard

information with nonparallel support SVMs using a simple example that can be

vector machine (NPSVM), D. Chen et al. illustrated graphically. The correctness and

2016, construct a new structural behaviour of their proposed work has been

nonparallel support vector machine (called determined using a set of public

SNPSVM). Each model of SNPSVM benchmarking problems for both linear

examine not only the density in both and nonlinear SVMs.

classes by the structural information but

also the reparability between classes, thus Utkin and Zhuk., 2017 proposed a well-

it can fully accomplishment prior known one-class classification support

knowledge to directly improve the vector machine (OCC SVM) dealing with

algorithms generalization capacity. interval-valued or set-valued training data.

Moreover, the authors applied the enhance Their key idea is to represent every

alternating direction method of multipliers interval of training data by a finite set of

(ADMM) to SNPSVM. Both their model precise data with estimated weights. Their

itself and the solving algorithm can representation is based on replacement of

assurance that it possibly would deal with the interval-valued expected risk produced

large-scale classification problems with a by interval-valued data with the interval-

huge number of occurrence as well as valued expected risk produced by

features. Experimental results show that imprecise weights or sets of weights. It can

SNPSVM is superior to the other current also be considered that, the interval

algorithms based on structural information uncertainty is replaced with the estimated

of data in both computation time and weight or probabilistic uncertainty. The

classification accuracy. authors showed how constraints for the

estimated weights are incorporated into

Peng et al., 2016 formulated a linear kernel dual quadratic programming problems

support vector machine (SVM) as a which can be viewed as development of

regularized least-squares (RLS) problem. the well-known OCC SVM models. With

By defining a set of signal variables of the the help of numerical examples with

errors, the solution to the RLS problem is synthetic and real interval-valued training

represented as an equation that relates the data the authors decorate their proposed

error vector to the indicator variables. approach and investigate its properties.

Through dissolution the training set, the

SVM weights and bias are expressed

analytically using the support vectors. The

authors also determine how their approach 2.3. Recent Works on Adaboost

naturally extends to sums with nonlinear Universum data usually does not belong to

kernels whilst avoiding the need to make any class of the training data, has been

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

al., 2014 addressed a novel boosting and provide a suggestion in choosing the

algorithm called UAdaBoost which most convenient noise-alleviating

possibly would boost the classification approach according to the concrete noise

performance of AdaBoost with Universum level in practical applications.

data. UAdaBoost chooses a function by

minimizing the loss for labelled data and Baig et al., 2017 presented a boosting-

Universum data. The cost function is based method of learning a feed-forward

minimized by a greedy, stagewise, artificial neural network (ANN) with a

functional gradient procedure. Each single layer of hidden neurons and a single

training stage of UdaBoost is fast and output neuron. At first, an algorithm called

efficient. The standard AdaBoost weights Boostron is represent which learns a

labeled samples during training emphasis single-layer perceptron using AdaBoost

while UAdaBoost gives an explicit and decision stumps. It is then continue to

learn weights of a neural network with a

weighting design for Universum samples

single hidden layer of linear neurons. At

as well. Also the authors described the

practical conditions for the capability of last, a novel method is introduced by the

Universum learning. These conditions are authors to incorporate non-linear

based on the analysis of the distribution of activation functions in artificial neural

at once predictions over training samples. network learning. Their proposed method

By their experimental results the authors uses continue representation to

claimed that their method can obtain approximate non-linearity of activation

superior performances over the standard functions, learns the coefficients of

AdaBoost by selecting proper Universum nonlinear terms by AdaBoost which adapts

data. the network parameters by a layer-wise

iterative traversal of neurons and an

Sun et al., 2016 quoted a representative appropriate reduction of the problem.

access named noise-detection based Comparison of various neural network

AdaBoost (ND_AdaBoost) in order to models learned the proposed methods and

boost the robustness of AdaBoost in the those ground using the least mean squared

two-class classification scenario. In order learning (LMS) and the resilient back-

to courage the dilemma a robust multi- propagation (RPROP) is provided by the

class AdaBoost algorithm (Rob_MulAda) authors.

is proposed by the authors whose key

ingredients consist in a noise-detection Miller and Soh 2015 proposed a novel

based multi-class loss function and a new cluster-based boosting (CBB) approach to

weight updating scheme. The authors address limitations in boosting on

claims that their experimental study supervised learning (SL) algorithms. Their

announce that their newly-proposed CBB approach partitions the training data

weight updating scheme is indeed more into clusters consist of highly similar

robust to mislabeled noises than that of member data and integrates these clusters

ND_AdaBoost in both two-class and directly into the boosting process. Their

multi-class scenarios. As well, through the CBB approach experiments to address two

comparison experiments, the authors also specific limitations for current boosting

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

both resulting from boosting converge on To select the most feasible and compact

incorrect training data. The first one is feature subset, the improved GA with

filtering for subsequent functions when the mutation pool is being proposed in this

training data contains dangerous areas research work. The search for feature

and/or label noise; and the second one is δ

subset is done based on and conditional

over fitting in subsequent functions that mutual information measure. Every dataset

are forced to learn on all the incorrect is first fed into the proposed theoretical

instances. The authors demonstrated the search based feature selection algorithm to

capability of CBB through extensive obtain a subset of features, which are

empirical results on 20 UCI benchmark evaluated and finally after convergence,

datasets and proclaimed that CBB achieves the non-dominated feature subset is

superior predictive accuracy that use selected.

selective boosting without clusters.

As GA is a population based stochastic

III. PROPOSED WORK search algorithm, the initial population for

proposed improved GA is created at

The proposed work has contributions three

random. The dimension of population set

fold. At first an improved genetic p ×n p

algorithm based feature selection action is is where the defined population

n

size is and is the number of features in

portrayed. Once when the features are

selected then in the next stage, verdict the dataset. Binary string representation of

association is done. At the third stage, five chromosome is chosen in this work. The

layered artificial neural network is length of the string is same with total

proposed. number of features present in the dataset.

Each gene consists of only two values, ‘1’

3.1. Improved Genetic Algorithm based and ‘0’, which implies that the index

Feature Selection Strategy feature is present and absent respectively

C

P={P,P,...,P} in current subset. So, a chromosome 1

of

Let, 1 2 n

be the feature set

length K is represented as follows:

where n is the number of features and

U ={O 1,O2, m }∈

...,O R m× n

In the proposed improved GA, every

be a given

≤n . The population member has equal probability

dataset with m objects where m

of being a parent. Single point crossover

feature selection method can be viewed as approach is used to get offspring from

a mapping

(P

g ,U

,D) →{P

'}

, where,

(⋅)

g

parent chromosomes. The main reason

is the feature selection method, D is the behind application of alteration is to

decision attribute representing class labels diversity in the population. The method

'=k

'⊂P , where, P uses a alteration pool of different mutation

and P , number of

strategies. At any moment for any current

selected features, k<<n . The goal of offspring, alteration strategy to be applied

proposed method is to find P ' which will

is chosen dynamically from the pool. The

be highly relevant to D and less related to reason behind selecting such alteration

each other. strategy is to maximize quality of

population member by utilizing

effectiveness of those individual mutual

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

9: Select another parent i

from the

resilient feature subset, the main dataset is

population

first sampled using sample with

replacement strategy (SWR) into E 10: Apply single point crossover

number of dataset of equal dimension with P P

between i

and i

to produce offspring

main dataset. The SWR strategy is used to

make E number of dataset from the main 11: Dynamically select mutation

dataset with intentional perturbation into it strategy from mutation pool

and reason behind choosing SWR strategy

is that in this strategy two sample values 12: Apply mutation to offspring

are independent. Goal of propose method

13: Compute two fitness values for

is to apply multiple improved GAs on

offspring

multiple sub datasets to make robust and

generalized feature subset. Among the 14: if both fitness values of offspring is

final reduct set, pair wise dominance check optimal than the global best then

is opted and at last the final selected

feature subset is that one which has its Offspring replaces one of its

domination count 0 implies it is a non- parents and update the global best

dominated solution. If multiple feature Else if Offspring dominates any

subsets are present with dominance count parent then

zero then objective wise weak dominance

concept is opted to get most feasible one. Offspring replaces that parent

The improved GA algorithm is given

End if

below.

15: End for

Algorithm 1 Improved genetic algorithm

based feature selection (FSGA). 16: Until predefined number of

generations are exhausted

1: Input: Sampled Dataset

17: Return Non-dominated set of

2: Begin

population members as solution

N

3: Generate Population

(P

) of size N

18: End

4: Evaluate both fitness functions for all 19: Output: Non-dominated reduct set

population members

3.2. Verdict Consolidation

5: Calculate global best of each fitness

function In proposed work a nondominated solution

based verdict consolidation is considered

6: Repeat for final feature subset selection. The

i=1

..N7: ensemble feature selector runs Enumber

for i=1

..N

of individual feature selectors in parallel

r

edu

ct R

edu

cti

P

i

8: First_parent =

P

i which provides set for

i=1

,2,...,E. As a result, final r

edu

ct

set

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

R

is obtained by combining all such F

8: Return F

r

edu

ct

s

, where,

9: End

R=R

edu

ct1∪R

edu

ct2∪...∪R

edu

ctE

.

10: Output: Set F of optimal feature

Now each pair of r

edu

ct x and y

in

subset

r

edu

ct

set Ris compared based on their

objective functions and if all objective 3.3. Five Layered - ANN (FL – ANN)

function values for x are optimum compare Classifier

y y

to that of , we say that x dominates

x >y

Once after the feature selection is carried

and denote it as . For each reduct in out, FL – ANN is used to classify. FL –

R , a dominating factor is set initially as ANN is a five layered RBF based classifier

zero and it increases by one when it neural network that makes use of gradient

r

edu

ct

dominates another in R. Finally, descent approach and regression based

a

r

edu

ct

is selected in set F if it classification. It optimizes flattening

dominates all the reducts, i.e., if it’s parameter of RBF kernel through grade

R−1 descent approach.

dominating factor is . If multiple

such

r

edu

ct

is there in F then one is Applied input vector x is transmitted to

chosen at random as the final reduct. classification layer through input layer.

Pattern layer includes one neuron for each

Algorithm 2 Find optimal features by training datum with RBF kernel. Squared

verdict consolidation. Euclidean distance between input vector x

and training data vector t is calculated as

R=R

edu

ct1∪R

edu

ct2∪...∪R

edu

ctE

1: in (1) where p denotes total number of

Input : All generated reducts training data at pattern layer.

R=R

edu

ct1∪R

edu

ct2∪...∪R

edu

ctE

2

d

it(j)= x

s −tj ,1≤j≤p

F=φ 2: Begin F=φ ... (1)

dx =0

3: for each

r

edu

ct x in R set used in RBF kernel function as in (2)

dx =0 where r (j) denotes output of jth training

dominating factor

data and σ represents flattening

R4: for each

r

edu

ct x in R parameter. Outputs of RBF kernel function

are the output values of pattern layer

R5: for each

r

edu

cty(≠x) in R neurons. Moreover, this layer includes N

target values of each training datum

(x>y) then increase dx determined by corresponding class.

6: if by

one

−1

*

d t(j)

is

σ2

r(j)=e 2

,1≤j≤p

... (2)

F=F∪{x

} 7: if

(d==R−1

x) then

F=F∪{x

} When a training datum belongs to ith class

then its ith value will be 0.9 and others will

8: End-for be 0.1, as given in (3).

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

0.9

tjbelo

ngstoithc

las

s1≤i≤N calculates denominator value the same as

y(j,i)=

0.1

els

e 1≤j≤p FL-ANN represented by D.

... (3) p

=∑

D r(j)

N+1 neurons are placed at summation j=1

... (6)

layer where N is the total number of

classes and additional one term to N is for Each class is represented with a neuron at

one neuron to obtain denominator. FL- normalization layer. These neurons divide

ANN uses diverge effect term at corresponding nominator value by

summation layer to increase the distances denominator value calculated at

among classes. Diverge effect term value summation layer, according to (7) where ci

is calculated as in (4) where d (j, i) denotes denotes normalized output of ith class.

diverge effect term of jth training data and

u

ith class. ymax is initialized to 0.9 which i=

c i

,1≤i≤N

D ... (7)

denotes the maximum value of y(j, i). ymax

value is updated with the maximum value

Class of input vector is determined at

of output layer after each iteration of

output layer through the winner decision

optimization. Diverge effect term is

mechanism as given in (8) where c is the

calculated by N neurons of summation

output vector of normalization layer, cid

layer. This calculation includes aggressive

and id denote winner neuron value and

form of y (j, i) − ymax to increase the effect

indices of the class, respectively.

of y (j, i).

[c ,i

d ]=m

ax

(c)

d(j,i)=e(y(j,i)−ym

ax)

*y(j,i)

id

... (8)

... (4)

Gradient descent based collective learning

Diverge effect term is used in calculating

is utilized in FL-ANN for obtaining

nominator values at summation layer as in

optimized flattening parameter value. Each

(5). Moreover, denominator value is also

training datum at pattern layer is

calculated at this layer as in (6).

sequentially applied to neural network and

p three steps are executed until maximum

ui = ∑d ( j , i ) * r ( j ),1 ≤ i ≤ N iteration limit exceeds. Firstly, squared

j=1

... (5) error e is calculated for each input, as in

(9) where y(z, id) represents the value of

When N neurons, represented with ui,

zth training input data for idth class and cid

calculate nominator values by summing

is value of winner class.

dot product of diverge effect terms and

classification layer outputs, other neuron e=(y(

z,i

d )−c )2

id

... (9)

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Table 1. Dataset Name, No. of Instances and No. of Features

Blood 748 5

Bupa 345 7

Car 1728 6

Contraceptive 1473 9

Credit 30000 24

Diagnostic 569 32

Ecoli 336 8

Ionosphere 351 34

Mammography 961 6

monks – 1 432 7

monks – 2 432 7

monks – 3 432 7

Parkinsons 197 23

Pima 768 8

Prognostic 198 34

Sonar 208 60

Spect 267 22

Vert 310 6

Yeast 1484 8

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Algorithms

Dataset

MLP SVM TREE RBF IGA – FLANN

mks-3 1 1 1 1 1

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Algorithms

Dataset

MLP SVM TREE RBF IGA - FLANN

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Fig.4. Time Taken for Classification by the Algorithms Comparison for the datasets 1 to 10

Fig.5. Time Taken for Classification by the Algorithms Comparison for the datasets 11 to 20

machine learning repository namely blood, pima, prognostic, sonar, spect, Tic-Tac-

bupa, car, contraceptive, credit, diagnostic, Toe Endgame, vert and yeast. The dataset

ecoli, Ionosphere, mammography, monks details such as name of the dataset,

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

features are portrayed in the Table 1. The “Example-dependent cost-sensitive

decision trees,” Expert Systems with

performance are done using MATLAB

Applications, vol. 42, pp. 6609-6619,

tool. The system configuration is Core I3 2015.

processor with 8 GB RAM and 1 TB hard [3] F. Blanco, J. C. Ávila, G. R. Jiménez, A.

disk that runs on Microsoft Windows 8 Carvalho, A. O. Díaz, R. M. Bueno,

operating system. Implementation metrics “Online adaptive decision trees based on

concentration inequalities,” Knowledge-

such as predictive accuracy and time taken

Based Systems, vol. 104, pp. 179-194,

for classification are obtained. For better 2016.

visual depiction at first 10 datasets are [4] Crockett, A. Latham, N. Whitton, “On

involved in the simulation followed up predicting learning styles in

with next 10 datasets. It is evident from the conversational intelligent tutoring systems

using fuzzy decision trees,” International

results that the proposed IGA-FLANN

Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol.

outperforms all the other algorithms in 97, pp. 98-115, 2017.

terms of prediction accuracy. Next, we [5] X. Pan, Y. Luo, Y. Xu, “K-nearest

compared the implementation of the neighbor based structural twin support

proposed IGA-FLANN in terms of time vector machine,” Knowledge-Based

Systems, vol. 88, pp. 34-44, 2015.

taken for classification. From that results

[6] D. Chen, Y. Tian, X. Liu, “Structural

too, it is obvious that the proposed IGA- nonparallel support vector machine for

FLANN consumes less time than that of pattern recognition,” Pattern Recognition,

all the algorithms. vol. 60, pp. 296-305, 2016.

[7] X. Peng, K. Rafferty, S. Ferguson,

V. CONCLUSIONS “Building support vector machines in the

context of regularized least squares,”

This research manuscript aims in design Neurocomputing, volume. 211, pp. 129-

and development of an improved genetic 142, 2016.

[8] V. Utkin, Y. A. Zhuk, “An one-class

algorithm based feature selection approach

classification support vector machine

based five layered artificial neural network model by interval-valued training data,”

classifier. Around 20 datasets are obtained Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 120, pp.

from the UCI repository. Implementations 43-56, 2017.

are carried out using MATLAB tool. [9] J. Xu, Q. Wu, J. Zhang, Z. Tang,

“Exploiting Universum data in AdaBoost

Implementation metrics such as prediction

using gradient descent,” Image and Vision

accuracy and time taken for prediction are Computing, vol. 32, pp. 550-557, 2014.

taken into account to conduct the [10] B. Sun, S. Chen, J. Wang, H. Chen, “A

Implementation evaluation of the proposed robust multi-class AdaBoost algorithm for

classifier. Simulation results presents that mislabeled noisy data,” Knowledge-Based

Systems, vol. 102, pp. 87-102, 2016.

the proposed IGA-FLANN classifier

[11] M. Baig, M .M. Awais, E. M. El-Alfy,

outperforms the existing classifiers. “AdaBoost-based artificial neural network

learning,” Neurocomputing, vol. 16, pp.

REFERENCES 22 – 41, 2017.

[12] L. D. Miller and L. K. Soh, "Cluster-

[1] Y. Lertworaprachaya, Y. Yang, R. John,

Based Boosting," IEEE Transactions on

“Interval-valued fuzzy decision trees with

Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 27,

optimal neighbourhood perimeter,”

pp. 1491-1504, 2015.

Applied Soft Computing, vol. 24, pp. 851-

866, 2014.

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