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CHAPTER OUTLINE

1.2 Dimensional Analysis

1.3 Conversion of Units

1.4 Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

1.5 Significant Figures

1.6 Coordinate Systems

1.7 Vectors and Scalars

1.8 Some Properties of Vectors

1.9 Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors

1.10 Modeling, Alternative Representations, and Problem-Solving Strategy

*OQ1.1 The answer is yes for (a), (c), and (e). You cannot add or subtract a

number of apples and a number of jokes. The answer is no for (b) and

(d). Consider the gauge of a sausage, 4 kg/2 m, or the volume of a

cube, (2 m)3. Thus we have (a) yes (b) no (c) yes (d) no (e) yes.

*OQ1.2 41 € ≈ 41 € (1 L/1.3 €)(1 qt/1 L)(1 gal/4 qt) ≈ (10/1.3) gal ≈ 8 gallons,

answer (c).

*OQ1.3 In the base unit we have (a) 0.032 kg (b) 0.015 kg (c) 0.270 kg (d) 0.041

kg (e) 0.27 kg. Then the ranking is c = e > d > a > b.

*OQ1.4 Answer (c). The vector has no y component given. It is therefore 0.

*OQ1.5 The population is about 6 billion = 6 × 109. Assuming about 100 lb per

person = about 50 kg per person (1 kg has the weight of about 2.2 lb),

1

© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2 Introduction and Vectors

the total mass is about (6 × 109)(50 kg) = 3 × 1011 kg, answer (d).

*OQ1.6 The number of decimal places in a sum of numbers should be the same

as the smallest number of decimal places in the numbers summed.

21.4 s

15 s

17.17 s

4.003 s

57.573 s = 58 s, answer (d).

*OQ1.7 The meterstick measurement, (a), and (b) can all be 4.31 cm. The

meterstick measurement and (c) can both be 4.24 cm. Only (d) does not

overlap. Thus (a), (b), and (c) all agree with the meterstick

measurement.

*OQ1.8 Mass is measured in kg; acceleration is measured in m/s2. Force =

mass × acceleration, so the units of force are answer (a) kg⋅m/s2.

*OQ1.9 Answer (d). Take the difference of the x coordinates of the ends of the

vector, head minus tail: –4 – 2 = –6 cm.

*OQ1.10 Answer (a). Take the difference of the y coordinates of the ends of the

vector, head minus tail: 1 − (−2) = 3 cm.

*OQ1.11 The answers are (a) yes (b) no (c) no (d) no (e) no (f) yes (g) no. Only

force and velocity are vectors. None of the other quantities requires a

direction to be described.

*OQ1.12 Answers (a), (b), and (c). The magnitude can range from the sum of the

individual magnitudes, 8 + 6 =14, to the difference of the individual

magnitudes, 8 − 6 = 2. Because magnitude is the “length” of a vector, it

is always positive.

*OQ1.13 Answer (a). The vector −2D1 will be twice as long as D1 and in the

opposite direction, namely northeast. Adding D2 , which is about

equally long and southwest, we get a sum that is still longer and due

east.

*OQ1.14 Answer (c). A vector in the second quadrant has a negative x

component and a positive y component.

*OQ1.16 Answer (c). The signs of the components of a vector are the same as the

signs of the points in the quadrant into which it points. If a vector

arrow is drawn to scale, the coordinates of the point of the arrow equal

the components of the vector. All x and y values in the third quadrant

are negative.

© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 1 3

used everywhere. The more accuracy required of the standard, the less

the standard should change with time. The current, very accurate

standard is the period of vibration of light emitted by a cesium atom.

Depending on the accuracy required, other standards could be: the

period of light emitted by a different atom, the period of the swing of a

pendulum at a certain place on Earth, the period of vibration of a

sound wave produced by a string of a specific length, density and

tension, and the time interval from full Moon to full Moon.

*CQ1.2 (a) 0.3 millimeters (b) 50 microseconds (c) 7.2 kilograms.

*CQ1.3 Density varies with temperature and pressure. It would be necessary

to measure both mass and volume very accurately in order to use the

density of water as a standard.

*CQ1.4 Vectors A and B are perpendicular to each other.

*CQ1.5 (a) The book’s displacement is zero, as it ends up at the point from

which it started. (b) The distance traveled is 6.0 meters.

*CQ1.6 No, the magnitude of a vector is always positive. A minus sign in a

vector only indicates direction, not magnitude.

*CQ1.7 The inverse tangent function gives the correct angle, relative to the +x

axis, for vectors in the first or fourth quadrant, and it gives an incorrect

answer for vectors in the second or third quadrant. If the x and y

components are both positive, their ratio y/x is positive and the vector

lies in the first quadrant; if the x component is positive and the y

component negative, their ratio y/x is negative and the vector lies in

the fourth quadrant. If the x and y components are both negative, their

ratio y/x is positive but the vector lies in the third quadrant; if the x

component is negative and the y component positive, their ratio y/x is

negative but the vector lies in the second quadrant.

*CQ1.8 Addition of a vector to a scalar is not defined. Try adding the speed

and velocity, 8.0 m/s + (15.0 m/s î) : Should you consider the sum to

be a vector or a scaler? What meaning would it have?

© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

4 Introduction and Vectors

4 3

P1.1 For either sphere the volume is V = π r and the mass is

3

4

m = ρV = ρ π r 3 . We divide this equation for the larger sphere by the

3

same equation for the smaller:

m ρ 4π r3 3 r3

= = =5

ms ρ 4π rs3 3 rs3

4 3 4 3

3 3

Its density is then

m 5.98 × 1024 kg

ρ= = = 5.52 × 103 kg/m 3

V 1.08 × 1021 m 3

(b) This value is intermediate between the tabulated densities of

aluminum and iron. Typical rocks have densities around 2000 to

3000 kg/m3. The average density of the Earth is significantly

higher, so higher-density material must be down below the

surface.

m

P1.3 Let V represent the volume of the model, the same in ρ = , for both.

V

mgold

Then ρiron = 9.35 kg/V and ρgold = .

V

ρgold mgold

Next, = and

ρiron 9.35 kg

⎛ 19.3 × 103 kg/m 3 ⎞

mgold = ( 9.35 kg ) ⎜ = 22.9 kg

⎝ 7.87 × 10 kg/m ⎟⎠

3 3

4

V = Vo − Vi = π ( r23 − r13 )

3

m

From the definition of density, ρ = , so

V

© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 1 5

4

3

3

( )

m = ρV = ρ π ( r2 − r1 ) =

3 4π ρ ( r23 − r13 )

3

2 2

P1.5 (a) This is incorrect since the units of [ax] are m /s , while the units

of [v] are m/s.

(b) This is correct since the units of [y] are m, cos(kx) is

dimensionless if [k] is in m–1, and the constant multiplying cos (kx)

is in units of m.

P1.6 Circumference has dimensions L, area has dimensions L2, and volume

has dimensions L3. Expression (a) has dimensions L(L2)1/2 = L2,

expression (b) has dimensions L, and expression (c) has dimensions

L(L2) = L3.

The matches are: (a) and (f), (b) and (d), and (c) and (e).

dimensions of T. Therefore, the equation x = ka mt n has dimensions of

L = ( LT −2 ) ( T )n or L1T 0 = Lm T n− 2m

m

The powers of L and T must be the same on each side of the equation.

Therefore,

L1 = Lm and m = 1

Likewise, equating terms in T, we see that n – 2m must equal 0. Thus,

n = 2 . The value of k, a dimensionless constant,

cannot be obtained by dimensional analysis .

P1.8 It is often useful to remember that the 1 600-m race at track and field

events is approximately 1 mile in length. To be precise, there are 1 609

meters in a mile. Thus, 1 acre is equal in area to

⎛ 1 mi 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 609 m ⎞

2

( 1 acre ) ⎜ = 4.05 × 103 m 2

⎝ 640 acres ⎟⎠ ⎝ mi ⎠

6 Introduction and Vectors

V 3.78 × 10−3 m 3

P1.9 V = At so t = = 2

= 1.51 × 10−4 m ( or 151 μm )

A 25.0 m

P1.10 Apply the following conversion factors:

1 in = 2.54 cm, 1 d = 86 400 s, 100 cm = 1 m, and 109 nm = 1 m

⎞ ( 2.54 cm/in ) ( 10 m/cm ) ( 10 nm/m )

−2 9

⎛ 1

⎜⎝ in/day ⎟⎠ = 9.19 nm/s

32 86 400 s/day

This means the proteins are assembled at a rate of many layers of

atoms each second!

P1.11 The weight flow rate is

ton ⎛ 2000 lb ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞ ⎛ 1 min ⎞

1200 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 667 lb/s .

h ⎝ ton ⎠ ⎝ 60 min ⎠ ⎝ 60 s ⎠

P1.12 We obtain the number of atoms in the Sun by dividing its mass by the

mass of a single hydrogen atom:

mSun 1.99 × 1030 kg

N atoms = = = 1.19 × 1057 atoms

matom 1.67 × 10−27 kg

P1.13 The masses given are for a 1.00 m3 volume. Density is defined as mass

per unit volume, so ρAl = 2.70 × 10 kg/m and ρFe = 7.86 × 10 kg/m .

3 3 3 3

⎛ 4⎞ ⎛ 4⎞

ρFe ⎜ ⎟ π rFe3 = ρAl ⎜ ⎟ π rAl3

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

1/3

⎛ρ ⎞ ⎛ 7.86 ⎞

1/3

⎝ρ ⎠ Al

⎝ 2.70 ⎟⎠

4πρAl rAl3

P1.14 The mass of each sphere is mAl = ρAlVAl =

3

4πρFe rFe3

and mFe = ρFeVFe = . Setting these masses equal,

3

4 4 ρ

πρ AL rAl3 = πρFe rFe3 → rAL = rFe 3 Fe

3 3 ρ Al

7.86

rAL = rFe 3 = rFe (1.43)

2.70

The resulting expression shows that the radius of the aluminum sphere

is directly proportional to the radius of the balancing iron sphere. The

sphere of lower density has larger radius.

Chapter 1 7

P1.15 (a) rate = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 7.14 × 10−2

⎝ 7.00 min ⎠ ⎝ 60 s ⎠ s

3 3

−2

(b) rate = 7.14 × 10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

s ⎜⎝ 1 gal ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 in ⎠ ⎝ 100 cm ⎠

m3

= 2.70 × 10−4

s

(c) To find the time to fill a 1.00-m3 tank, find the rate time/volume:

m 3 ⎛ 2.70 × 10−4 m 3 ⎞

2.70 × 10−4 =⎜ ⎟⎠

s ⎝ 1 s

−1

⎛ 2.70 × 10−4 m 3 ⎞ ⎛ 1 s ⎞ s

or

⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ =⎜ 3⎟

= 3.70 × 103 3

1 s ⎝ 2.70 × 10 m ⎠

−4

m

⎛ 1 h ⎞

and so: 3.70 × 103 s ⎜ = 1.03 h

⎝ 3 600 s ⎟⎠

⎛d ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

dnucleus,scale = dnucleus,real ⎜ atom,scale ⎟ = ( 2.40 × 10−15 m ) ⎜

300 ft

P1.16 (a)

⎝ 1.06 × 10 m ⎟⎠

−10

⎝ datom,real ⎠

3 3 3

Vatom 4π ratom

3

/3 ⎛ ratom ⎞ ⎛ datom ⎞ ⎛ 1.06 × 10−10 m ⎞

(b) = = = = ⎜⎝ 2.40 × 10−15 m ⎟⎠

Vnucleus 4π rnucleus

3

/3 ⎜⎝ rnucleus ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ d ⎟

nucleus ⎠

8 Introduction and Vectors

P1.17 Model the room as a rectangular solid with dimensions 4 m by 4 m by

3 m, and each ping-pong ball as a sphere of diameter 0.038 m. The

volume of the room is 4 × 4 × 3 = 48 m3, while the volume of one ball is

4π ⎛ 0.038 m ⎞

3

−5

⎟⎠ = 2.87 × 10 m

3

⎜

3 ⎝ 2

48

Therefore, one can fit about −5

∼ 106 ping-pong balls in the

2.87 × 10

room.

As an aside, the actual number is smaller than this because there will

be a lot of space in the room that cannot be covered by balls. In fact,

even in the best arrangement, the so-called “best packing fraction” is

1

π 2 = 0.74 , so that at least 26% of the space will be empty.

6

Therefore, the above estimate reduces to 1.67 × 106 × 0.740 ~ 106.

*P1.18 (a) We estimate the mass of the water in the bathtub. Assume the tub

measures 1.3 m by 0.5 m by 0.3 m. One-half of its volume is then

V = (0.5)(1.3)(0.5)(0.3) = 0.10 m3.

The mass of this volume of water is

(b) Pennies are now mostly zinc, but consider copper pennies filling

50% of the volume of the tub. The mass of copper required is

P1.19 Assume: Total population = 107; one out of every 100 people has a

piano; one tuner can serve about 1000 pianos (about 4 per day for 250

weekdays, assuming each piano is tuned once per year). Therefore,

⎛ 1 tuner ⎞ ⎛ 1 piano ⎞

# tuners ~ ⎜

⎝ 1 000 pianos ⎟

⎠⎝⎜ 100 people ⎟

⎠

( 107 people ) = 100 tuners

P1.20 A reasonable guess for the diameter of a tire might be 2.5 ft, with a

circumference of about 8 ft. Thus, the tire would make

Chapter 1 9

P1.21 We work to nine significant digits:

⎛ 365. 242 199 d ⎞ ⎛ 24 h ⎞ ⎛ 60 min ⎞ ⎛ 60 s ⎞

1 yr = 1 yr ⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 d ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 h ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 min ⎟⎠

⎝ 1 yr

= 315 569 26.0 s

P1.22 (a) 756 + 37.2 + 0.83 + 2 = 796.03 → 796 , since the number with the

fewest decimal places is 2.

(b) ( 0.003 2 ) ( 2 s.f.) × ( 356.3) ( 4 s.f.) = 1.140 16 = ( 2 s.f.) 1.1

P1.24 r = ( 6.50 ± 0.20 ) cm = ( 6.50 ± 0.20 ) × 10−2 m

m = ( 1.85 + 0.02 ) kg

m

ρ=

( 34 )π r 3

δρ δ m 3δ r

also, = +

ρ m r

In other words, the percentages of uncertainty are cumulative.

Therefore,

δρ 0.02 3 ( 0.20 )

= + = 0.103,

ρ 1.85 6.50

1.85

ρ= 3 = 1.61 × 10 kg/m

3 3

( 3 )π (6.5 × 10 m )

4 −2

four sides of sidewalk, or

V = 2V1 + 2V2 = 2 (V1 + V2 )

The figure on the right gives the dimensions

needed to determine the volume of each portion of ANS. FIG. P1.25

sidewalk:

10 Introduction and Vectors

V2 = ( 10.0 m ) ( 1.0 m ) ( 0.090 m ) = 0.900 m 3

V = 2 ( 1.70 m 3 + 0.900 m 3 ) = 5.2 m 3

dimension:

δ 1 0.12 m ⎫

= = 0.0063 ⎪

1 19.0 m ⎪

δ w1 0.01 m ⎪⎪ δ V

= = 0.010 ⎬ = 0.006 + 0.010 + 0.011 = 0.027 = 3%

w1 1.0 m ⎪ V

δ t1 0.1 cm ⎪

= = 0.011 ⎪

t1 9.0 cm ⎪⎭

P1.26 Using substitution is to solve simultaneous equations. We substitute p

= 3q into each of the other two equations to eliminate p:

⎧3qr = qs

⎪

⎨1 1 2 1 2

⎪⎩ 2 3qr + 2 qs = 2 qt

2

⎧3r = s

These simplify to ⎨ 2 , assuming q ≠ 0.

⎩3r + s = t

2 2

t2

3r + ( 3r ) = t → 12r = t → 2 = 12

2 2 2 2 2

r

t

We now have the ratio of t to r : = ± 12 = ±3.46

r

P1.27 We draw the radius to the initial point and the

radius to the final point. The angle θ between these

two radii has its sides perpendicular, right side to

right side and left side to left side, to the 35° angle

between the original and final tangential directions

of travel. A most useful theorem from geometry then

identifies these angles as equal: θ = 35°. The whole

ANS. FIG. P1.27

circumference of a 360° circle of the same radius is

2πR. By proportion, then

2π R 840 m

=

360° 35°

Chapter 1 11

R= = = 1.38 × 103 m

2π 35° 0.611

We could equally well say that the measure of the angle in radians is

⎛ 2π radians ⎞ 840 m

θ = 35° = 35° ⎜ ⎟ = 0.611 rad =

⎝ 360° ⎠ R

Solving yields R = 1.38 km.

P1.28 For those who are not familiar with solving

equations numerically, we provide a detailed

solution. It goes beyond proving that the

suggested answer works.

The equation 2x4 – 3x3 + 5x – 70 = 0 is quartic, so

we do not attempt to solve it with algebra. To

ANS. FIG. P1.28

find how many real solutions the equation has

and to estimate them, we graph the expression:

x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

We see that the equation y = 0 has two roots, one around x = –2.2 and

the other near x = +2.7. To home in on the first of these solutions we

compute in sequence:

When x = –2.2, y = –2.20. The root must be between x = –2.2 and x = –3.

When x = –2.3, y = 11.0. The root is between x = –2.2 and x = –2.3.

When x = –2.23, y = 1.58. The root is between x = –2.20 and x = –2.23.

When x = –2.22, y = 0.301. The root is between x = –2.20 and –2.22.

When x = –2.215, y = –0.331. The root is between x = –2.215 and –2.22.

We could next try x = –2.218, but we already know to three-digit

precision that the root is x = –2.22.

P1.29 We require

sin θ

sin θ = −3 cos θ , or = tan θ = −3

cos θ

may return –71.6°, but this angle is not

between 0° and 360° as the problem ANS. FIG. P1.29

requires. The tangent function is negative

in the second quadrant (between 90° and 180°) and in the fourth

quadrant (from 270° to 360°). The solutions to the equation are then

360° − 71.6° = 288° and 180° − 71.6 = 108°

12 Introduction and Vectors

P1.30 (a) The distance between the points is given by:

d= ( x2 − x1 )2 + ( y2 − y1 )2

= ( 2.00 − [ −3.00 ])2 + ( −4.00 − 3.00 )2

(b) To find the polar coordinates of each point, we measure the radial

distance to that point and the angle it makes with the +x axis:

θ 1 = tan −1 − ( 4.00

2.00 )

= −63.4°

y = r sin θ = ( 5.50 m ) sin 240° = ( 5.50 m ) ( −0.866 ) = −4.76 m

⎛ y⎞

P1.32 We have r = x 2 + y 2 and θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝ x⎠

(a) The radius for this new point is

(−x)2 + y 2 = x 2 + y 2 = r

and its angle is

⎛ y ⎞

tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 180° − θ

⎝ −x ⎠

is in the first quadrant or in the fourth quadrant if (x, y) is in the

second quadrant. It is at an angle of 180° + θ .

is in the first quadrant or in the third quadrant if (x, y) is in the

second quadrant. It is at an angle of −θ or 360 − θ .

P1.33 The x distance out to the fly is 2.00 m and the y distance up to the fly is

Chapter 1 13

1.00 m.

(a) We can use the Pythagorean theorem to find the distance from the

origin to the fly.

⎛ 1⎞

(b) θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 26.6°; r = 2.24 m, 26.6°

⎝ 2⎠

Section 1.8 Some Properties of Vectors

P1.34 To find these vector expressions

graphically, we draw each set of

vectors. Measurements of the

results are taken using a ruler

and protractor. (Scale: 1 unit =

0.5 m)

(a) A + B = 5.2 m at 60o

(b) A − B = 3.0 m at 330o

(c) B − A = 3.0 m at 150o

(d) A − 2B = 5.2 m at 300o

P1.35 From the figure, we note that the length of the skater's path along the

arc OA is greater than the length of the displacement arrow OA.

14 Introduction and Vectors

addition of the vector from the base camp to

lake A to the vector connecting lakes A and

B, with a scale of 1 unit = 20 km. The

distance from lake B to base camp is then

the negative of this resultant vector, or

−R = 310 km at 57° S of W .

P1.37 The scale drawing for the

graphical solution should be

similar to the figure to the

right. The magnitude and

direction of the final

displacement from the

starting point are obtained

by measuring d and θ on the drawing ANS. FIG. P1.37 and

applying the scale factor used in

making the drawing. The results should be d = 420 ft and θ = –3° .

P1.38 (a) See figure to the right.

(b) C = A + B = 2.00î + 6.00 ĵ + 3.00î − 2.00 ĵ

= 5.00î + 4.00 ĵ

D = A − B = 2.00î + 6.00 ĵ − 3.00î + 2.00 ĵ

= −1.00î + 8.00 ĵ

⎛ 4⎞

(c) C = 25.0 + 16.0 at tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 6.40 at 38.7° ANS. FIG. P1.38

⎝ 5⎠

⎛ 8.00 ⎞

D = ( −1.00 ) + ( 8.00 ) at tan −1 ⎜

2 2

⎝ −1.00 ⎟⎠

D = 8.06 at ( 180° − 82.9° ) = 8.06 at 97.2°

Chapter 1 15

6.00a – 8.00b +26.0 = 0

and

–8.00a + 3.00b + 19.0 = 0

Substituting a = 1.33 b – 4.33 into the second equation, we find

−8 ( 1.33 b − 4.33 ) + 3 b + 19 = 0 → 7.67b = 53.67 → b = 7.00

and so a = 1.33(7) – 4.33 = 5.00.

Thus a = 5.00, b = 7.00 . Therefore, 5.00A + 7.00B + C = 0.

equal. A vector equation contains more information than a

scalar equation, as each component gives us one equation.

at 30.0° below the horizontal. If his

displacement is 100 m, then the coordinates

of the superhero are:

x = ( 100 m ) cos ( −30.0° ) = 86.6 m

ANS. FIG. P1.40

y = ( 100 m ) sin ( −30.0° ) = −50.0 m

P1.41 Ax = –25.0

Ay = 40.0

We observe that

Ay

tan φ =

Ax ANS. FIG. P1.41

So

⎛ Ay ⎞ ⎛ 40.0 ⎞

φ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = tan −1 (1.60) = 58.0°

⎝ Ax ⎠ ⎝ 25.0 ⎠

The diagram shows that the angle from the +x axis can be found by

subtracting from 180°:

θ = 180° − 58° = 122°

16 Introduction and Vectors

P1.42 B = Bx î + By ĵ + Bz k̂ = 4.00î + 6.00 ĵ + 3.00k̂

B = 4.002 + 6.002 + 3.002 = 7.81

⎛ 4.00 ⎞

α = cos −1 ⎜ = 59.2° is the angle with the x axis

⎝ 7.81 ⎟⎠

⎛ 6.00 ⎞

β = cos −1 ⎜ = 39.8° is the angle with the y axis

⎝ 7.81 ⎟⎠

⎛ 3.00 ⎞

γ = cos −1 ⎜ = 67.4° is the angle with the z axis

⎝ 7.81 ⎟⎠

P1.43 (a) A = 8.00î + 12.0 ĵ − 4.00k̂

A

(b) B = = 2.00î + 3.00 ĵ − 1.00k̂

4

(c) C = −3A = −24.0 î − 36.0 ĵ + 12.0k̂

Ry = 40.0 sin 45.0° − 30.0 sin 45.0° + 20.0 = 27.1

R = 49.5î + 27.1ĵ

(b) R = ( 49.5)2 + ( 27.1)2 = 56.4

⎛ 27.1 ⎞

θ = tan −1 ⎜ = 28.7°

⎝ 49.5 ⎟⎠

ANS. FIG. P1.44

P1.45 We have B = R − A :

Ax = 150 cos 120° = −75.0 cm

Ay = 150 sin 120° = 130 cm

Rx = 140 cos 35.0° = 115 cm

Ry = 140 sin 35.0° = 80.3 cm

ANS. FIG. P1.45

Therefore,

B = [115 − (−75)î + [80.3 − 130]ĵ = 190î − 49.7 ĵ cm ( )

B = 1902 + 49.7 2 = 196 cm

⎛ 49.7 ⎞

θ = tan −1 ⎜ − = −14.7°

⎝ 190 ⎟⎠

Chapter 1 17

P1.46 A = −8.70î + 15.0 ĵ and B = 13.2 î − 6.60 ĵ

A − B + 3C = 0:

3C = B − A = 21.9î − 21.6 ĵ

C = 7.30î − 7.20 ĵ or Cx = 7.30 cm ; Cy = −7.20 cm

P1.47 (a) ( A + B) = ( 3î − 2 ĵ) + ( − î − 4 ĵ) = 2î − 6 ĵ

(b) ( A − B) = ( 3î − 2 ĵ) − ( − î − 4 ĵ) = 4î + 2 ĵ

(c) A + B = 2 2 + 62 = 6.32

(d) A − B = 42 + 2 2 = 4.47

⎛ 6⎞

(e) θ A +B = tan −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = −71.6° = 288°

⎝ 2⎠

⎛ 2⎞

θ A −B = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 26.6°

⎝ 4⎠

P1.48 We use the numbers given in Problem 1.34:

A = 3.00 m, θ A = 30.0°

Ay = A sin θA = 3.00 sin 30.0° = 1.50 m

So A = Ax î + Ay ĵ = (2.60î + 1.50 ĵ) m

B = 3.00 m, θ B = 90.0°

Bx = 0, By = 3.00 m → B = 3.00 ĵ m

( ) (

A + B = 2.60î + 1.50 ĵ + 3.00 ĵ = 2.60î + 4.50 ĵ m )

P1.49 Let the positive x direction be eastward, the positive y direction be

vertically upward, and the positive z direction be southward. The total

displacement is then

( ) (

d = 4.80î + 4.80 ĵ cm + 3.70 ĵ − 3.70k̂ cm )

= ( 4.80î + 8.50 ĵ − 3.70k̂ ) cm

18 Introduction and Vectors

8.50

cos θ = , giving θ = 35.5° .

10.4

P1.50 (a) D = A + B + C = 6î − 2 ĵ

D = 62 + 2 2 = 6.32 m at θ = 342°

(b) E = − A − B + C = −2 î + 12 ĵ

E = 2 2 + 12 2 = 12.2 m at θ = 99.5°

P1.51 d1 = 100î

d2 = −300î

d3 = −150 cos ( 30.0° ) î − 150 sin ( 30.0° ) ĵ = −130î − 75.0 ĵ

d4 = −200 cos ( 60.0° ) î + 200 sin ( 60.0° ) ĵ = −100î + 173 ĵ

(

R = d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 = −130î − 202 ĵ m )

R = ( −130) 2

+ ( −202 ) = 240 m

2 ANS. FIG. P1.51

⎛ 202 ⎞

φ = tan −1 ⎜ = 57.2°

⎝ 130 ⎟⎠

θ = 180 + φ = 237°

P1.52 (a) E = (17.0 cm) cos ( 27.0° ) î

E = (15.1î + 7.72 ĵ) cm

(b) F = (17.0 cm) cos ( 117.0° ) î

( )

F = −7.72 î + 15.1ĵ cm Note that we ANS. FIG. P1.52

did not need to explicitly identify the angle

with the positive x axis, but by doing so, we don’t have to keep

track of minus signs for the components.

(c) G = [(−17.0 cm) cos ( 243.0° )] î + [(−17.0 cm) sin ( 243.0° )] ĵ

(

G = −7.72 î − 15.1ĵ cm )

Chapter 1 19

Problem-Solving Strategy

P1.53 From the figure, we may see that the spacing between diagonal planes

is half the distance between diagonally adjacent atoms on a flat plane.

This diagonal distance may be obtained from the Pythagorean

theorem, Ldiag = L2 + L2 . Thus, since the atoms are separated by a

distance L = 0.200 nm, the diagonal planes are separated by

1 2

L + L2 = 0.141 nm .

2

P1.54 We note that − î = west and − ĵ = south. The given

mathematical representation of the trip can be

written as 6.30 b west + 4.00 b at 40° south of west

+3.00 b at 50° south of east +5.00 b south.

(a) The figure on the right shows a map of the

successive displacements that the bus

undergoes. ANS. FIG. P1.54

(b) The total odometer distance is the sum of the magnitudes of the

four displacements:

6.30 b + 4.00 b + 3.00 b + 5.00 b = 18.3 b

(c) R = (−6.30 − 3.06 + 1.93) b î + (−2.57 − 2.30 − 5.00) b ĵ

= −7.44 b î − 9.87 b ĵ

⎛ 9.87 ⎞

= (7.44 b)2 + (9.87 b)2 at tan −1 ⎜

⎝ 7.44 ⎟⎠

south of west

= 12.4 b at 233° counterclockwise from east

P1.55 Figure P1.55 suggests a right triangle where, relative to angle θ, its

adjacent side has length d and its opposite side is equal to the width of

the river, y; thus,

y

tan θ = → y = d tan θ

d

y = (100 m) tan 35.0° = 70.0 m

The width of the river is 70.0 m .

2

20 Introduction and Vectors

volume on the order of

( 4 × 10 m ) ~ 1050 m 3

16 3

1061 m 3

The number of stars is about 50 3

~ 1011 stars .

10 m /star

P1.57 It is desired to find the distance x such that

x 1 000 m

=

100 m x

(i.e., such that x is the same multiple of 100 m as the multiple that

1 000 m is of x). Thus, it is seen that

x2 = (100 m)(1 000 m) = 1.00 × 105 m2

and therefore

P1.58 One month is

1 mo = (30 day)(24 h/day)(3600 s/h) = 2.592 × 106s.

Applying units to the equation,

V = (1.50 Mft 3 /mo)t + (0.008 00 Mft 3 /mo2 )t 2

Since 1 Mft3 = 106 ft3,

V = (1.50 × 106 ft 3 /mo)t + (0.008 00 × 106 ft 3 /mo2 )t 2

Converting months to seconds,

1.50 × 106 ft 3 /mo 0.008 00 × 106 ft 3 /mo2 2

V= t+ t

2.592 × 106 s/mo (2.592 × 106 s/mo)2

Dropping units, the equation is

P1.59 Since

A + B = 6.00 ĵ,

we have

( Ax + Bx ) î + ( Ay + By ) ĵ = 0î + 6.00 ĵ

ANS. FIG. P1.59

Chapter 1 21

giving Ax + Bx = 0 → Ax = −Bx .

Because the vectors have the same magnitude and x components of

equal magnitude but of opposite sign, the vectors are reflections of

each other in the y axis, as shown in the diagram. Therefore, the two

vectors have the same y components:

Ay = By = (1/2)(6.00) = 3.00

Defining θ as the angle between either A or B and the y axis, it is seen

that

Ay

3.00 By

cos θ = = = = 0.600 → θ = 53.1°

A B 5.00

The angle between A and B is then φ = 2θ = 106° .

P1.60 The table below shows α in degrees, α in radians, tan(α), and sin(α) for

angles from 15.0° to 31.1°:

α and tan α

We see that α in radians, tan(α), and sin(α) start out together from zero

and diverge only slightly in value for small angles. Thus 31.0° is the

tan α − α

largest angle for which < 0.1.

tan α

*P1.61 Let θ represent the angle between the

directions of A and B . Since A and B have

the same magnitudes, A , B , and R = A + B

form an isosceles triangle in which the angles

θ θ

are 180° − θ , , and . The magnitude of R

2 2

© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

22 Introduction and Vectors

⎛θ⎞

is then R = 2A cos ⎜ ⎟ . This can be seen from applying the law of

⎝ 2⎠

cosines to the isosceles triangle and using the fact that B = A.

Again, A , −B , and D = A − B form an isosceles triangle with apex

angle θ. Applying the law of cosines and the identity

θ⎞

(1 − cosθ ) = 2 sin 2 ⎛⎜⎝ ⎟

2⎠

⎛θ⎞

gives the magnitude of D as D = 2A sin ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝ 2⎠

The problem requires that R = 100D.

⎛θ⎞ ⎛θ⎞

Thus, 2A cos ⎜ ⎟ = 200A sin ⎜ ⎟ . This gives

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

⎛θ⎞

tan ⎜ ⎟ = 0.010 and θ = 1.15° .

⎝ 2⎠

directions of A and B . Since A and B have

the same magnitudes, A , B , and R = A + B

form an isosceles triangle in which the angles

θ θ

are 180° − θ , , and . The magnitude of R is

2 2

θ

⎛ ⎞

then R = 2A cos ⎜ ⎟ . This can be seen by

⎝ 2⎠

ANS. FIG. P1.62

applying the law of cosines to the isosceles

triangle and using the fact that B = A.

Again, A , −B , and D = A − B form an isosceles triangle with apex

angle θ. Applying the law of cosines and the identity

θ⎞

(1 − cosθ ) = 2 sin 2 ⎛⎜⎝

⎟

2⎠

⎛θ⎞

gives the magnitude of D as D = 2A sin ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝ 2⎠

The problem requires that R = nD or

⎛θ⎞ ⎛θ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

cos ⎜ ⎟ = nsin ⎜ ⎟ giving θ = 2 tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ n⎠

The larger R is to be compared to D, the smaller the angle between A

and B becomes.

Chapter 1 23

( 86 400 s day ) ( 365.25 day yr ) = 31 557 600 s yr

The percent error in the approximation is

(π × 107 s yr ) − ( 31 557 600 s yr )

× 100% = 0.449%

31 557 600 s yr

P1.64 The position vector from the ground under the controller of the first

airplane is

r1 = (19.2 km)(cos 25°)î + (19.2 km)(sin 25°) ĵ + (0.8 km)k̂

(

= 17.4î + 8.11ĵ + 0.8k̂ km )

The second is at

r2 = (17.6 km)(cos 20°)î + (17.6 km)(sin 20°) ĵ + (1.1 km)k̂

(

= 16.5î + 6.02 ĵ + 1.1k̂ km )

Now the displacement from the first plane to the second is

(

r2 − r1 = −0.863î − 2.09 ĵ + 0.3k̂ km )

with magnitude

P1.65 Observe in Fig. 1.65 that the radius of the horizontal cross section of

the bottle is a relative maximum or minimum at the two radii cited in

the problem; thus, we recognize that as the liquid level rises, the time

rate of change of the diameter of the cross section will be zero at these

positions.

The volume of a particular thin cross section of the shampoo of

thickness h and area A is V = Ah, where A = π r 2 = π D2 /4. Differentiate

the volume with respect to time:

dV dh dA dh d dh dr

=A +h = A + h (π r 2 ) = A + 2π hr

dt dt dt dt dt dt dt

Because the radii given are a maximum and a minimum value, dr/dt =

0, so

dV dh 1 dV 1 dV 4 dV

+A = Av → v = = =

dt dt A dt π D /4 dt π D2 dt

2

where v = dh/dt is the speed with which the level of the fluid rises.

24 Introduction and Vectors

4

v= (16.5 cm 3 /s) = 0.529 cm/s

π (6.30 cm) 2

4

v= (16.5 cm 3 /s) = 11.5 cm/s

π (1.35 cm) 2

3

= 1 000 kg

water.

4

3 ( 1

π R 3 = ρ π D3

6 ) ( )

1

( )

= ( 1 000 kg m 3 ) π ( 1.0 × 10−6 m )

6

3

= 5.24 × 10−16 kg

3

π R3 )

= ( 1.00 × 10−3 kg cm 3 ) ( )

4

3

π (4.0 cm)3

= 0.268 kg

m=ρ ( π 2

4

Dh )

()

3

π ⎛ 10−1 cm ⎞

= ( 1 × 10 −3 3

) ( 2.0 mm )2 ( 4.0 mm ) ⎜

⎝ mm ⎟⎠

kg cm

4

= 1.26 × 10−5 kg

P1.67 (a) F = F1 + F2

F = 120 cos (60.0°)î + 120 sin (60.0°) ĵ

− 80.0 cos (75.0°)î + 80.0 sin (75.0°) ĵ

(

F = 60.0î + 104 ĵ − 20.7 î + 77.3 ĵ = 39.3î + 181ĵ N )

Chapter 1 25

F = 39.32 + 1812 N = 185 N

⎛ 181 ⎞

θ = tan −1 ⎜ = 77.8°

⎝ 39.3 ⎟⎠

(b) (

F3 = − F = −39.3î − 181ĵ N )

*P1.68 (a) and (b), the two triangles are shown.

(c) From the triangles,

y

tan 12° = → y = x tan 12° ,

x

y

and tan 14° = → y = (x − 1.00 km)tan 14° .

(x − 1.00 km)

(d) Equating the two expressions for y, we solve to find y = 1.44 km.

P1.69 (a)

(

You start at point A: r1 = rA = 30.0î − 20.0 ĵ m. )

The displacement to B is

rB − rA = 60.0î + 80.0 ĵ − 30.0î + 20.0 ĵ = 30.0î + 100 ĵ

(

You cover half of this, 15.0î + 50.0 ĵ to move to )

r2 = 30.0î − 20.0 ĵ + 15.0î + 50.0 ĵ = 45.0î + 30.0 ĵ

Now the displacement from your current position to C is

rC − r2 = −10.0î − 10.0 ĵ − 45.0î − 30.0 ĵ = −55.0î − 40.0 ĵ

You cover one-third, moving to

1

(

r3 = r2 + Δr23 = 45.0î + 30.0 ĵ + −55.0î − 40.0 ĵ = 26.7 î + 16.7 ĵ

3

)

The displacement from where you are to D is

26 Introduction and Vectors

rD − r3 = 40.0î − 30.0 ĵ − 26.7 î − 16.7 ĵ = 13.3î − 46.7 ĵ

You traverse one-quarter of it, moving to

1

4

1

r4 = r3 + ( rD − r3 ) = 26.7 î + 16.7 ĵ + 13.3î − 46.7 ĵ

4

( )

= 30.0î + 5.00 ĵ

The displacement from your new location to E is

rE − r4 = −70.0î + 60.0 ĵ − 30.0î − 5.00 ĵ = −100î + 55.0 ĵ

moving to

r4 + Δr45 = 30.0î + 5.00 ĵ − 20.0î + 11.0 ĵ = 10.0î + 16.0 ĵ

(b) Following the directions brings you to the average position of the

trees. The steps we took numerically in part (a) bring you to

1 ⎛ rA + rB ⎞

rA + ( rB − rA ) = ⎜

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

2

then to

( rA + rB ) +

rC − ( rA + rB ) / 2

=

rA + rB + rC

2 3 3

then to

( rA + rB + rC ) +

rD − ( rA + rB + rC ) / 3

=

rA + rB + rC + rD

3 4 4

and last to

( rA + rB + rC + rD ) + rE − ( rA + rB + rC + rD ) / 4

4 5

rA + rB + rC + rD + rE

=

5

This center of mass of the tree distribution is the same location

whatever order we take the trees in.

*P1.70 The geometry of the problem suggests we use the law of cosines to

relate known sides and angles of a triangle to the unknown sides and

angles. Recall that the sides a, b, and c with opposite angles A, B, and C

have the following relationships:

Chapter 1 27

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A

b 2 = c 2 + a 2 − 2ca cos B

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cosC

For the cows in the meadow, the triangle

has sides a = 25.0 m and b = 15.0 m, and

angle C = 20.0°, where object A = cow A,

object B = cow B, and object C = you.

(a) Find side c:

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cosC

c 2 = (25.0 m)2 + (15.0 m)2

− 2(25.0 m)(15.0 m) cos (20.0°) ANS. FIG. P1.70

c = 12.1 m

(b) Find angle A:

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A →

a 2 − b 2 − c 2 (25.0 m)2 − (15.0 m)2 − (12.1 m)2

cos A = =

2bc 2(15.0 m)(12.1 m)

→ A = 134.8° = 135°

(c) Find angle B:

b 2 = c 2 + a 2 − 2ca cos B →

b 2 − c 2 − a 2 (15.0 m)2 − (25.0 m)2 − (12.1 m)2

cos B = =

2ca 2(25.0 m)(12.1 m)

→ B = 25.2°

(d) For the situation, object A = star A, object B = star B, and object C

= our Sun (or Earth); so, the triangle has sides a = 25.0 ly, b = 15.0

ly, and angle C = 20.0°. The numbers are the same, except for

units, as in part (b); thus, angle A = 135.

P1.71 (a) From the picture, R 1 = aî + bĵ.

(b) R 1 = a2 + b2

(c) R 2 = R 1 + ck̂ = aî + bĵ + ck̂

28 Introduction and Vectors

P1.2 (a) 5.52 × 103 kg/m 3 ; (b) value is intermediate to tabulated densities of

aluminum and iron

4π ρ ( r23 − r13 )

P1.4

3

P1.6 (a) and (f); (b) and (d); (c) and (e)

P1.8 4.05 × 103 m 2

P1.10 9.19 nm/s

P1.12 1.19 × 1057 atoms

P1.14 rFe(1.43)

13

P1.16 (a) 2.07 mm; (b) 8.62 × 10 times as large

P1.18 (a) ~ 102 kg; (b) ~ 103 kg

P1.20 107 rev

P1.22 (a) 796; (b) 1.1; (c) 17.66

P1.24 1.61 × 103 kg/m 3 , ( 1.61 ± 0.17 ) × 103 kg/m 3

P1.26 ±3.46

P1.28 See complete description in P1.28

P1.30 (a) 8.60 m; (b) 4.47 m, –63.4°; 4.24 m, 135°

P1.32 (a) r, 180° – θ; (b) 180° + θ ; (c) –θ or 360 – θ

P1.34 See graphs in P1.34, and (a) 5.2 m at 60°; (b) 3.0 m at 330°; (c) 3.0 m at

150°; (d) 5.2 at 300°

P1.36 310 km at 57° S of W

P1.38 (a) See Ans. Fig. P1.38; (b) 5.00î + 4.00 ĵ, −1.00î + 8.00 ĵ; (c) 6.40 at 38.7°,

8.06 at 97.2°

P1.40 86.6 m, –50.0 m

P1.42 59.2° with the x axis, 39.8° with the y axis, 67.4° with the z axis

P1.44 (a) 45.5î + 27.1ĵ; (b) 56.4, 28.7°

© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 1 29

P1.52 ( )

(a) (15.1î + 7.72 ĵ) cm ; (b) −7.72 î + 15.1ĵ cm ; (c) −7.72 î − 15.1ĵ cm ( )

P1.54 (a) See Ans. Fig. P1.54; (b) 18.3 b; 12.4 b at 233° counterclockwise from

east

P1.56 1011 stars

P1.58 V = 0.579t + (1.19 × 10−9 )t 2

P1.60 31.0°

⎛ 1⎞

P1.62 θ = 2 tan −1 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ n⎠

P1.64 2.29 km

P1.66 (a) 1 000 kg; (b) cell: 5.24 × 10−16 kg , kidney: 0.268 kg, fly: 1.26 × 10−5 kg

P1.68 (a-b) see triangles; (c) y = x tan 12° and y = (x − 1.00 km) tan 14°; (d) y =

1.44 km

P1.70 (a) 12.1 m; (b) 135°; (c) 25.2°; (d) 135°

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