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ABSTRACT

Teleportation is the name given by science fiction writers to the feat of making an object or

a person disintegrate in one place while a perfect replica appears some where else. A

teleportation machine would be like fax machine except that it would work on three dimensional

objects as well as documents, it would produce an exact copy rather than an approximate

facsimile, and it would destroy the original in the process of scanning it. Teleportation was not

taken seriously by scientists, because it was thought to violate the uncertainty principle of

quantum mechanics, which forbids any measuring or scanning process from extracting all the

information in an atom or other object. Scientists found a way to make and end-run around this

logic, using a celebrated and paradoxical feature of quantum mechanics known as the Einstein-

Podolsky-Rosen effect. The future is promising that we can even teleport man

INTRODUCTION
Teleportation involves dematerializing an object at one point, and sending the

details of that object’s precise atomic configuration to another location, where it will be

reconstructed. What this means is that time and space could be eliminated from travel – we

could be transported to any location instantly, without actually crossing a physical distance.

Most of us were introduced to the idea of teleportation, and other futuristic

technologies, by the short-lived star Trek television series (1966-69) based on tales written by

Gene Roddenberry.

In 1993, the idea of teleportation moved out of the realm of science fiction and

into the world of theoretical possibility. It was then that physicist Charles Bennett and a team of

researchers at IBM confirmed that quantum teleportation was possible, but only if the original

object being teleported was destroyed.

MECHANISM OF QUANTUM
TELEPORTATION
Before going into more detail about the teleportation experiments performed to

date, let us firstly get a better idea about what teleportation actually is. To begin with, a key part

of this process involves something getting from one place to another without it moving through

any places in between. For example, imagine that you can teleport from school to home. This

means that you are able to get home without having to walk, catch a bus or a train, ride your

bike or indeed use any other type of everyday transport. Instead, you are simply “beamed” there .

In science-fiction stories, teleportation often involves three things :


1.

Firstly, a machine scans some object to find out everything about it. For example, this

may mean that some device scans a space explorer on board her spaceship to find out what

she’s like. This includes finding her height, her mass, the colour of her hair, what sort of shoes

she is wearing etc..


2.

Next, the machine “disassembles” the space explorer and sends or “beams” all the

things that she’s made up of to some uncharted planet nearby. These include, for example, all

the atoms in her body. The machine also sends a message to the planet containing everything

that it found out about her

3.
Finally, we resemble the space explorer on the nearby planet
using all the things she’s made up of and theme s sag e.
Teleportation is now complete

Though quantum teleportation involves many facets, entanglement is the

magical ingredient that is the key to its operation. Somehow, in a manner that we still have

much to learn about, it is entanglement that allows quantum teleportation to transmit a message

directly from Alice to Bob, whilst skipping all the places in between.
TELEPORTATION OF LIGHT

This fig shows teleportation of light. The sender is known as Alice and receiver is

known as Bob. In order to teleport light from Alice to Bob three steps has to be taken place
1.
The object has to be scanned to extract all data
2.
This large quantity of information has to be sent by some means
3.
finally the object has to be reassembled based on data

The whole process seems to be very simple. But as we go deeper into the

logistic details it become very difficult to explain. Scanning means to record from each particle

the quantity that specifies the properties of an object. Two such properties are position and

momentum. So the first step is to measure this two canonically conjugate properties.

Heisengerg in his uncertainty paper proved that both position and momentum of a particle

cannot be known simultaneously with any degree of certainty. This principle has been proved by

many experiments. When we attempt to find out the position its momentum may change and

vice versa, so scientists at first thought that teleportation would be impossible.

In 1993 an international group of six scientists, including IBM Fellow Charles H.

Bennett, confirmed the intuitions of the majority of science fiction writers by showing that perfect

teleportation is indeed possible in principle, but only if the original is destroyed. In subsequent

years, other scientists have demonstrated teleportation experimentally in a variety of systems,

including single photons, coherent light fields, nuclear spins, and trapped ions. Teleportation

promises to be quite useful as an information processing primitive, facilitating long range

quantum communication (perhaps ultimately leading to a “quantum internet”), and

making it much easier to build a working quantum computer. In the past, the idea of

teleportation was not taken very seriously by scientists, because it was thought to violate the

uncertainty principle of quantum, mechanics

which forbids ay measuring or scanning process from extracting all the


information in an atom or other object. According to the uncertainty

principle, the more accurately an object is scanned, the more it is disturbed by the scanning

process, until one reaches a point where the object’s original state has been completely
disrupted, still without having extracted enough information to make a perfect replica. This

sounds like a solid argument against teleportation : if one cannot extract enough information

from an object to make a perfect copy, it would seem that a perfect copy cannot be made. But

the six scientists found a way to make an end run around this logic, using a celebrated and

paradoxical feature of quantum mechanics known as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect. In

brief, they found a way to scan out part of the information from an object, which one wishes to

teleport, while causing the remaining, unscanned, part of the information to pass, via the

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Effect

QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT (EPR EFFECT)


Here we shall prepare pairs of entangled photons with opposite polarizations; we

shall call them E/and E2. the entanglement means that if we measure a beam of, say, E1

photons with a polarizer, one- half of the incident photons will pass the filter, regardless of the

orientation of the polarizer. Whether a particular photon will pass the filter is random. However,

if we measure its companion E2 photon with a polarizer oriented at 90 degrees relative to the

first, then if E1 passes its filter E2 will also pass its filter. Similarly if E1 does not pass its filter its

companion E2 will not. Mirrors are sometimes called beam splitters because they split a light

beam into two equal parts. We shall use a half-silvered mirror to perform Bell State

Measurements. The name is after the originator of Bell’s Theorem.

We direct one of the entangled photons, say E1, to the beam splitter.

Meanwhile, we prepare another photon with a polarization of 45O, and direct it to the same

beam splitter from the other side, as shown. This is the photon whose properties will be

transported we label it K (for Kirk). We time it so that both e1 and K reach the beam splitter at

the same time. The E1 photon incident from above will be reflected by the beam splitter some of

the time and will be transmitted some of the time. Similarly for the K photon that is incident from

below. So sometimes both photons will end up going up and to the right as shown.
Similarly, sometimes both photons will end up going down
and to the right
fig

measure the state of one particle we can instantly measure the state of other.

To make a copy of that object at a distant location one does not need the

original parts and pieces-all that is needed is to send the scanned information so that it can be

used for reconstructing the object. Teleportation necessitates both production and measurement

of entangled states ; these are the two most challenging tasks for any experimental realization.

Thus far there are only a few experimental techniques by which one can prepare entangled

states

A teleportation machine would be like a fax machine, except that it would work

on 3-dimensional objects as well as documents, it would produce an exact copy rather than an

approximate facsimile, and it would destroy the original in the process of scanning it. A few

science fiction writers consider teleporters that preserve the original, and the plot gets

complicated when the original, and the plot gets complicated when the original and teleported

versions of the same person meet ; but the more common kind of teleporter destroys the

original, functioning as a super transportation device, not as a perfect replicator of souls and

bodies

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF QUANTUM


TELEPORTATION
HUMAN TELEPORTATION
The man is standing on a platform called transporter and he is beamed up part

by part and teleported accordingly. The human body consist of 1028 atoms. So we have to

teleport these atoms with exact precision. A duplicate of the person would be made at the

other end. Original mind and body no longer exists, their atomic structure would be recreated at

the other end. But there are some limitations.


1.
By reconstruction we may obtain the body, but can be a dead
body
2.
Since a large quantity of information has to be teleported, it
will take years to teleport a man.
3.
Large quantity of light is involved there is a chance of
genetic variation

COMMUNICATION
Teleportation has many promising possibilities in the field of
Communication
1.
If teleportation be possible it become the fastest means of
Communication
2.

Tremendous amount of chemicals are now shipped from one location to another, reactants

mixed at one location, sent to another to be used. Since each is a molecule we can teleport

chemicals, saving time and space.


3.
Just as online shopping offers the opportunity to avoid shops.
Teleportation provides instant store free purchase.
4.
This teleportation can be used in military purpose for data
Encryption
5.

Space exploration can be enhanced. We cam teleport machinery to space shuttles or space

colonies. Fuels for space stations can also be teleported.


6.

Colonizing in mars is not possible today due to the lack of fresh water, if we can teleport water

directly from earth colonizing in mars is possible


7.

It can be used in war fare. Missiles and bombs can instantly be placed in enemy locations. This

can be done by setting a teleporting device at the enemy lines

QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
Quantum cryptography is an effort to allow two users of a common

communication channel to create a body of shared and secret information. This information,

which generally takes the form of a random string of bits, can then be used as a conventional

secret key for secure communication. It is useful to assume that the communicating parties
initially share a small amount of secret information, which is used up and then \renewed in the

exchange process, but even without this assumption exchanges are possible. Purpose of

cryptography is to transmit information in such a way that access to it is restricted entirely to the

intended recipient, even if the transmission itself is received by others. Cryptography operates

by a sender scrambling or encrypting the original message or plain text in a systematic way that

obtains its meaning. The encrypted message of crypto text is transmitted, and the receiver

recovers the message by unscrambling or decrypting the transmission

Quantum cryptographic techniques provide no protection against the classic

bucket brigade attack (also known as the “man-in-the- middle attack”). In this scheme, an

eavesdropper, E (“Eve”) is assumed to have the capacity to monitor the communications

channel and insert and remove messages without inaccuracy or delay. When Alice attempts to

establish a secret key with Bob, Eve intercepts and responds to messages in both directions,

fooling both Alice and Bob into believing she is the other. Once the keys are established, Eve

receives, copies, and resends messages so as to allow Alice and Bob to communicate

QUANTUM COMPUTERS
The basic data unit in a conventional (or classical) computer is the bit, or binary

digit .. A bit stores a numerical value of either 0 or 1. An example of how bits are stored is given

by a CD rom: “pits” and “lands” (absence of a pit) are used to store the binary data. In quantum

computing, the byte is replaced by a single talks to you about the ‘Mona Lisa’, by just hearing

the name, you know what the picture looks like without having been given the enormous string

of 1s and 0s that the element called a qubit. A qubit is in effect a single entity rather like a

conventional computer’s bit, but actually it is a combination of many quantum states of atomic or

sub atomic particles. In a single qubit it is possible to carry lot of zeros and ones all together but

in a single quantum bit imagine a picture of MonaLisa is stored in the computer as millions of

bits. However, if somebody computer needs to redraw it. In the same way, in a quantum

computer, the qubit is the equivalent of the name ‘MonaLisa’.


Consequently, quantum computers have the potential ability to carry and

process large amounts of information in parallel and at very high speeds. It is for this reason

that it is believed that they could be useful in dealing with the most computationally intense

tasks, such as code breaking.

The key problem facing quantum computer developers is the one of finding a

suitable quantum register, which cannot only be set-up with the correct input data but can be

manipulated with quantum operations

TIME TRAVEL
The concept of time travel can be explained based on some assumptions. We

see an object when light rays from that object reaches our eyes. The light rays from the sun

takes 8 minutes to reach the earth. So we are seeing the sun in the past. We see stars shining

in the sky, it may have died years before but we still see it because light rays takes a long time

to reach the earth.

Assume that time at point c is same as that of the earth. Consider a boy at the

age of 10 is standing on earth, the light rays from the star reaches the boy and is reflected from

the boy to c. at that point of reflection from the boy, the boy is traveling towards c with a speed

greater than the velocity of light, he reaches the point c at an approximate age of 15 and wait

there. When the reflected ray reaches his eyes he can see his image at the ageof 10. he is

seeing his past

CONCLUSION
The future of teleportation is as varied as the past that led to its creation.

Society’s fascination with teleportation gives the drive for further research strong ensuring

teleportation as an integral part of society’s progress… Science, however, can only go as far as

society will allow, making ethical dilemmas a key issue in the potential uses of teleportation.

Although the advancement of teleportation is irrefutable, the route of such research is unknown

and offers an unpredictable and exciting future. So we can hope the best.

REFERENCES
1.
Quantum entanglement – “Quantum Mechanics” by Maxwell.
2.
Nature Magazine
3.
New Scientist Magazine
4.
IBM Research papers
5.
www.ibmresearchpapers.com
6.
www.newscientist.com
7.
www.nature.com
8.
www.qubit.org

PHOTON EXPERIMENTS
In 1998, physicists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), along with

two European groups, turned the IBM ideas into reality by successfully teleporting a photon, a

particle of energy that carries light. The Caltech group was able to read the atomic structure of a

photon, send this information across 1 meter (3.28 feet) of coaxial cable and create a replica of

the photon. As predicted, the original photon no longer existed once the replica was made .

In performing the experiment, the Caltech group was able to get around the

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the main barrier for teleportation of objects larger than a

photon. This principle states that you cannot simultaneously know the location and the speed of

a particle. But if you can't know the position of a particle, then how can you teleport it? In order

to teleport a photon without violating the Heisenberg Principle, the Caltech physicists used a

phenomenon known as entanglement. In entanglement, at least three photons are needed to

achieve quantum teleportation:


Photon A: The photon to be teleported


Photon B: The transporting photon


Photon C: The photon that is entangled with photon B


If researchers tried to look too closely at photon A without
entanglement, they would bump it, and thereby change it. By entangling

photons B and C, researchers can extract some information about photon A, and the remaining

information would be passed on to B by way of entanglement, and then on to photon C. When


researchers apply the information from photon A to photon C, they can create an exact replica

of photon A. However, photon A no longer exists as it did before the information was sent to

photon C.

In other words, when Captain Kirk beams down to an alien planet, an analysis of

his atomic structure is passed through the transporter room to his desired location, where a

replica of Kirk is created and the original is destroyed.

A more recent teleportation success was achieved at the Australian National

University, when researchers successfully teleported a laser beam.

While the idea of creating replicas of objects and destroying the originals doesn't

sound too inviting for humans, quantum teleportation does hold promise for quantum computing.

These experiments with photons are important in developing networks that can distribute

quantum information. Professor Samuel Braunstein, of the University of Wales, Bangor, called

such a network a "quantum Internet." This technology may be used one day to build a quantum

computer that has data transmission rates many times faster than today's most powerful

computers