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A Non Linear Partial Differential Accretive Operator in a Closed Bounded and Continuous Domain

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ISSN: 2456-9992

Operator In A Closed, Bounded And Continuous

Domain

O. Echude, M. T. Y. Kadzai, A. A. Abubakar

Department of Mathematics, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria +234(0)7030478742,

eechude@yahoo.com

Department of Mathematics, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria +234(0)7068886812,

mykadzai@mautech.edu.ng

Department of Mathematics, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. +234(0)8032096318

Ahmedabubakar97@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:A non-linear parabolic partial differential equation is investigated in a closed, bounded and continuous domain by converting

such an equation into an abstract Cauchy problem. Using some results established in Egwurube and Garba (2003), this operator is shown to

be m-accretive thus establishing that this partial differential equation has a solution by the fundamental results of Browder (1967) on the

theory of accretive operators.

Partial differential equations (PDE) help in revealing which may be accretive or M–accretive [6]. The theory of

hidden connections that lead to rational explanations of M-accretive operators parallels the theory of maximal

some physical phenomena, which was the major attraction monotone operators in appropriate spaces. There are a few

for this project. It is possible to propound some special basic properties of maximal monotone operators that do

solutions to partial differential equations explicitly in not yet have a counterpart in the class of the M-accretive

terms of elementary functions. One method of finding operators. [4], showed that if X is a reflexive Banach

such explicit solution to partial differential equation is by

space, X its dual space, the pairing between u in X

reducing it to first order ordinary differential equation,

which then can be solved using the standard Picard- and w in X is written as (w , u).If T is a mapping from X

Lindelof theorem. The issue of existence and uniqueness to 2 X , (where 2 X is the family of all subsets of X ),

satisfactory answer in the Picard-Lindelof theorem, which its domain D(T ) {u T (u ) } , R(T ) U T (u). T

uX

is not the case for partial differential equations.

[1]Demonstrated that the existence and uniqueness of is said to be monotone if for w T (u ), z T ( x), then

solutions to differential equations satisfying Lipchitz ( w z , u x) 0. According to [3], reflexive Banach

conditions satisfied a more general condition for existence spaces have important properties in geometric and in

and uniqueness than the requirement of the continuity of operator-theoretic settings; in geometric setting, given any

f closed convex subset A of a reflexive Banach space X

. Furthermore they postulated the use of accretive

x

and any point x X , the norm defined on XA attains

operator for differential equation defined on a non-

bounded domain and established the necessary conditions

its minimum on A if X inf aA x a ; In fact, this

for existence and uniqueness of solutions. Another method

known as the semi-group approach, has significantly is a special case of a more general theorem which states

clarified and unified the study of many classes of partial that continuous convex functions on a reflexive spaces

and functional differential equations and have solved attain their extrema over a convex subspace. The operator-

problems that were left open by the previous methods. theoretic setting describes how the process of taking

The importance of the notion of "accretive mapping" adjoints of bounded operators defined on a reflexive

subsists in the fact that it allows for the treatment of many Banach spaces X shows that every bounded linear

partial differential equations and functional differential operator is its own double adjoint if and only if X is a

equations in mathematical physics, for example such as reflexive space. This work considered “a nonlinear partial

the heat and wave equations. There are two main differential accretive operator defined in the closed,

problems associated with the class of accretive operators: bounded and continuous domain”, which was then show

the time-dependent problem and the autonomous (time- that it has solution. [5] investigated a class of quasi-linear

independent) problem. The time-dependent problem is hyperbolic first order partial differential equation (PDE) in

usually concerned with the solvability of first and second a Banach space, by converting it to Cauchy-like problem

order evolution equations, while the autonomous problem and thereafter established that it is m-accretive. [1] used

deals with equations of elliptic type. The elliptic type the same technique on a class of quasi-linear parabolic

(elliptic partial differential equations) problems often

Volume 1 Issue 4, Oct 2017 84

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International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

ISSN: 2456-9992

partial differential equations before arriving at the fact that

it is also m-accretive. A class of nonlinear partial which shows the continuity of ( A n 1 I ) 1

differential equations (PDE) defined in an appropriate

Banach space is investigated for accretiveness condition

Now let v 0, x0 D( A) with 0 ( A n 1 I ) x0 ,

and existence of solution. This article investigates the then we have

existence of solution of a nonlinear parabolic partial ( A n 1 I ) 1 u n( u x0 )

differential equation (PDE) with the objectives;

1

(a) to find an appropriate Banach space for this problem, This proves the boundedness of the operator ( A n I ) 1

(b) to investigate the continuity and accretive property of

the equivalent Cauchy problem, .This ends the proof.

(c) to establish the existence of solution of the partial

differential equation (PDE). 3. RESULTS

Existence of Solution of Non-Linear Parabolic Equation

2. Methodology Considering a nonlinear parabolic partial differential

equation defined on a closed, bounded and continuous

Let X be a real Banach space with norm . and dual domain (Space of C[0,1] ).

X . An operator A with domain D ( A) and range (ut ) u xx 0, t 0, 0 x 1

R ( A) , in X is said to be accretive, if for all

0 , there holds the inequality [2].

u (0, x) u 0 ( x), 0 x 1 (4)

x1 , x2 D( A) and r

u (t ,0) u (t ,1) 0 t 0,

x1 x2 x1 x2 ( Ax1 Ax2 ) (1) Where : R R is continuous, non-decreasing and

,

(0) 0 , which we transform into the initial value

An accretive operator A is said to be m-accretive if

problem

R ( I rA) X for all r 0 , where I is the identity

u (0) u 0

operator on X. In terms of the concept of contractions, an du

1 Au 0, (5)

operator A is said to be accretive if R( I rA) is a dt

contraction for r 0 that is if

defined on a Banach space X C[0,1] assuming that u xx

x1 rAx1 ( x2 rAx2 ) x1 x2 . (2)

is continuous, strictly increasing, u xx (0) 0,

If X is a Hilbert space, the accretive condition (2) u xx ( R) R and consequently A is m-accretive.

reduces to

Preposition:

Re Ax1 Ax2 , x1 x2 0 for all x1 , x2 X (3) Let X C ([0,1]), D( A) {u C[0,1] : u , u ' , u" are

continuous and u (0) u (1) 0 } and

Theorem [5] A(u ) {v C[0,1] : ( v) u"}, for u D( A);

Let X be a real Banach space and let

A : D( A) X X be an m-accretive operator such where v ut , then A is m-accretive.

1 1

u ( A n I ) x1 , v ( A n I ) x2 Proof:

Where u, v X ; x1 , x2 D( A); n R We shall first show that the operator A is accretive. Since

: R R , is continuous, non-decreasing with

1

Then operator ( A n I ) : X D( A) is continuous (0) 0, we define the associated operator A as a single-

and bounded. Let reproduce the proof in [5], for valued function. Suppose u1 , u 2 D( A), and

completion purposes

v1 Au1 , v2 Au 2

Proof:

Given u, v X ; x1 , x2 D( A); n R as defined Let u1 u 2 then

above we have u1 u 2

max u1 ( x) u 2 ( x) u1 ( x0 ) u 2 ( x0 )

1 0 x 1

1 1

( A n I ) x1 ( A n I ) x 2 , j x1 x 2

2

for

n Since u1 u 2 0 at x 0 and x 1 0 x0 1

j J ( x1 x2 ) Case 1:

( A n 1 I ) 1 u ( A n 1 I ) 1 v n u v

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International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

ISSN: 2456-9992

0 x 1 the proof.

(u1 ( x0 ) u 2 ( x0 ) (v1 ( x0 ) v2 ( x0 ))

4. Discussion of the Results

Case 2: Here, X C[0,1] is the space of closed bounded and

If v2 ( x0 ) v1 ( x0 ) continuous domain, we define the domain of the non-

linear operator as a dense subset of X; under the

v1 ( x0 ) v2 ( x0 ) conditions given in Preposition, our non-linear operator is

not only accretive but also m-accretive. It has been

Therefore by the monotonicity of established that the non-linear partial differential equation

(v2 ( x)) (v1 ( x)) on of the type in equation (4), has a Cauchy-like equation (5)

where the operator which is defined in the space of

x0 , x0 where 0 bounded, continuous domain is m-accretive. It is known

that if X is a Banach space (Hilbert space), then an

Consequently accretive mapping of X into itself is locally bounded at

every point of the interior of its domain. We had shown

(u1 u 2 ) " ( x) (v1 ( x) (v2 ( x)) 0 that this is also true in case 1 and 2 i.e the proof of

on x0 , x0

preposition provided that the duality mapping of X is

weakly continuous. We used this fact to show that, under

some stated conditions, an accretive mapping is m-

Hence u1 u 2 is convex on x0 , x0 and accretive if and only if it is maximally accretive i.e. the

R( I rA) C[0,1], where r 0.

therefore assumes its maximum at the interior point x0 .

Then u1 u 2 is constant x0 x x0 . If x 0 is

5. Conclusion

The m-accretiveness of the non-linear operator in space of

the least number in [0,1] for which case (1) holds leads to a continuous domain problem has been established, just as it

contradiction that v2 ( x0 ) v1 ( x0 ) u1 u 2 0. was observed in the hyperbolic case as by [5]. We have

established in this work that, a nonlinear parabolic partial

Hence v1 ( x0 ) v 2 ( x0 ).

differential equation of the kind in equation 4 defined on a

Banach space X C[0,1] is continuous, accretive and

thus admit a solution. The analysis of this non-linear

Using definition of accretive and the concepts of accretive parabolic partial differential equation problem for

operator in condition (1) then case 1 and 2 shows that A is accretive properties will no doubt help mathematics

accretive. Now it remains to show that it is m-accretive, educators, researchers and scientists who are interested in

that is, R( I A) C ([0,1]), where I is the identity nonlinear systems.

operator, R is range, and r is assumed to equal to 1.

Consider, h C[0,1], u D ( A) such that REFERENCES

h ( I A)u or h u Au. [1] A. U. Bawa, M. O. Egwurube, &M. M. Ahmad, “A

quasi-linear parabolic partial differential equation

for u (v) and (u ) 1 means that the setting with accretive property”. Tanzania Journal of Natural

and Applied Sciences. 3, pp. 433-438, 2012.

and u (u h) can be solved.

''

u (0) u (1) 0

Since A is accretive then if (u ) D ( A) and [2] F. E. Browder, “Non-linear mappings of non-

expansive and accretive type in Banach space”.

(u) u '' h, then, Bulletin of the American MathematicalSociety, 73,

pp. 875 – 882, 1967.

(u )

(u ) u '' (u ) 0

h

max h

0 u 1

[3] F. E. Browder, “Nonlinear monotone and accretive

Also by the mean value theorem, for some operators in Banach Spaces”. in Proceedings of the

Symposium on Nonlinear Functional Analysis

[0,1], u ( ) 0 since

'

u (0) u (1) 0 a (August 1968) (American Mathematical Society). 61,

x 1 pp. 388-393, 1968.

u ' ( x) u ( s)ds (u ) h dx 2 h

''

and

0 C [ 0 ,1]

[4] F. E. Browder, “Non-linear operators and nonlinear

x 1

u ( x) u ( s)ds u ( s) ds 2 h max h

' ' equations of evolutions in Banach spaces, Non-linear

0 0 C [ 0 ,1] 0 x 1 functional analysis”, Proceedings of the Symposia on

Pure Mathematics,American Mathematical Society,

Since the operator A has been shown to be accretive, and 18,(2), 1970.

since R ( I A) C[0,1], then it is m-accretive. Hence

by [2], this operator A for nonlinear parabolic problem [5] M. O. Egwurube, &E. J. D. Garba, “A Cauchy

admits a solution. Hence a solution for this nonlinear problem for a quasi-linear hyperbolic first-order

partial differential equation”. Journal of Nigeria

Volume 1 Issue 4, Oct 2017 86

www.ijarp.org

International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

ISSN: 2456-9992

Association of Mathematical physics. 7, 29 – 32,

2003.

Encyclopedia of Mathematics:7 Feb 2011.URP:

//www. encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php/M-

accretive-operator

www.ijarp.org

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