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Magnetic Field + Charged Particle – Group Task

What happens when a charged particle is projected into a magnetic field?


External Magnetic Field + Charged Particle
It experiences force
External Magnetic Field + Charged Particle
Magnetic fields produce magnetic forces….

Particle enters
field with initial
velocity ‘v’

Magnetic fields are strange.


Why?
Magnetic Fields are Strange
• You only experience a force when you enter perpendicularly
• You have to ‘cut into them’ for effects

Different to
electric fields! ->
Magnetic Fields are Strange
• What’s the difference between magnetic and electric fields?
NOT Electric Fields
• In electric fields, the force acts parallel to the field’s direction
• A charge always gets a force when it enters
Charged particles in electric fields…
• Always feel effects
• I’ll show you:
Magnetic Fields – For an Effect…
• Field must act perpendicular to a charge’s velocity for
maximum effect
Magnetic Fields – A 3D mess!
• The charge must cut the field perpendicularly
• Then, the resulting force will also act perpendicularly to both the velocity
and the field
Fleming’s Left-hand Rule - Convention
• Current: Modelled as stream of positively charged particles
• For negative particles, force points opposite to your thumb
Variables – Proportionality - Group Task
• What variables affect the amount of deflection?
• Can you begin an equation?
Fleming’s Left-hand Rule
• ‘v’: Initial projected velocity of particle
• ‘B’: Strength of external magnetic field
• ‘F’: Force from field
• ‘q’: Charge of particle

• Remember: Check directions!


Charged Particles Entering Perpendicularly…
• ‘v’: Initial projected velocity of particle
• ‘B’: Strength of external magnetic field
• ‘F’: Force from field
• ‘q’: Charge of particle

Force on a charged particle in an external magnetic field:

Only multiply perpendicular components of ‘v’ and ‘B’


Important – Dependent and Independent Variables
• Cause and effect
• A huge problem in school’s approach to Physics
Variables - A Clear Example
• “You get more time when you increase distance travelled”

• Speed =

• Time =
The Metaphysics of Magnetic Field Strength
• F = qvB is better written as B = F/qv, Why?
Variables Question – Careful Writing - Group Task
• Explain how variables in the equation below affect the force on a charged particle in a magnetic
field. Also comment on how the particle’s motion can differ – Write carefully and remember
first principles (8 marks)
• Assume: The particle enters perpendicularly. Anything else is changeable
Variables Question
• Magnetic field strength is judged by a field’s ability to produce force on a moving charge (2) If
the magnetic field is strong, it will produce a stronger forces on charged particles entering it (2) .
A particle of higher charge experiences a higher force (1) from the external field than one of low
charge (1) An ion with a charge of 2+ will thus be coerced more than a proton (1). If the particle
is projected into the field at a higher velocity (1) more force is needed (1) to achieve a ‘curved’
deflection path (1) This is consistent with Newton’s law of inertia (1) If a particle enters slowly,
it’s easier for the field to ‘fling it’ (1) The particle gets the most ‘fling’ when perpendicular (1)

F = qvB
B = F/qv
Great Job!
• You’re thinking about your thinking - Metacognition
Charged Particles Entering Parallel… Brainstorm
• What’s the force?

• Hint: Magnetic fields are strange


Charged Particles Entering Parallel…
• What’s the force?

+
Doesn’t cut into the field
Charged Particles at an Angle…Brainstorm
• What’s the force? Hint: vectors

• Hint: Magnetic fields are strange


Charged Particles at an Angle…
• What’s the force?

+
Or: F = qvBCosθ
• Hint: Magnetic fields are strange
Charged Particles Entering Magnetic Fields
This is the equation, ultimately:
Some Real-life Application
Exam Question – Group Task
Explain the physics behind the device below. How is it used to measure blood flow? You do not need to
explain the calculation of flow specifically (6 marks)

Hint: When the charged particles separate they create something


Exam Question – Group Task
An external magnetic field is applied to the artery (1) It is made so the charged particles in the blood will
enter the field perpendicularly (1) The charged particles are deflected (1) due to the external magnetic
force (1) The positively charged particles are deflected up the page and the negative ions are deflected
downwards (1) as per Fleming’s left hand rule (1) This separation of charged particles creates an electric
field (1) directed downwards (1) due to the created potential difference (1) The voltage can be measured by
the voltmeter (1) which is used to find the velocity (1) This is proportional to the flow in the blood (1)

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/velocity-of-electron-moving-between-charged-plates.360134/
Great Job!
• You just applied the Physics to an unfamiliar real-life situation!
Questions That Remain…
• Magnetic fields and electric fields can combine
• This gives the Lorentz force

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/velocity-of-electron-moving-between-charged-plates.360134/
Electric Fields and Magnetic Fields - Brainstorm
• What conditions give the easiest velocity calculation?

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/velocity-of-electron-moving-between-charged-plates.360134/
Magnetic force = Electric force
• When the forces are equal

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/velocity-of-electron-moving-between-charged-plates.360134/
Magnetic force = Electric force - Brainstorm
• Where could you use this in real-life?

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/velocity-of-electron-moving-between-charged-plates.360134/
Magnetic and Electric Fields – Real-life
• Particle accelerators/colliders (CERN)
• Mass spectrometry

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/velocity-of-electron-moving-between-charged-plates.360134/
Great Job!
• Good, you’re thinking of real-life applications before I tell you
Life Advice
• Your friends will act like a force field
• For better or worse?

vs
Practice Questions – Individual/Group

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of proton)


'm' = 1.673 x 10-27 kg (mass of proton)

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of electron)


'm' = 9.109 x 10-31 kg (mass of electron)
Question 7: The Answer

7) 'v' = 6.5 m/s, right angle, 'B' = 1.6T, 'a' = ?, proton

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19C (charge of proton)


'm' = 1.673 x 10-27kg (mass of proton)

F = qvB and F = ma ma = qvB a = qvB/m

a = (1.6022 x 10-19C x 6.5 m/s x 1.6T)÷(1.673 x 10-27kg)


a = 9.96 x 108 ms-2
Question 8: The Answer

8) electron, right angle, B = 0.18T, v = ?, F = 8.9x10-15N

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19C (charge of electron)

'm' = 9.109 x 10-31kg (mass of electron)

F = qvB v = F/(qB)

v = (8.9 x 10-15N)÷(1.6022 x 10-19C x 0.18T)

v = 3.08 x 105 m/s


Question 9: The Answer

9) negative ion, due North at equator, v = 1.5 x 106m/s, F = ?, B = ?

It's due North it's assumed parallel to the magnetic field lines

F = 0N

Question is written badly: If you question the question you will get
great marks
Question 10: The Answer

10) proton, v = 355m/s, a = ?, B = 4.05 x 10-5T


F = qvB, F = ma ma = qvB a = (qvB)/m
'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19C (charge of proton)
'm' = 1.673 x 10-27kg (mass of proton)

a = [(1.6022 x 10-19C) x (355m/s) x (4.05 x 10-5T)]÷(1.673 x 10-27kg)


a = 1.38 x 106 ms-2
Remember – Exams
• RTQ
• Show your working – Clearly
• Units
• You can question the question
These Calculations…
• Are calculated at a point in time
• The exact moment it enters the external field

+
Force on a charged particle at a time ‘t’ = 0
What happens next?
• We will predict the motion of the particle after it enters the field

+
Great Science Predicts – Group Task– First Principles
• Predict the motion of a charged particle when it enters an external
magnetic field:

1. Parallel

• Remember: Think 3D/First principles


Charged Particles Entering Parallel…
• Constant velocity, straight line drift
• Think: Newton’s first law (first principles)

+
A thinking exercise…
• There is a magnetic field running from the teacher’s desk to the door
• You are carrying a bomb. It will explode if it experiences a magnetic force
• There is no magnetic field outside of the room

• What do you do?


Great Science Predicts – Group Task– First Principles
• Predict the motion of a charged particle when it enters an external
magnetic field:

2. Perpendicularly

• Hint: Do it step-by-step using Fleming’s LHR


Step-by-step
Charged Particles Entering Perpendicularly…
• Uniform circular motion
• What’s special about this force?
First Principle Derivation – Group Task
• Derive the equation for the radius of path from first principles
First Principle Derivation – Group Task
Centripetal Force
𝟐
• Newton’s second law gives
• radius of orbit
Great Science Predicts – Group Task– First Principles
• Predict the resulting motion of a charged particle when it enters an
external magnetic field:

3. At an angle
Charged Particles at an Angle…
• Straight line drift + Circular Motion combines
• Helical Motion
Great Job!
• Have you noticed? You’re using skills to find the answers.
• We’re not merely remembering facts
A Calculation…
Question 22-1 (p773): An electron moving perpendicular to a magnetic field of
4.60x10-3T follows a circular path of radius 2.80mm. What is the electron's speed?

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of electron)


'm' = 9.109 x 10-31 kg (mass of electron)
A Calculation…
Question 22-1 (p773): An electron moving perpendicular to a magnetic field of 4.60x10-3T follows a circular
path of radius 2.80mm. What is the electron's speed?

r = 2.80x10-3m (base units!)

r = (mv)/(qB) : Equation for radius of circular orbit

v = rqB/m = [(2.80 x 10-3m)x(1.60 x 10-19 C)x(4.60 x 10-3T)]/(9.11 x 10-31kg)

v = 2.26 x 106m/s
More Questions

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of proton)


'm' = 1.673 x 10-27 kg (mass of proton)

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of electron)


'm' = 9.109 x 10-31 kg (mass of electron)
More Questions
1) r = ?, electron, perpendicular, B = 0.66T, v = 6.27x105m/s
'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19C (charge of electron)
'm' = 9.109 x 10-31 kg (mass of electron)

r = (mv)/(|q|B)

r = [(9.109 x 10-31 kg) x (6.27 x 105 m/s)]÷[(1.6022 x 10-19 C) x 0.66 T]


r = 5.4 x 10-6m or 5.4µm
2) r = ?, proton, perpendicular, B = 0.66T, v = 6.27x105m/s

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19C (charge of proton)


'm' = 1.673 x 10-27kg (mass of proton)

r = (mv)/(|q|B)

r = [(1.673 x 10-27 kg) x (6.27x105m/s)]÷[(1.6022 x 10-19 C) x 0.66 T]

r = 9.9x10-3m or 9.9mm
3a) q = 12.5µC = 12.5 x 10-6C, m = 2.80 x 10-5 kg, perpendicular, B = 1.01 T,
r = 21.8m, v = ?

r = (mv)/(|q|B) v = (r|q|B)/m

v = [(21.8m) x (12.5 x 10-6C) x (1.01 T)] ÷ (2.80 x 10-5 kg)

v = 9.83m/s
3b) Speed 'v' of a particle in an orbit of radius 'r', in a time 'T' (its period = time to complete
one oscillation).

v = 2πr/T, re-arrange and add ‘v’ to get T=(2π x 21.8 m)/(9.83 m/s) T = 13.9s

Or put the above into the circular motion equation of r = (mv)/(|q|B) makes:

r = (m[(2πr)/T])÷(|q|B) after cancelling 'r' and rearranging T = (2πm)÷(|q|B)

T = (2π x 2.80 x 10-5kg) ÷ (12.5 x 10-6C x 1.01 T)

T = 13.9s
Skills – Charged Particles/Magnetic Fields
• To use first principles
• To apply Physics laws to real life
• To explain how the laws work
• To combine relate
• To use skills to solve problem
Assumptions in these Problems! - Brainstorm
• Example: “External field is uniform and fixed”

• Can you think of any more?


Example Exam Question – Group Task
Q) Explain/Speculate on the Physics of the three charged particles entering the magnetic field
below. How do the particles differ? All three enter the field perpendicularly and with the same
velocity (8 marks) Use first principles
Example Exam Question
Q) All three particles experience a magnetic force from the external magnetic field (1) This acts
perpendicularly to each one’s velocity vector (1) and the external field’s direction (1) as per
Fleming’s left hand rule (1) Particle’s one and two must be positively charged (1) Particle three is
negatively charged (1) Each particle exhibits uniform circular motion (1) with a centripetal force
acting(1). Particle 2 has a wider radius than particle (1) This means it may have more mass than
particle one (1) and requires more force to move it (1) as per Newton’s second law (1) It could also
have lower charge (1) or a higher velocity (1) Particle 3 is the one with the most mass, it’s radius of
path is comparably huge (1) Alternatively, it may just have significantly lower charge (1) or rapid
velocity (1)
Great Job!
• You explained all of that from just one equation
• That’s first principles thinking
Exam Proof Question – Group Task
Compare the radii of travel of an electron, neutron and alpha particle mathematically.
Comment on the results (6 marks)

'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of proton)


'm' = 1.67 x 10-27 kg (mass of proton or neutron)

-
'q' = 1.6022 x 10-19 C (charge of electron)
'm' = 9.109 x 10-31 kg (mass of electron)
Prove your answer mathematically by comparing the radii of travel of an electron,
neutron and alpha particle. Comment on the results (6 marks)
Using with some substitution gets one mark (even if ‘m’ and ‘q’ are wrong) (1)

(1) It has no charge so will not experience any effect from a magnetic field (1)

. ×
/ . ×

The radius of an alpha particle travelling in a magnetic field is 3673 times (significantly higher) and that of an
electron (1). It is MUCH harder for the field to have a effect on the particle (1)
One Last Check – Group Task
Which particle needs the greatest force to accelerate it? What law ultimately tells you
this? Is mass or charge the biggest factor here?
Skills – Charged Particles/Magnetic Fields
• To use first principles
•To apply Physics laws to real life
• To explain how the laws work
• To combine related Physics concepts
• To use skills to solve problems

• But, we need to visualize where we use the Physics!


Real-Life Application – Example Answer
• Speculate on how a mass spectrometer works (7 marks) – Just Try!
Real-Life Application – Group Task
• An electron gun is used to ionize (1) the substance that requires analysis. The ions are charged particles (1) Thus,
an accelerating voltage can be applied to them (1). Different ions travel at different speeds (1) dependent on their
mass and charge (1). These ions are aimed towards a velocity selector, which discriminates between particles (1).
The force from an electric field is given by qE (1) The force from a magnetic field is given by F = qvB (1). When
these forces are equal in the velocity selector, the particles can pass through it (1). Altering the voltage in the
accelerator section therefore ultimately allows only particles of a specific speed through to the magnetic field
region (1) They enter the field perpendicularly (1) Hence they adopt uniform circular motion in the field (1) The
𝒎𝒗
radius of their path is determined by 𝒒𝑩 (1) The velocity is produced from an accelerating voltage ‘V’ (1) which can
be changed (1) The radius of motion is directly proportional to a particle’s mass-to-charge ratio (1) thus it’s
position on the detector is recorded for analysis (1)
Real-Life Application – Group Task
Real-life Application
• Uses the physics to measure the masses/concentrations of atoms in a sample
• Used in carbon dating, detection of trace quantities of contaminants and solar wind analysis
Real-life Application
• Radius of path is directly proportional to a particle’s mass
• Substances are ionized, then accelerated towards a magnetic field.
• A velocity selector allows discrimination based on particle speed.
Great Job!
• You’re applying the Physics to find the answers yourself
• That’s the whole point of engineering!
Example Exam Question – Group Task
1.State the direction of the applied magnetic field (1
mark)

2.Explain why the ions travel in a perfectly semicircular


path while in the magnetic field. (6 marks)

The positive ion used in the original experiment has a


charge of +1. It is swapped for an electron. The initial
velocity and magnetic field strength are NOT changed, and
the experiment is done again.

3. Which has a greater diameter of travel, the electron


or the positive ion? (1 mark)

4. Explain why – Discuss the Physics. (3 marks)


Example Exam Question – Group Task
1. State the direction of the applied magnetic field (1
mark)

Into the page

2. Explain why the ions travel in a perfectly


semicircular path while in the magnetic field. (6 marks)

Magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the velocity vector (1)


Therefore the force is perpendicular to velocity (1)
Force changes the direction of velocity but not the
magnitude (1) or tangential velocity (1)
Centripetal (1)
Force always acts towards the centre of the circle (1)
Circular motion (1)
Clarity (1)
Example Exam Question – Group Task
The positive ion used in the original experiment has a charge
of +1. It is swapped for an electron. The initial velocity and
magnetic field strength are NOT changed, and the experiment
is done again.

3. Which has a greater diameter of travel, the electron


or the positive ion? (1 mark)

Positive ion (1)

4. Explain why – Discuss the Physics. (3 marks)

It has a greater mass (1)


It needs more force to accelerate it (1) OR; it’s more
difficult to deflect (1) OR: Clear reference to Newton’s
second law OR; Clear reference to r =mv/qB (1)
clear reference to them being directly proportional (1)
Earth’s Magnetic Field – Group Task - HARD
Solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun,
called the corona. Speculate on their motion in the Earth’s magnetic field, and the resulting
effects (6 marks) – First Principles (Physics and Chemistry)
Earth’s Magnetic Field – Group Task
The Earth’s magnetic field is curved and not uniform (1) Charged particles will travel in a helix (1) as their entry
to the field is mostly angular (not perpendicular/parallel) (1) The axis of the helical motion follows the field lines
(1) the particles are channeled towards the poles (1) by the magnetic force provided by the Earth’s field (1) as per
Fleming’s left hand rule (1) Near the poles, the field lines are more concentrated (1) Here, electrons and protons
in the solar wind collide with atoms and molecules in the atmosphere (1) This ionizes them (1) and excites
electrons (1). This causes them to emit (photons of) light (1) when returning to the ground state (1) An Aurora is
produced (1) The colour depends on the molecule/atom ionized (1) Red and green emitted due to ionization of
oxygen atoms (1)
Great Job!
• You can feel your brain working - Metacognitive skills
Aurora – Real-Life Application
• Magnetic fields and charged particles
• Near the North Pole - Aurora Borealis
• Near the South Pole - Aurora Australis.
Our Answer is Incomplete
• The Earth’s magnetic field is not fixed!
• A stream of charged particles actually produces a magnetic field too!
• We must study streams of charged particles further

• If there’s ‘too much’ solar wind, we get a geomagnetic storm!


Geomagnetic Storm – Group Task - HARD
• If a stream of charged particles produces a magnetic field. Speculate on what a
geomagnetic storm is and its characteristics/effect (6 marks) – F.P
Geomagnetic Storm – Speculation Task
• The magnetic field produced by the stream of charged particles (1) from the solar wind (1)
disrupts the Earth’s magnetic field (1) superposition of magnetic/electric fields occurs (1)
There is a net energy increase into the magnetosphere (1) due to the increased plasma
(charged particle) movement (1) This ultimately causes more excitation (1) of atmospheric
molecules/atoms (1) and a more ‘violent’ emission of light/aurora (1) These storms can
have serious effects on satellites/power systems/animals (1)

Click on the link!!!!! - http://www.northernlighthouse.ca/geomagnetic-storms/


Great Job!
• This is part of a guided discovery
• These are the skills you need for life
The Earth’s Magnetic Field – Group Task
• How does it help us? Speculate (3 marks?)
The Earth’s Magnetic Field – Group Task
• Protects Earth from charged particles in solar wind/cosmic rays
• Protects upper atmosphere
• Ozone layer stays. Blocks harmful UV radiation.
Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents
• We can see they’re related
• We need to complete the chain of Physics!
Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents
• We’re getting closer to electromagnetism
• We must learn more
• Please be patient!
Review/Assessment
• But first – we must review:
• Magnetic fields
• Magnets on magnets
• Magnets on single charged particles
Kahoot
Let’s check some concepts
https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=60e8f879-e6e1-4e05-8ebb-e5ec187d50ca&token=4867c55c-5d71-4d19-83bc-
1ba15380c78e&user=nickbarrett2017
Worksheet
Formative assessment
https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=60e8f879-e6e1-4e05-8ebb-e5ec187d50ca&token=4867c55c-5d71-4d19-83bc-
1ba15380c78e&user=nickbarrett2017
Relativity
Quantum physics topic – can be applied to the fast moving particle from earlier on
Jigsaw Task – Particles of Greater Mass in field!
Touch up the one with the blood vessel stuff

Might need emf force to help out with solving how flow is measured
Jigsaw Task – Particles of Greater Mass in field!
Questions from last year’s midterm
First we must look at how magnets affect streams of charged particles
Jigsaw Task – Particles of Greater Mass in field!
Worksheet
Real life application!!!!
• Real life application must come !!!!
Electromagnets – MUST APPLY
•https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qi1kPRfnos0
Paramagnetism

Diamagnetism
Χ – Magnetic
Class
Susceptibility
Ferromagnetic 3000
Paramagnetic 2.2 ×10-5
Diamagnetic -9.0 ×10-6
Ferromagnetism, Diamagnetism,
Paramagnetism – Quantum
Ferromagnetism (relatively strong) – Only found in Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, rare Earth metals and
Steel (Usually 99% iron, 1% carbon)
• Contains Domains

Paramagnetism (very weak) – Aluminum, oxygen, titanium, lithium, caesium. Materials with
free/unpaired electrons but no domains. Cannot retain magnetism when external field is removed.
Thermal motion overcomes. net magnetic moment due to unpaired electrons in partially filled
orbitals

Diamagnetism (EXTREMELY weak) – Applies to wood, water, Appears in all materials but
usually overcome. Repelled by a magnetic field. Permeability of diamagnetic materials is less than
μ0