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Subject: Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person Section: Grade 11-TVL

Chapter 1: Doing Philosophy


Lesson1: Revealing the Whole

Learning Objectives
At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to:
 distinguish a holistic perspective from a partial point of view
 recognize ancient philosophers who contributed ideas in the field of philosophy

Agree or Disagree?
“At some point in my life, I may have asked difficult questions though perhaps I never discussed it to anyone.”

A. Discovering Philosophical reflection


 Not to ask a philosophical question is to go through life confused and lost.
 There are things we encounter in this world that are simply puzzling and unsettling.
 We may ask the following questions to ourselves:
Why does man work at the expense of health?
Why is love complicated?
Why do people have to die?
Why can’t my parents understand me?
Why do people say that ‘forever’ is not altogether real in love and relationships?
T(hinking)-Pop
“WALANG FOREVER”
 In social media, we are made to believe or defend the opposite that nothing lasts forever.
 This is mostly referring to the context of love relationships.
 When you begin to agree, or disagree, it calls for philosophical thinking whether in jest (biro) or in a serious
mode.
Concept of Focus
etaphysics

M
For instances,
 referred to those arising from big questions.
 one of the main branches of philosophy.
 deals with the so-called “being of beings”

- when we ask about the origin of life and its destiny, or why a stone can never be water.

According to Aristotle’s book:


- ta meta ta physika, meaning beyond(meta) the physical(physika) things.
 The only solution to such philosophical questions is to ask them.
 The search for answers only begins the moment we ask a philosophical question.
 Philosophical reflection
- is the process by which a person undergoes a reflective state or evaluates his or her experiences first before
making any related action.
- it enables thought to be looked into using a deeper, holistic perspective.
- In effect, actions are directed towards greater sources of wisdom and truth.
B. The Universal and The Particular
Universal- pertains to the whole
Particular- refers to a part of the whole
Particular Question:
“Why am I here?”-specific question
-due to some challenges or struggles we encounter daily
*Purpose –is like a thread that is woven through everything that happens.
Who determine our purpose?
What is our purpose?
* Thus to philosophize is to look at life from a holistic perspective.
Holistic perspective
- the perception of looking at all aspects of a situation first before making a conclusion.

Know the Philosophers


 Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
 is responsible for the term “hermeneutics of facticity” which simply means that people interpret things as
they encounter them in different ways.
 A scientific question is always confined to the particular, whereas a philosophical question, “leads into
the totality of beings” and “inquires into the whole”.

 When we ask about the essence of human freedom, the problem is not limited to man and freedom.
Subject: Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person Section: Grade 11-TVL
 We cannot avoid asking about the essence of man, the essence of the world, and the essence of God.
 When we ask philosophically about freedom, we venture into an inquiry about the whole (universal).
 After a philosophical question is raised, how does one proceed to finding an answer?
-Justification or rational basis
 Answers that sound right or seem right will simply not to do.
 Philosophers have taught that can be misled if we are not careful.

Know the Philosophers


 Plato (427-347B.C.E)
 A student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle.
 Founded a school in Athens known as the Academy which served as the model of universities.
 Has warned us of deceptions
 of this world.
 According to Plato, there are things that deceive, confuse, or mislead in this world.
- to know what is real requires much intellectual effort and rational ability.

C. Truth and Dialectic


 Philosophers rely on the human faculty of reason.
Dialectics (a technique)
-an art of refutation
 Philosophical discovery is seen as the result of collaboration with partners in dialogue or conversation.
- The reason why ancient Greek philosophers wrote dialogues (illustrate how dialectics is an effective means of a
claim which demonstrated using rational abilities.)

Dialectics- an effective means of examining and evaluating truth claims.


-one has to give good reasons as basis for any claim and the claim must be able to with stand further scrutiny and
examination.

Know the Philosophers


 Socrates ( 469-399 B.C.E)
 He left no writings but conversed with people from all walks of life using question and answers as a concrete
living out of his famous advice- “Know Thyself”
 His commitment to philosophy was the reason he was condemned to death.
 engaged Athenians in the marketplace with series of questions.

 The dialectics of the ancient later developed into:


=Thesis and Antithesis (exchange or confrontation between differing positions) which results to a synthesis
(resolution of opposing views)

Know the Philosophers


 G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831)
 Interplay of opposing views is necessary for progress.
 Need exchange of ideas in order to grow.
 He belongs to the period in philosophy known as “German idealism” which shared Plato’s view that ideas are
real as opposed to matter.

 Our views are revised as we experience turning points in history.


o Dialectics
- Leads us closer to truth.
- Philosophy teaches us to be open as we strive to know better.
- Debating with someone allows us to discover many things.
-This rational activity teachers us to hold on only to those beliefs we can defend, and to remain open so we can
revise our views through time and in collaboration with others.
Know the Philosophers
 Karl Marx(1818-1883)
 He introduced the concept “historical materialism” which embodies his theory that societies rise and fall as a
result of class struggles.

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