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Pre Calculus 12 Solutions

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A

4. a) Complete the table of values.

x ⴚ4 ⴚ2 ⴚ1 0 1 2 4

y ⴝ ⴚx 4 2 1 0 ⴚ1 ⴚ2 ⴚ4

√

y ⴝ ⴚx 2 1.4 1 0 ⴚ ⴚ ⴚ

b) For each function in part a, sketch its graph then state its domain

and range.

4

√

For y ⴝ ⴚx: the domain is x ◊ 0; and the range is y » 0.

2

√

y x x

4 2 0 2 4

c) How are the graphs in part b related?

2

√

Both graphs pass through (ⴚ1, 1) and (0, 0). The graph of y ⴝ ⴚx is

above the graph of y ⴝ ⴚx between these points. Every value of y

√

for y ⴝ ⴚx is the square root (if it exists) of the corresponding

y-value on the graph of y ⴝ ⴚx.

i) Mark points where y = 0 or y = 1.

√

ii) Sketch the graph of y = g(x).

√

iii) Identify the domain and range of y = g(x).

a) y b) y

4

4

y g(x) √

2

√ y g(x)

2 y g(x) x

x 2 0 2 4

4 0 2 4 y g(x)

ii) Choose the point (3, 4) on ii) Choose the point (5, 4) on

y ⴝ g(x). The y ⴝ g(x). The corresponding

√

corresponding point on point on y ⴝ g(x) is (5, 2).

√

y ⴝ g(x) is (3, 2). Draw a Draw a curve through this

curve through this point point and the marked

and the marked points. points.

iii) Domain is: x » ⴚ1 iii) Domain is: x » 1

Range is: y » 0 Range is: y » 0

02_ch02_pre-calculas12_wncp_solution.qxd 5/16/12 11:07 PM Page 2

c) y d) y

4

y g(x)

2 4

√

y g(x) x

√ 2

4 2 2 y g(x)

y g(x) x

2

4 2 0

ii) Choose the point (ⴚ5, 4) ii) Choose the point (ⴚ3, 4) on

on y ⴝ g(x). The y ⴝ g(x). The corresponding

√

corresponding point on point on y ⴝ g(x) is

√

y ⴝ g(x) is (ⴚ5, 2). Draw (ⴚ3, 2). Draw a curve

a curve through this point through this point and the

and the marked points. marked points.

iii) Domain is: x ◊ ⴚ1 iii) Domain is: x ◊ 1

Range is: y » 0 Range is: y » 0

B

6. a) Use technology to graph each function. Sketch each graph.

√ √

i) y = 2x + 3 ii) y = -2x + 3

√ √

iii) y = -2x - 3 iv) y = 0.5x + 4

√ √

v) y = -0.5x - 4 vi) y = 0.5x - 4

√

i) For which values of a does the graph of y = f(x) open to

the right? Use examples to support your answer.

The graph opens to the right when a>0, as in part a, i, iv, and vi.

02_ch02_pre-calculas12_wncp_solution.qxd 5/16/12 11:08 PM Page 3

√

ii) For which values of a does the graph of y = f(x) open to

the left? Use examples to support your answer.

The graph opens to the left when a<0, as in part a, ii, iii, and v.

√

7. a) Complete this table of values for y ⫽ x2 and y = x2, then graph

the functions on the same grid.

y

8

x ⴚ3 ⴚ2 ⴚ1 0 1 2 3

6 y x2

y ⴝ x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9

√ 4 √

yⴝ x2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 y x2

2

x

√ 4 2 0 2 4

b) What other function describes the graph of y = x2?

Explain why.

√

The graph of y ⴝ x 2 is the√same as√the graph of y ⴝ 円 x円 . For any

number x, x ⴝ (ⴚx) ; both

2 2 2 2

x and (ⴚx) are equal to a positive

root, which is 円x円 .

√

• Sketch the graph of y = f(x).

√

• State the domain and range of y = f(x).

i) y ii) y

4 16

y f(x)

2 12

√

y f (x) x

8

8 6 4 2 0

4 √

2 y f (x)

y f(x) x

4 0

2 2

or y ⴝ 1. Choose, then mark y ⴝ 0 or y ⴝ 1. Choose, then

another point on the graph mark other points on the graph

√ √

of y ⴝ f(x). of y ⴝ f(x).

√ √

x y ⴝ f(x) yⴝ f(x) x y ⴝ f(x) yⴝ f(x)

ⴚ5 4 2 ⴚ2 12 ⬟ 3.5

0 4 2

Join all points with a smooth

curve. 2 12 ⬟ 3.5

Domain is: ⴚ7 ◊ x ◊ ⴚ3

Range is: 0 ◊ y ◊ 2 Join all points with a smooth

curve.

Domain is: x ç ⺢

Range is: y » 2

02_ch02_pre-calculas12_wncp_solution.qxd 5/16/12 11:08 PM Page 4

√

b) Choose one pair of functions y = f(x) and y = f(x) from

part a. If the domains are different and the ranges are different,

explain why.

Sample response: For part a, i, the domains are different because the

radical function only exists for those values of x where y » 0; while the

quadratic function exists for all real values of x. The ranges are different

because the value of y for the radical function can only be 0 or a

positive number; while the range of the quadratic function is all real

numbers less than or equal to 4, which includes all negative real

numbers.

nearest tenth where necessary.

√ √

a) x - 5 = 2 x + 3 b) x = 4 - x + 2

Write the equation as: Write the equation as:

√ √

xⴚ5ⴚ2 xⴙ3ⴝ0 xⴚ 4ⴚxⴚ2ⴝ0

Graph the related function: Graph the related function:

√ √

f(x) ⴝ x ⴚ 5 ⴚ 2 x ⴙ 3 f(x) ⴝ x ⴚ 4 ⴚ x ⴚ 2

The zero is: 13 The zero is: 3

So, the root is: x ⴝ 13 So, the root is: x ⴝ 3

√ √ √

c) 3 2x + 1 = x + 4 d) 1 + x - 3 = 2x - 6

Write the equation as: Write the equation as:

√ √ √

3 2x ⴙ 1 ⴚ x ⴚ 4 ⴝ 0 1 ⴙ x ⴚ 3 ⴚ 2x ⴚ 6 ⴝ 0

Graph the related function: Graph the related function:

√ √ √

f(x) ⴝ 3 2x ⴙ 1 ⴚ x ⴚ 4 f(x) ⴝ 1 ⴙ x ⴚ 3 ⴚ 2x ⴚ 6

The approximate zeros are: The approximate zero is:

0.75735931 and 9.2426407 8.8284271

So, the roots are: x 0.8 and So, the root is: x 8.8

x 9.2

02_ch02_pre-calculas12_wncp_solution.qxd 5/16/12 11:08 PM Page 5

√

• Sketch the graph of y = g(x). √

• State the domain and range of y = g(x).

a) y b) y

y g(x) y g(x)

12 12

8 8

√

√ 4 4

y g(x)

y g(x)

x x

2 0 2 0 2

y ⴝ 0 or y ⴝ 1. or y ⴝ 1. Identify and mark

Identify and mark the the coordinates of other

coordinates of other points points on the graph of

√ √

on the graph of y ⴝ g(x). y ⴝ g(x).

√ √

x y ⴝ g(x) yⴝ g(x) x y ⴝ g(x) yⴝ g(x)

ⴚ2 15 3.9 ⴚ1 3 1.7

2 3 1.7 3 15 3.9

Join the points with 2 smooth Join the points with 2 smooth

curves. curves.

Domain is: x ◊ ⴚ1 or Domain is: ⴚ2 ◊ x ◊ 0 or

1 ◊ x ◊ 3 x » 2

Range is: y » 0 Range is: y » 0

√ 4

y = √g(x) is not defined. Explain how you know that

y = g(x) is not defined. 2

√ x

Sample response: For y ⴝ g(x) to be undefined, the value of 4 2 O 2 4

g(x) must always be negative; for example, a function is y ⴝ ⴚ3. 2 y 3

4

b) Sketch

√ the graph of a quadratic function y = f(x) for which y (x 2)2 2

y = √f(x) is not defined. Explain how you know that y

y = f(x) is not defined. x

4 2 0 2 4

√

Sample response: For y ⴝ f(x) to be undefined, the value of f(x) must 2

always be negative; so the graph of y ⴝ f(x) must always lie beneath

the x-axis; for example, a function is y ⴝ ⴚ(x ⴚ 2)2 ⴚ 2. 4

6

02_ch02_pre-calculas12_wncp_solution.qxd 5/16/12 11:08 PM Page 6

√

c) For every cubic function y = g(x), the function y = g(x) exists.

Explain why.

Since the graph of every cubic function either begins in Quadrant 2 and

ends in Quadrant 4, or begins in Quadrant 3 and ends in Quadrant 1,

there is always part of the graph above the x-axis; that is, the function

has positive values, so its square root exists.

√

12. For each graph of y = g(x), sketch the graph of y = g(x).

a) y b) y

4

6

y g(x) √2

4 y g(x)

√ x

y g(x) 4 2 0

2 2 4 6

x 2

4 2 0 2 4 y g(x)

y ⴝ 1. Identify and mark and y ⴝ 1. Identify and mark

the coordinates of other the coordinates of other

points on the graph of points on the graph of

√ √

y ⴝ g(x). y ⴝ g(x).

√ √

x y ⴝ g(x) yⴝ g(x) x y ⴝ g(x) yⴝ g(x)

ⴚ5 4 2 ⴚ4 4 2

ⴚ3 2 1.4 4 2 1.4

1 2 1.4

Join the points with 2 smooth

3 4 2 curves.

curves, and a line segment.

02_ch02_pre-calculas12_wncp_solution.qxd 5/16/12 11:08 PM Page 7

13. When a satellite is h kilometres above Earth, the time for one

complete orbit, t√

minutes, can be calculated using this formula:

t = 1.66 * 10 (h + 6370)3

-4

above the same point on Earth’s surface. It takes 24 h for this satellite

to complete one orbit. What should the height of the satellite be?

Substitute t ⴝ (24)(60), or 1440.

√

1440 ⴝ 1.66 ⴛ 10ⴚ4 (h ⴙ 6370)3

Write the equation with all the terms on one side.

√

1440 ⴚ 1.66 ⴛ 10ⴚ4 (h ⴙ 6370)3 ⴝ 0

Write a related function.

√

f(h) ⴝ 1440 ⴚ 1.66 ⴛ 10ⴚ4 (h ⴙ 6370)3

Graph the function, then determine the approximate zero, which is

35 848.513.

So, to the nearest kilometre, the satellite should be 35 849 km high.

C

√3

14. Given the graph of y = f(x), sketch the graph of y = f(x) without

using graphing√technology. What are the invariant points on the

graph of y = 3 f(x)?

√ √ √

Since 3 ⴚ1 ⴝ ⴚ1, 3 0 ⴝ 0, and 3 1 ⴝ 1, y

the invariant points occur where: y ⴝ 0, y f(x)

4

label these points A and B; y ⴝ 1, label

these points C and D; and y ⴝ ⴚ1, 2 √

C D y 3 f(x)

label these points E and F. Since the x

cube root of a number between 3 A 0 B 3

0 and 1 is greater √

than the number, E F

2

the graph of y ⴝ f(x) lies above

3

and between B and D. Since the

cube root of a√number between 0 and ⴚ1 is less than the number, the

graph of y ⴝ 3 f(x) lies below the graph of y ⴝ f(x) between A and E,

and between B and F.

Identify and mark the coordinates of other points.

√3

x y ⴝ f(x) yⴝ f(x)

ⴚ3 5 1.7

0 ⴚ4 ⴚ1.6

3 5 1.7

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