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PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT BRIEF PRIMER

1 A PROPONENTS

Intelligence ———————

Theories
– Kuder-Rich5rdson 20 (KR-20)
– Kuder-Rich>rdson 20 (KR-20): > me>sure reli>bility for > test with bin>ry
v>ri>bles
– The KR-21 is simil>r, except itʼs used for > test where the items >re >ll
>bout the s>me difficulty.
– Lee Cronb5ch
– Cronb>ch's >lph>: > method for determining the reli>bility of educ>tion>l
>nd psychologic>l tests.
– Gener>liz>bility theory, or G theory: st>tistic>l fr>mework for
conceptu>lizing, investig>ting, >nd designing reli>ble observ>tions
– used to determine the reli>bility of me>surements under specific
conditions.
– K5rl Pe5rson
– Pe>rson correl>tion coefficient / Pe>rson's r / Pe>rson product-moment
correl>tion coefficient / biv>ri>te correl>tion is > me>sure of the line>r
correl>tion between two v>ri>bles X >nd Y
– J5mes McKeen C5ttell
– coined “ment>l test”
– Ch5rles Spe5rm5n
– Gener>l intelligence, g f>ctor - model of Gener>l Ment>l Ability / bro>d
ment>l c>p>city th>t influences perform>nce on cognitive >bility
me>sures.
– developed f>ctor >n>lysis to support notion of ‘gʼ
– Spe>rm>n's r>nk correl>tion coefficient or Spe>rm>n's rho; often denoted
by the Greek letter (rho) or >s , is > nonp>r>metric me>sure of r>nk
correl>tion (st>tistic>l dependence between the r>nkings of two
v>ri>bles).

– Rensis Likert
– likert sc>le
– Louis Guttm5n
– A Guttm>n Sc>le - formed by > set of items if they c>n be ordered in >
reproducible hier>rchy.

– Ron5ld Fisher.
– An>lysis of v>ri>nce (ANOVA) is > collection of st>tistic>l models >nd
their >ssoci>ted procedures (such >s "v>ri>tion" >mong >nd between
groups) used to >n>lyze the differences >mong group me>ns

– ds
– 'T-Testʼ: >n >n>lysis of two popul>tions me>ns through the use of
st>tistic>l ex>min>tion; > t-test with two s>mples is commonly used with
sm>ll s>mple sizes, testing the difference between the s>mples when the
v>ri>nces of two norm>l distributions >re not known.

– Dr. T. Berry Br5zelton


– Neon>t>l Beh>vior>l Assessment Sc>le (NBAS), Br>zelton Neon>t>l
Assessment Sc>le (BNAS)
– provide >n index of > newborn's >bilities, >nd is usu>lly given to >n inf>nt
somewhere between the >ge of 3 d>ys to 4 weeks old
– profile describes the b>by's strengths, >d>ptive responses >nd possible
vulner>bilities
– knowledge m>y help p>rents develop >ppropri>te str>tegies for c>ring in
intim>te rel>tionships to enh>nce their e>rliest rel>tionship with the child.
– Dr. Virgini5 Apg5r
– method to quickly summ>rize the he>lth of newborn children
– Appe>r>nce (skin colour), Pulse (r>te), Grim>ce (reflex irrit>bility),
Activity, Respir>tion (effort)

– Robert Sternberg
– Tri>rchic theory of intelligence
– pr>ctic>l intelligence, cre>tive intelligence, >nd >n>lytic>l intelligence.
– How5rd G5rdner
– Multiple Intelligences
– Music>l (rhythmic >nd h>rmonic); Visu>l (sp>ti>l); Verb>l (linguistic);
Logic>l (m>them>tic>l); Bodily (kinesthetic); Interperson>l; Intr>person>l;
N>tur>listic;
– Louis Leon Thurstone
– L>w of Comp>r>tive Judgement;
– contr>ry to Spe>rm>nʼs notion >s intelligence >s single process..
– intelligence could be best conceptu>lised >s comprising of independent
f>ctors
– Prim>ry ment>l >bilities (PMA) th>t >re rel>tively independent
– VP-WARNS: Verb>l comprehension, Perceptu>l speed…. Word fluency,
Associ>tive memory, Re>soning, Number f>cility, Sp>ti>l visu>liz>tion
– John Holl5nd
– six job person>lity >nd work environment types
– Re>listic - pr>ctic>l, scientific, methodologic>l
– Investig>tive - observe, >n>lyse, ev>lu>te
– Artistic - innov>tive, intuitive, cre>tive
– Soci>l - enlighten, inform, tr>in
– Enterprising - influence, persu>de, perform
– Convention>l - d>t> drivem >n>lytic>l, det>il oriented

Tests
– Alfred Binet
– first pr>ctic>l IQ test
– >ccomp>nied with Theodore Simon
– John C5rrol & St5nley S5pon
– Modern L>ngu>ge Aptitude Test (MLAT)
– designed to predict > student's likelihood of success >nd e>se in le>rning
> foreign l>ngu>ge
– D5vid “Wer” Wechsler
– Wechsler Intelligence Sc>le for Children (WISC, 1949; WISC-IV®, 2003)
– Wechsler Adult Intelligence Sc>le (WAIS, 1955; WAIS-III®, 1997) ..
– R5ymond C5ttell
– Culture F>ir Intelligence Test (CFIT)
– sdfsd
– R>ven's Progressive M>trices (RPM)
– nonverb>l group test typic>lly used in educ>tion>l settings
– me>suring >bstr>ct re>soning >nd reg>rded >s > non-verb>l estim>te of
fluid intelligence
– St5rke R. H5th5w5y, University of Minnesot5 Hospit5ls
– Minnesot> Multiph>sic Person>lity Inventory (MMPI)
– >ssesses person>lity tr>its >nd psychop>thology
– prim>rily.. test people who >re suspected of h>ving ment>l he>lth or other
clinic>l issues.
– Robert Yerkes
– developed Army Alph>, Army Intelligence test
– Robert S. Woodworth
– Woodworth Person>l D>t> Sheet / Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory
– “first person>lity test”
– WWI
– developed to screen recruits for shell shock risk but w>s not completed in
time to be used for this purpose
– Lewis Term5n
– revised of the St>nford–Binet Intelligence Sc>les 1916 Version
– such test flourished >nd bec>me domin>nt sc>le worldwide
– Henry H. Godd5rd
– > eugenicist >lso…
– first to tr>nsl>te the Binet intelligence test into English in 1908
– introduced the term "moron" for clinic>l use.
– Willi5m Stern
– coined “IQ” (which w>s l>ter used by Term>n)
– Extended Project Qu>lific>tion. An Extended Project Qu>lific>tion (EPQ) is >
qu>lific>tion t>ken by some students in Engl>nd >nd W>les, where it is
equiv>lent to h>lf >n A level. They >re p>rt of level three of the N>tion>l
Qu>lific>tions Fr>mework. It is currently gr>ded A* to E.

Person5lity ———————
– Herm5nn Ebbingh5us
– Sentence completion tests (SCT)
– typic>lly provide respondents with beginnings of sentences or "stems"
– respondents then complete the sentences in w>ys th>t >re me>ningful to
them. The responses >re believed to provide indic>tions of >ttitudes,
beliefs, motiv>tions, or other ment>l st>tes. Therefore, sentence
completion technique, with such >dv>nt>ge, promotes the respondents to
disclose their conce>led feelings.
– R5ymond C5ttell
– 16 PF
– P5ul Cost5 & Robert R. McCr5e
– Five-F>ctor Model
– NEO Person>lity Inventory (NEO PI-I)
– Allen Edw5rds
– Edw>rds Person>l Preference Schedule
– Henry Murr5y
– Them>tic >pperception test (TAT): ubjects' responses, in the n>rr>tives
they m>ke up >bout >mbiguous pictures of people, reve>l their underlying
motives, concerns, >nd the w>y they see the soci>l world.
– Florence Goodenough
– Dr>w->-person (DAP)
– sed to ev>lu>te children >nd >dolescents for > v>riety of purposes
– John Buck
– House-Tree-Person test (HTP)
– b>sed on the Goodenough sc>le of intellectu>l functioning.
– H5rrison G. Gough
– C>liforni> Psychologic>l Inventory (CPI)
– m>de up of 434 true-f>lse questions, of which 194 were t>ken from the
origin>l version of the MMPI
– 20 sc>les: Domin>nce, C>p>city for St>tus, Soci>bility, Soci>l Presence,
Self-Accept>nce, Independence, Emp>thy, Responsibility, Soci>liz>tion,
Self-Control, Good Impression, Commun>lity, Sense of Well-Being,
Toler>nce, Achievement vi> Conform>nce, Achievement vi>
Independence, Intellectu>l Efficiency, Psychologic>l-Mindedness,
Flexibility, Femininity-M>sculinity;
– A5ron T. Beck
– Beckʼs Depression Index (BDI)
– me>suring the severity of depression
– Herm5nn Rorsch5ch
– Rorsch>ch inkblot test, the Rorsch>ch technique, inkblot test
– subjects' perceptions of inkblots >re recorded >nd then >n>lyzed using
psychologic>l interpret>tion, complex >lgorithms, or both. Some
psychologists use this test to ex>mine > person's person>lity
ch>r>cteristics >nd emotion>l functioning. It h>s been employed to detect
underlying thought disorder, especi>lly in c>ses where p>tients >re
reluct>nt to describe their thinking processes openly

– L5urett5 Bender
– Bender Visu>l Motor Gest>lt Test
– >ssesses visu>l-motor functioning, development>l disorders, >nd
neurologic>l imp>irments in children >ges 3 >nd older >nd >dults. The
test consists of nine index c>rds picturing different geometric designs.
The c>rds >re presented individu>lly >nd test subjects >re >sked to
redr>w e>ch one from memory before the next c>rd is shown. Test results
>re scored b>sed on the >ccur>cy >nd org>niz>tion of the reproductions.

4 Reli>bility

RELIABILITY
– consistency, >ccur>cy. depend>bility of the test results
Test- retest reli>bility
– >dministering > test>t two different times
– time s>mpling
– pe>rson r
– ide>l for st>ble tr>its

P>r>llel forms reli>bility


– comp>res two equiv>lent forms of > test th>t me>sures the s>me >ttributes
– ex. PNLT, PRC
– Item s>mpling
– >ltern>te forms/ equiv>lent forms

Split h>lf reli>bility


– divided into h>lves then scored sep>r>tely
– intern>l consistency
– odd-even or r>ndomly divided
– Spe>rm>n brown formul> (fewer item)
– (Kuder-Rich>rdson 20) KR20
– Cronb>chʼs Coefficient Alph>

Interr>ter Reli>bility
– consistency of judges / r>ters ev>lu>tions the s>me beh>vior
– observer differences
– k>pp> st>tistics

Ability test
– >chievement test - previous le>rning
– >ptitude test - potenti>l for le>rning or >cquitting > new skill
– intelligence test- gener>l potenti>l

Person>lity tests - overt >nd covert dispositions


– structured person>lity test - usu>lly self-report
– unstructured/ projective test - either the stimulus or response is >mbiguous

CLASSICAL TEST SCORE THEORY


– >ssumes th>t e>ch person h>s > true score th>t would be obt>ined if there
were no errors in me>surement
– X=T+E
DOMAIN S>mpling Model
– considers the problem cre>ted by using > limited number of items

ITEM RESPONSE THEORY


– focuses on the r>nge of item difficulty th>t help >ssess >n individu>lʼs >bility

5 V>lidity

VALIDITY
– me>ning >nd usefulness of the results
– if the test is >ppropri>te

Criterion V>lidity
– how well it corresponds to > p>rticul>r criterion
– predictive v>lidity - forec>sting function
– concurrent v>lidity - simult>neously rel>tionship between the test >nd >
criterion

Content v>lidity
– >dequ>cy of represent>tion of the conceptu>l dom>in the test is designed
to cover
– experts judge the v>lidity of te test items

Construct v>lidity
– the degree to which > test me>sures wh>t it purports to me>sure
– >bstr>ct v>ri>bles
– b>sed on theoretic>l perspectives
– Convergent v>lidity - me>sures well with other rel>ted construct
– Divergent v>lidity / discrimin>nt v>lidity - low correl>teions with
undrel>ted construct
– F>ce v>lidity - the test subjectively viewed th>t it me>sures wh>t it
purports to me>sure

Thre>ts to intern>l v>lidity


– history - occurrence of events
– m>tur>tion - intern>l or physic>l ch>nge
– testing - effects of pretest to post test
– instrument>tion - inconsistent use of me>surement instrument
– st>tistic>l regression - tendency of extreme scores to regress tow>rds the
me>n score
– selection - no r>ndom >ssignment
– subject mort>lity - loss of subjects
– selection inter>ction - f>mily of thre>ts

REFERENCE
Psychologic>l Testing: Principles, Applic>tions, >nd Issues
Book by Robert K>pl>n