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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

College of Engineering and Technology


Department of Chemical Engineering

EXTRACTION OF STARCH VIA ACID


HYDROLYSIS FROM BANANA (Musa
Sapientum) PEEL FOR THE
PRODUCTION OF BIOPLASTIC
SHEET

SUBMITTED BY:

BS ChE 3-1 Group 4

Manzano, Mikaela Gail

Santos, Princess Gabrielle C.

Valdez, Loisroi R.

Yepes, Anna Lyn G.

SUBMITTED TO:

Engr. Milagros Cabangon

Professor

December 2016

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Table of Contents

Chapter I- Introduction
I. Background of the Study 3
II. Statement of the Problem 5
III. Objectives 6
IV. Significance of the Studies 8
V. Scope and Limitations 9
Chapter II- Revie of Related Literature and Studies
I. Revie of Related Literature 10
II. Review of related Studies 20
Chapter III- Experimental Study
I. Procedure 22
II. Data Analysis
III. Summary of Parameters
Chapter IV- Conclusion and Recommendations
I. Conclusion
II. Recommendation

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

I. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


From cars to food wrap, you can make anything and everything from plastics—
unquestionably the world's most versatile materials. But there's a snag. Plastics
are synthetic (artificially created) chemicals that don't belong in our world and
don't mix well with nature. Public pressure to clean up has produced plastics
that seem to be more environmentally friendly.

Statistical data, the Philippines domestic and import usage of plastics has been
continuously increasing.

Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as


vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota. Bioplastic can be made from
agricultural by-products and from used plastic bottles and other containers
using microorganisms. Bioplastics can be composed of starches, cellulose,
biopolymers, and a variety of other materials.

The demand to produce environment friendly material is increasing. The rising


concern towards environmental problems brought by petroleum-based products
inspired the development of the eco-friendly materials. Bioplastics are derived
from agricultural resources and biomass feedstock that are renewable and

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

therefore comply with materials that are eco-efficient and sustainable. Among
the biopolymer matrices being utilized to produce bioplastics, starch is
considered the most widely used material.

Starch-based plastics have been projected to comprise the largest production


capacity amounting to 1.3 Mt in 2020 while the remaining production is based
on polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), bio-based polyethylene,
and others. The large contribution of starch-based plastics in the market can be
accounted for its several cited advantages such as high abundance, low cost,
and renewability. However, starch alone is not a true thermoplastic. It must be
processed in the presence of heat and mechanical treatment together with a
plasticizer. This process produces thermoplastic starch (TPS). It must be
combined with other materials often a filler to modify its properties. Generally,
reinforcement with filler enhances the mechanical properties of starch and
reduces the hydrophilic character.

In bioplastic production, 50% are starch based and the remaining are cellulose
and protein based. Starch based bioplastic can use corn kernels, sugar cane,
newspaper, plant scraps and banana peels as sources of starch.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

The Philippines is the third largest exporter of bananas after Ecuador and
Columbia, with some 2.6 m tonnes exported in 2009. That year, the exports from
the Philippines (essentially Cavendish cultivars) made up 98% of the Asian
banana trade. Two thirds of the exported volumes were shipped to Japan, China
and South Korea.

In 2015, the country produced nearly 9.1m tonnes of bananas on 443,270 ha,
with Cavendish cultivars accounting for about 50% of national banana
production, Saba (29%) and Lakatan (11%). Latundan (a Silk cultivar) and other
cultivars accounted for about 11%. At the beginning of the century, as many as
90 cultivars were estimated to be grown for local consumption.

The common banana, scientifically known as Musa sapientum, is a tropical fruit


grown in the western hemisphere. Primarily viewed as a food source, the banana
has fleshy inside portion surrounded by an outer, typically yellow, peel. The
fleshy inside portion, or pulp, is edible when raw, and the peel is usually
discarded. When ripe, bananas have a deep yellow rind spotted with brown, and
a creamy pulp which is easily digested.

Among those, banana peels are waste and is the best option in choosing of raw
material. Also, banana production increased by 2.8% in 2014 to 8.88 million
metric tons (MT), per Bureau of Agricultural Statistics’ (BAS) which make it an
abundant source in the country. These are found to have minimum 15% starch
when immature and 30-40% when ripe.

II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


In 2014, global plastic production reached 311 million metric tons, with 59
million metric tons in Europe alone. (Global Statistics, 2014) The production
process used to make plastics consumes about 10% of oil and gasoline both
produced and imported by the U.S. Globally, the production of plastic accounts
for 270 million tons of oil and gasoline in order to meet the demand for plastic
products. (Algix.com) When a plastic’s usefulness is over, it is readily dumped
into landfills and ocean environments. This gives a high impact on environmental
and economic problem. Bioplastics which are biodegradable and can be made
from scratch have a potential solution to the problem, environmentally and
economically. Also, banana peels which is the main raw material, are considered
agricultural waste that can be turned into some useful product such as
bioplastic.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

During recent decades, there has been a continuous increase in the use of
plastics and it has become the major new material replacing some traditional
ones such as paper, steel and aluminum in many applications. The main
advantages of plastics are their low cost and lightweight. In addition, they are
easy to formulate and require low energy for their transportation and production.
The ever-growing production and use of plastics have led to a waste disposal
problem because, generally, they are inherently inert to the microorganisms or
the chemicals in an environment (Prinos, et al. 1998). Thus, they cannot degrade
when exposed to the environment. Conventional garbage disposal methods such
as incineration, landfill and recycling are not so attractive due to their respective
limitations. Incineration needs high temperatures of more than 800o C, which
makes it rarely used nowadays. Landfill has some problems of odor and the
scattering of lightweight waste materials by the wind. Recycling has not yet
gained widespread acceptance because of its difficulty in classifying and
separating the types of used plastics. For these reasons, there has been an
increased interest in the production and use of fully biodegradable polymers
replacing nonbiodegradable plastics

Plastics made from petroleum-based have many drawbacks. It needs a large


amount of energy in the production process, besides it took years to degrade and
at the same time caused serious hazards to the environment. To shift to
sustainable pathways, the development of biodegradable products has increased
years ago, and it continues to be the area that attracts scientists to involve with
new green materials and improvement ideas. Renewable natural polymer
resources such as starches were one of the most attractive materials because of
its’ inherent biodegradability, ready availability and low cost (Azahari et al.,
2011; Patel et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2007). Biodegradation of bioplastic can be
characterized with the loss of weight, change in tensile strength, change in
dimensions, change in chemical and physical properties, carbon dioxide
production, bacterial activity in soil and change in molecular weight distribution
(Singh & Sharma, 2008). Nowadays, starch is widely used in the fields of food
technology, engineering, pharmaceutical, packaging and agricultur

III. OBJECTIVES
GENERAL: The main objective of the experiment is to extract the starch from
the banana peels to produce a bioplastic sheet that conforms with the
standard properties.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

SPECIFIC:

 To determine the amount of starch that can produce a bioplastic that


can conform with the standard property.
 To identify the suitable parameters that will produce the highest
amount of starch from banana peels through varying the different
parameters such as type of reagents, concentration of reagents, mass
ratio of reagents, temperature and time.
 To determine the amount of water to be used in washing banana peel
 To determine the amount of water needed to extract the most amount
of starch from banana peel
 To determine the minimum amount of time needed to settle the
maximum amount of starch from the banana starch suspension
 To determine the optimum time for drying the banana starch
 To calculate for the percent yield of each process involved.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

IV. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


With this research, the conventional petroleum-based commercial plastics will
soon be replaced by these bioplastics made from banana starch. An advantage
of this is that, they will not fill up the landfills because they are biodegradable
and just for months, disposed bioplastics are completely gone unlike petroleum-
based plastics which takes about many centuries. This research will also be
significant to the whole scientific community since it would provide added
information about how to make a good, environment-friendly, inexpensive and
toxic-free bioplastic from banana wastes. This research can also serve as a
springboard for future researches who want to develop safe and cost effective
bioplastics. This study entitled “Extraction of Starch from Banana Peels to
Produce Bioplastic” is expected to be significant to the following fields:

 To the banana chips, banana ketchup factory owners

The study utilizes banana peels as its major raw material for the production of
bioplastic. This will provide the factory owners a potential market for bioplastic
rather than ending up the banana peelings as waste.

To the plastic industry

This study promotes an environment-friendly plastic as it will provide a product


that will degrade faster than the conventional plastic. Also, it promotes the
establishment of local production that will potentially be largely available in the
market.

 To the business field

Both the materials and procedure of this study could be utilized and developed
by other institutions and could be a reason for a local production of bioplastic
from the raw material. Moreover, this study would help create jobs for local
citizens.

 To the Students

The concepts used and the manufacturing process, as well as the literature
gathered in this experiment could be used as reference for further studies related
to the development of banana starch based bioplastic. Students could also use

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

the process described in the experiment to observe the conversion of banana peel
to a bioplastic in a simplified laboratory set-up.

 To the chemical engineering profession

This study may serve as an additional reference for related and similar studies
of fellow researchers. Chemical engineers could help in conducting further
research and study of the process involved in the production of bioplastic. With
the help of this field, scientific and economic condition in the country could be
improved.

V. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS


This study focuses on the production of bioplastic through extraction of starch
from banana fruit peelings. The main idea of the study was to determine its
efficacy and to identify the parameters which can yield optimum values. This
study will only focus on the production of bioplastic using starch from Banana
peels. This includes the collecting of banana peels, extraction, production of the
bioplastic, testing the properties, gathering and analysis of data and finally,
arriving at the conclusions. It will take a week to finish the production of
bioplastics since there are parts where drying is needed.

The experimentation was done only up to laboratory scale. The materials


used in this study are locally available. Banana Peels, the major raw material
used in the study, can be collected in Dolly’s Banana Chips factory in Cavite.
These banana peels are the by-product of the production of banana chips.

In the determination of suitable parameters, a number of trials were based


on the existing experimental procedures of various related studies. The
experimental variations involved in this study are the following:

 Temperature
 Time
 Type of solvent
 Ratio of a material to reagent
 Concentration of reagents
 Type of catalyst
 Molar ratio

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIES

A. Review of Related Literature


I. Raw Material
Musa sapientum which is commonly called banana
is a herbaceous plant of the family Musaceae. It is
known to have originated from the tropical region
of Southern Asia. According to Leslie, it is now
cultivated throughout the tropics. Akinyosoye
reported that the plant is cultivated primarily for its
fruits and to a lesser extent for the production of
fibre. It is also believed to be an ornamental plant.
The Musa sapientum grows up to a height of about
2-8m with leaves of about 3.5m in length. The
stem which is also called pseudostem produces a single bunch of banana before
dying and replaced by new pseudostem. The fruit grows in hanging cluster,
with twenty fruits to a tier and 3 – 20 tiers to a bunch. The fruit is protected by
its peel which is discarded as waste after the inner fleshy portion is eaten.

Banana production increased by 2.8% in 2014 to 8.88 million metric tons (MT),
according to the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics’ (BAS) Major Crops Bulletin,
but this year’s output could suffer a setback as the prevailing mild El Niño has
started to affect harvest.

The average banana fruit has 32-35% skin.


Banana peels generally contain 6 to 9
percent protein, 20 to 30 percent fiber and
other components such as starch, sugars,
lignin, tannins and minerals in varying
amounts. The exact quantity of these
components depends on the banana
cultivar and its maturity. Green banana
peels contain much less starch (about
15%) while ripe banana peels contain up to
30% free sugars.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

The relationship between peel color and starch index, according to our chart,
shows a reasonable positive linear correlation

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

The relationship between pH changes and starch index is not linear, and best
fits an exponential curve (Fig. 4). During normal banana ripening, the starch-
iodine staining technique for assessing pulp ripe ness correlates well with color
and soluble solids. Use of the technique to evaluate pulp maturity should be of
value to both researchers and workers in the banana industry in evaluations
when internal ripeness is more important than appearance, when color is not a
usable index, or when temperature and humidity problems arise and external
and internal ripening are not well-correlated

Glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) as Plasticizer

A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic,


makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Early examples of plasticizers
include water to soften clay and oils to plasticize pitch for waterproofing ancient

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

boats. There are more than 300 differentypes of plasticizers of which about 50-
100 are in commercial use. The most commonly used are phthalates and
adipates.

Usually, the second major component of a starch based film is the plasticizer,
which is used to overcome film brittleness caused by high intermolecular forces.
Plasticizing agents commonly used for thermoplastic starch production include
water and glycerol (Alves et al., 2007, Famá et al., 2006, Famá et al., 2007,
Jangehud and Chinnan, 1999, Mali et al., 2006 and Parra et al., 2004),
polyethylene glycol (Parra et al., 2004) and other polyols, such as sorbitol,
mannitol and sugars (Kechichian et al., 2010, Talja et al., 2008 and Veiga-Santos
et al., 2008).

Glycerol, also called glycerin, makes a very useful plasticizer. Glycerol is


produced by the fermentation of sugar, or from vegetable and animal oils and
fats, as a by-product in the manufacture of soaps and fatty acids. It is liquid at
room temperature.

Glycerol is an effective plasticizer and inexpensive, and it tends to make the


resulting plastic flexible even at the very low temperatures of a freezer, as might
be required for a freezer wrap. On the other hand, too much of it makes the
plastic curl up in a microwave oven and turn into gum. Even more important,
glycerol tends to lose its effectiveness as a plasticizing agent over time, leading
to a slow increase in brittleness (Green Plastics, 2011).

Some authors consider that the glycerol, a polyalcohol found naturally in a


combined form as glycerides in animal and vegetable fats and oils, is the best
plasticizer for water soluble polymers (Bertuzzi et al., 2007, Jangehud and
Chinnan, 1999 and Müller et al., 2008). The hydroxyl groups present in glycerol
are responsible for inter and intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds) in
polymeric chains, providing films with a more flexible structure and adjusting
them to the packaging production process (Souza et al., 2010).

To overcome high permeability caused by the plasticizer, other additives are


used. In this area, the production of bionanocomposites has proven to be a
promising option, since polymer composites are increasingly gaining importance
as substitute materials due to their superior tensile properties, making them
especially suited for transportation and packaging applications (Souza et al.,
2012)

Effect of Vinegar on Starch

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Starch dissolves better if a small amount of ions (electrically charged particles)


are present in the mixture; the polymer molecules become disordered more
easily, and the resulting cast films are somewhat improved. These added ions
interact with both the starch and the small amounts of other polymers
(lipoproteins) that are present in commercial starch. One way to add ions into
the mixture is to use ammonium acetate. Ammonium acetate works very well in
this respect because it forms ammonium ions and acetate ions in solution.
However, ammonium acetate is not readily available. Vinegar is a practical
alternative that one can use when making bioplastic. Vinegar contains acetic
acid which forms hydrogen ions and acetate ions, and (importantly) it is readily
available. This is why adding a little bit of vinegar is recommended specifically
when making home-made bioplastic films from starch (Green Plastics, 2011)

According to The Packaging Bulletin Magazine’s January issue, it is a proven fact


that starch and cellulose are important raw materials used in the bioplastic
industry (Packaging Bulletin, 2009). The propane-1,2,3-triol used in the
experiment functions as a plasticizer, an additive used to develop or improve the
plasticity of a material. It disconnects the polymer chains from one another;
restraining them from becoming rows of chains and acquiring a crystalline
structure. The formation of the crystalline structure is undesired because it is a
brittle and fragile structure which makes the plastic brittle and fragile as well.
Instead of the crystalline structure, the formation of film (not becoming rows of
chains of polymers) is desired.

Starch consists of two different types of polymer chains, called amylose and
amylopectin, made up of adjoined glucose molecules. The hydrochloric acid is
used in the hydrolysis of amylopectin, which is needed in order to aid the process
of film formation due to the H-bonding amongst the chains of glucose in starch,
since amylopectin restricts the film formation. The sodium hydroxide used in
the experiment is simply used in order to neutralize the pH of the medium.

The 9th and 10th pilot experiment conducted had been successful in producing
plastic, but had started to decay after only 3 days. As a result of the research
done to address this issue, I found out that in order to improve shelf life of post-
harvest wild mango fruits, sodium metabisulphite can be used (Ibadan, 1991).
This is why the sodium metabisulphite solution was used in this experiment.

Starch from cereals (wheat, maize and finger millet) pulses (chick pea and green
gram), tuber (potato) and root (tapioca) was modified with different acids (0.5 N,
1.5 h, 50°C). Molecular weight (number average, Full-size image (<1 K)) of these

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

starches decreased after modification, H3PO4 causing the least and HCl and
HNO3 the highest reduction. Gel permeation chromatography of native
starches using Sepharose CL 4B gave mainly two fractions. Fraction I (Fr. I), a
higher molecular weight component eluting in the void volume and Fraction II
(Fr. II), a lower molecular weight component that entered the gel and eluted at
higher elution volumes. After acid modification, the carbohydrate content of Fr.
II increased while that of Fr. I decreased. The magnitude of the effect for different
acids followed the same pattern as was the case for molecular weight. Very high
increase in the total carbohydrate content in Fr. II was seen in cereal starches
followed by pulses, root and least by tuber. The λmax values of the peak of Fr. I
increased in cereal and millet starches after modification by 9 to 14 nm, but
either remained the same or decreased to some extent in other starches. The
peak of Fr. II of modified starches had similar Kav to that of the respective native
starch suggesting that the degraded portion had a molecular size similar to that
of Fr. II of the native starch. However, the λmax of the peak of Fr. II decreased
after modification indicating that degraded portion of Fr. I which entered the gel
and eluted with the peak of Fr. II was branched.

II. Process
Acid hydrolysis is an important chemical modification that can significantly
change the structural and functional properties of starch without disrupting its
granular morphology. During acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions are hydrolyzed
preferentially, which enhances the crystallinity and double helical content of acid
hydrolyzed starch. The effects of acid hydrolysis on amylose content, chain
length distribution of amylopectin molecules, molecular and crystalline
organization (including lamellar structure) and granular morphology are
considered. Functional properties discussed include swelling power,
gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting, gel texture, and in vitro enzyme
digestibility.
III. Product
Starch Based Plastic
Starch is considered to be a biodegradable polymer and can be used for the
production of starch-based resin (Takagi, Ichihara, 2004) bioplastics. Starch
when harvested is turned into a white, granular product. According to the
Australian Academy of Science, “starch can be processed directly into a
bioplastic, but because it is soluble in water, articles made from starch will swell
and deform when exposed to moisture, limiting its use” (Packaging Greener,
2004). The starch must be transformed into an altered polymer in order to solve
the issue of starch deformation. Biodegradable starches can be processed “using

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

conventional plastic technologies such as injection molding, blow molding, film


blowing, foaming, thermoforming and extrusion” (Mohanty, 2004). These starch-
based plastics resemble many conventional plastics and are as, “biodegradable
as pure cellulose” (Berkesch, 2005).
Starch Components Starch granules are mainly composed of two
macromolecular polymers of α- D-glucose, amylose and amylopectin (Banks,
Greenwood, 1975). High amylose starch is defined as a starch that is composed
of at least about 40% amylose (Zallie et al. 1994) and has the ability to form a
strong gel and film. Madzlan, et. al. (2012) confirms that starch high in amylose
content is responsible for the production of water-soluble or biodegradable
plastics
Uses of Starch in the Plastic Industry Vilpoux and Averous (2003) enumerates
the typical uses of starch-based plastics.
• Purchase bags – These were introduced in the market in 1999 and started being
used in many supermarkets in Scandinavia and in the Mediterranean Coast.
They were introduced in places where the collecting of organic wastes already
existed and where they were accepted as biodegradable compost bags.
• Consumer goods packaging – The main market is that of silk paper, but there
are markets for magazines wrapping and bubble films, mainly for electronic
goods.
• Food packaging – Bags for fruit, vegetables, and bakery products. Starch-based
plastics allow for a better breathing of the products.
Composting bags – Bags used in the selective collecting of organic waste, which
will be treated to produce a compounds.
Hygiene-cosmetics – Diapers, swabs, and toothpicks
Funerary goods – Wraps for corpses, in compliance with the rules on the use of
biodegradable materials
In the granular state, it has been used as filling agent for polyolefin and as a
component in synthetic polymer blends. According to Lawter and Fischer (2000),
starches have also been modified by means of “grafting” with vinyl monomers
(e.g., methyl acrylate), originating materials for injection in molds or extrusion.
It is possible to produce starch films through the grafting of polymers, such as
polyethylene (PE). Only the starch films is biodegradable and these films are
practically no longer used (Lawter, Fischer, 2000).
IV. Properties & Testing

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Properties of Starch Based Resins

Standard Properties of Bioplastic

Biodegradability of Bioplastic

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

V.

Unlike traditional oil based plastics, biodegradable plastics are made up of


biodegradable, bio-based, or both types of materials. "To be considered
biodegradable, this decomposition has to be measured by standardized tests,
and take place within a specified time period, which vary according to the
“disposal” method chosen. The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
have created definitions on what constitutes biodegradability in various disposal
environments” (i.e. Platt, 2014).

ASTM D882 Plastic Film Tensile Strength Test

This test is very similar to the common ASTM D638 test


whereby plastic material is pulled until in breaks in order to
measure elongation, tensile modulus, tensile yield strength,
and tensile strength at break. However, it is designed
specifically for thin sheeting and film less than 1 mm (0.04″)
thick.

Tensile testing is the measurement of the ability of a material to withstand forces


pulling the sample apart and the extent it
stretches before breaking. When a tensile
sample is pulled, one end of the sample is
clamped and stationary while the other is
pulled at a constant velocity until the sample
breaks. By definition, stress is an applied
force or system of forces that tends to strain
or deform a body. It is also the internal
resistance of a body to such an applied force.
You will feel the stress when pulling on the
samples in these activities. Strain is the change in length per unit of original

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

length which is caused by the pulling. Figure 1 below shows a typical curve that
results from a tensile test.

Tensile strength is calculated by dividing the load at break by the original


minimum crosssectional area. The result is expressed in megapascals (MPa) and
reported to three significant figures.

This investigation will use tensile and elongation testing to differentiate between
various polymers including plastics and elastomers.

1. Using a permanent marker, mark the samples 5 cm from one end across the
width of the sample. From this marking, measure 10.0 cm and mark the sample
across the width of the sample. The area between the marks is the elongation
test area. Mark all test samples.

2. Tape a meter stick or a metric tape measure to the lab table top. Place the
first test sample so that one of the marked lines is lined up with the zero point
of the measuring device. Use the heel of your hand to hold it in place such that
the heel of your hand and the marking are in line with the zero point.

3. Measure the distance to the second line to 0.1 cm and record it as the initial
length.

4. Holding the sample just beyond the second line, slowly stretch the as far as
possible without it breaking. Record the final length between the marked lines.
Allow the sample to relax slowly without completely releasing it. Be careful not
to release the stretched elastomer, snapping your hand or another student.

5. Describe the stretched sample.

6. Calculate the percent elongation as a percentage of the initial length.

7. Repeat for a total of 3 of the same samples and calculate the average percent
elongation

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Young’s modulus is calculated by drawing a tangent to the initial linear portion


of the stress-strain curve, selecting any point on this tangent, and dividing the
tensile stress by the corresponding strain. For purposes of this calculation, the
tensile stress shall be calculated by dividing the load by the average original
cross section of the test specimen. The result is expressed in gigapascals (GPa).

Biodegradability Test
When testing the degradation phenomena of plastics in the environment, there
is a general problem concerning the type of tests to be applied, and the
conclusions which can be drawn. In principle, tests can be subdivided into three
categories: field tests; simulation tests; and laboratory tests (Figure 2). Although
field tests, such as burying plastics samples in soil, placing it in a lake or river,
or performing a full-scale composting process with the biodegradable plastic,
represent the ideal practical environmental conditions, there are several serious
disadvantages associated with these types of test. One problem is that
environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, or humidity cannot be well
controlled; secondly, the analytical opportunities to monitor the degradation
process are limited. In most cases it is only possible to evaluate visible changes
on the polymer specimen, or perhaps to determine disintegration by measuring
weight loss. The latter approach is problematic however if the material breaks
into small fragments that must be quantitatively recovered from the soil,
compost or water. The analysis of residues and intermediates is complicated by
the complex and undefined environment. Since the pure physical disintegration
of a plastic is not regarded as biodegradation in the sense of most definitions
(see above), these tests alone can never prove whether a material is
biodegradable, or not. As an alternative to field tests, various simulation tests in
the laboratory have been used to measure the biodegradation of plastics. Here,
the degradation might take place in compost, soil or sea-water placed in a
controlled reactor in a laboratory. Although the environment is still very close to
the fieldtest situation, the external parameters (temperature, pH, humidity, etc.)
can be controlled and adjusted, and the analytical tools available are better than
would be used for field tests (e.g., for analysis of residues and intermediates,
determination of CO2 evolution or O2 consumption). Examples of such tests
include the soil burial test (Pantke and Seal, 1990), the so-called ™controlled

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

composting test∫ (Pagga et al., 1995; Tosin et al., 1996; Degli-Innocenti et al.,
1998; Ohtaki et al., 1998; Tuominen et al., 2002), test simulating landfills
(McCartin et al., 1990; Smith et al., 1990; McCarthy et al., 1992) or aqueous
aquarium tests (P¸chner et al., 1995). On occasion, in order to reduce the time
taken to conduct the tests, nutrients are added to increase the microbial activity
and accelerate degradation. The most reproducible biodegradation tests are the
laboratory tests, where defined media are used (in most cases synthetic media)
and inoculated with either a mixed microbial population (e.g., from waste water)
or individual microbial strains which may have been especially screened for a
particular polymer. In such tests, which may be optimized for the activity of the
particular microorganisms used, polymers often exhibit a much higher
degradation rate than would be observed under natural conditions

B. REVEW OF RELATED STUDIES

A. Banana Starch Production Related Studies


Banana starch production was studied in pilot plant scale. Immersion the
green banana in hot water at 700C for 5 to 6 min could facilitate the peeling
process. According to the book “A Pilot Scale Study for Banana Starch

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Production” by Dr. Been Huang Chiang et al., low temperature milling decreases
the viscosity of the resulting starch adhesive, also by addition of 0.05M NaOH
increases the efficiency of starch extraction. This extraction yields 70% starch
and of approximately 94% purity.

The milling of banana peeling with addition of 0.15M of NaOH of ratio of


lye solution to banana peeling is between 2.5:1 and 3:1 according to the study
Banana Starch Production performed by Jaouad Fichtail et al. This milling of
banana peeling and lye solution is held for 1-4 hours before diluting it with water
and screening it. The starch derived from the process is 97% pure, with moisture
content of 10.62%, ash content of 0.04%, protein content of 0.78%, oil of 0.14%
and fiber of 0.13%.

The process can also be applied in obtaining starch from banana peels alone.
Some of the parameters used and the principles can be used; such were the
concentration of alkali used, the type of alkali, the preliminary treatment to the
banana peels, and the succeeding procedures including the equipment used.

B. Bioplastic Production Related Studies


J. Gonzales-Guttierez conducted a study regarding Effect of processing on the
viscoelastic, tensile and optical properties of albumen/starch-based
bioplastics wherein compression-moulding after blending the ingredients by
kneading was seen to produce much more promising results, concerning
material transparency and strength, if compared to extrusion. However, results
can further be improved by extruding starch and glycerol before blending with
the protein.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

I. PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIAL

Pretreatment of banana peel should be done to remove dirt and soil


attached to the peels. Pretreatment of the raw material involves
washing, and cutting of banana peel for easy blending.

A. WASHING

Washing is done to remove the dirt, and other impurities that adhere to the tuber
during and after peeling. The banana peel is washed with water

a. Determination of the amount of Water Used to be Used in


Washing the Banana Peel

b. Materials and Apparatus

Banana Peel Graduated


Tap Water Cylinder
Basin Sprayer

c. Objective

To determine the amount of water to be used in washing


peeled banana

d. Hypothesis

Sufficient amount of wash water will remove the dirt form


peeled banana peels.

e. Procedure

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

1.Place 250 grams peeled banana peel in the basin and spray
for 50 mL of water in 5 minutes
2.Weigh the washed tuber.
3.Repeat the procedure four times.
4.Record the appearance of wash water per trial

f. Data and Result


Table 1.2 Wash Water Used for the Washing of Banana peel
Weight of of Amount of Water Weight of Observation
Banana Peel(g) Used (mL) Washed Banana
Peel (g)

The water is dirty


white with peel
particles
suspended on it.

The water is
lighter compared
to the first one.
There are still peel
particles
suspended on it.

The water is clear


with some
particles
suspended on it

The water is clear


with no particles
suspended on it

The water is clear


with no particles
suspended on it

g. Analysis

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Table 1.2 shows that at fourth 33 mL of water, the water is already


clear with no particles suspended on it. The total amount of wash
water to be used is the summation of all the wash water which
amounts to

h. Conclusion

The total amount of wash water to be used is the summation


of all the wash water which amounts to 132 mL.

B. CUTTING

Cutting of banana peel is done to make the blending process easier.

a. Determination of the Size of Banana peel that will Produce a


Better Homogeneity of the Mixture

b. Materials and Apparatus

Banana Peel
Water
Knife
Blender
Analytical balance
Stopwatch

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

c. Objective

To determine the size of banana peel that would yield a


homogenous mixture in the rasping process

d. Hypothesis
The smaller the size of banana peel, the better the
homogeneity of the mixture produced.

e. Procedure
1. Weigh five samples of 250 g washed banana peel.
2. Cut one of the tubers into cubes with a size of 0.5 inch. Cut the
remaining four tubers into sizes of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 cm thick.
3. Add water to the banana cubes using 1:1 mass ratio.
4. Blend for 5 minutes using a blender.
5. Observe the homogeneity of the mixture.

TRIAL MASS OF MASS OF RATIO


FRUIT PEEL
1 75.3g 30g 2.51

2 96g 32.3g 2.97

3 74.5g 30g 2.48

4 76g 30.4g 2.5

5 78.4g 30.9g 2.54

f. Analysis

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Table 1.3 shows that at 0.5 cm thickness of banana peel, a


homogeneous and smooth slurry is achieved with any
ungrounded banana peel.

g. Conclusion
Thickness of 0.5 cm of peeled banana to is sufficient enough
to produce the desired smoothness and homogeneity of the
banana slurry.

Determination of the Ratio of Banana to Water


It is necessary to determine the least amount of water that
could produce smooth and homogenous slurry.

a. Materials and Apparatus

Banana Peel
Water
Knife
Blender
Analytical balance
Stopwatch

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

b. Objective

To determine the least amount of water that could produce


smooth and homogenous slurry.

c. Hypothesis

Sufficient amount of water added to the banana cubes would


result to a more smooth and homogenous mixture.

d. Procedure

1. Prepare three set ups of 250 g of banana cubes with 0.5 cm


thickness.
2. For each trial, add water to the banana cubes with a mass
ratio of 1:1, 1:1.5, and 2.0.
3. Blend the mixture for 5 minutes.
4. Observe the banana mixture for homogeneity.

e. Data and Results

Table 1.4 Determination of Banana Water Ratio

Amount Wt. of
of Banana
Trial Wt. of Cut
Banana Water Slurry
Observation
Added
Tubes (g) Produced
(mL) (g)

Though smooth slurry is achieved,


there are still some bits that were
1 250 250 372
not completely blended.

The slurry produced is


homogenous and smooth on
2 250 375 501

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

texture with least and smallest bits


of ungrounded banana.

The slurry produced is


homogenous and smooth on
3 250 500 628
texture with minimal bits of
ungrounded banana.

f. Analysis

Table 1.4 shows that at 375 ml (1:1.5 mass ratio), smooth


and homogenous slurry can already be achieved.

g. Conclusion

The least amount of water that could produce smooth and


homogenous slurry is 375 ml (1:1.5 mass ratio of banana to
water)
Preservation
The banana peels preserved by dipping it in a Sodium metabisulfite solution
which will be needed for the shelf life of the biodegradable material which is the
starch from the banana peels. The sodium metabisulfite is prepared by weighing
95.05g per Liter of distilled water.

A. Dipping of banana peels in the Sodium metabisulfite solution


The banana peels are preserved by soaking it in a Sodium metabisulfite solution

Objective
To prolong the shelf life of the organic material

Procedure
1. Prepare 0.5M solution of Sodium metabisulfite by mixing 95.05g of sodium
metabisulfite in a liter of distilled water
2. Mix the solution throughly
3. Dip the banana peels in the solution for 30 minutes
4. Compare the dipped banana peel in a banana peel that is not soaked in
Sodium metabisulfite

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 29
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

𝑵𝒂𝟐 𝑺𝟐 𝑶𝟓 concentration Time Observation


0M 10 mins No color change
0.05M 30 mins No color change
0.1M 2 hrs No color change
0.5M No color Yellow
change
1.0M No color Yellow
change

II. Extraction

Boiling

The banana peels that were soaked in the sodium metabisulfite solution will be
boiled to extract the starch from the organic material. Residue and weight of
water will be recorded in this process.

A. Boiling of soaked banana peels

Objective

To extract the starch from the banana peels

Procedure

1. The sodium metabisulfite and banana peel mixture will be decanted

2. The banana peels are placed in a 500mL beaker

3. The beaker is filled with 300mL distilled water

4. The solution will be heated to 80C for 30 minutes for the extraction of starch

Mashing

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 30
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

The dried banana peels will be mashed to create a puree solution for an easier
formation of the bioplastic in the petri dish

A. Mashing of dried banana peels

Objective

To create a banana puree by using a blender or mortar and pestle

Procedure

1. The dried banana peels will be placed in a mortar and pestle.

2. The banana peels will be pounded by using mortar and pestle

3. If the banana peels are not crushed enough, a blender or a food processor is
recommended for further crushing

4. The pounded banana peels will be placed in the blender

III. Formation of Plastic


Acid Hydrolysis
The acid will be added in the banana peel puree for the acid hydrolysis. The acid
will break the bonds of the starch present in the puree

A. Addition of acid in the puree


Objective
To break the starch chains to create carbon chains present in plastics

Procedure
1. The puree will be placed in a 50mL beaker
2. 0.5M of HCl will be added in the solution
3. After adding, the solution will be mixed by using a stirring rod.

Centrifugation and Drying of Banana Peelings Starch


1. Banana peeling collected are washed and cut into small pieces.
2. Weigh 1000 grams of banana peelings and mill it with the addition
of 0.05M of NaOH solution at a ratio of 3:1, NaOH solution to banana
peelings.

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

3. Store the mixture for 1 hour before filtering the starch solution from
the mixture.
4. Wash the residue with water in the ratio of 1:1.5. Observe the total
time of filtration.
5. Collect the filtrate and centrifuge it in 1 minute interval, measuring
the height of precipitate formed in between until it come into a constant
height of precipitate.
6. Filter the starch precipitated and dry it. In between 10 minute
interval of drying, weigh the precipitate until it will come into a constant
mass.
7. Tabulate the results of centrifuge and drying.

Parameters
Weight of
banana 1000
peelings
Weight of
Weight of Time of Time of
Washing of filtrate Residue
wash washing, filtration,
Slurry collected, collected
water, g min min
g
Washing 1500 7 15 1667.4 832.6

height of solid
Time, min % Solid Content=( x 100)
height of total content
1 7.69
2 18.46
3 32.31
4 49.23
5 66.15
6 66.15

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

70

60

50
% Solid Content

40

30 Precipitate
Formed
20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Time

Analysis: All the starch precipitated is after 5 minutes of centrifugation.

Time, min Weight of Starch, g


0 158.4
10 155.0
20 151.8
30 143.6
40 140.2
50 140.2

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 33
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

160

155
Weight of Dried Starch

150

Weight
145
of
Dried
140 Starch

135

130
0 10 20 30 40 50
Time

Analysis: Using a 158.4 g of wet starch and dried in a 10 minute interval


and weighing in between, the 40 minute time interval produces 140.2 g of
dry starch.

Addition of base
Since the mixture is acidic because of the acid, a base will be able to
neutralize the solution
Objective
To neutralize the solution and to prevent the solution from being acidic
Procedure
1. Check the pH of the solution by using a litmus paper
2. Once the litmus paper indicated an acid solution, a NaOH solution is
needed to be added
3. Add 3mL of 0.5M NaOH solution
4. After addition, check the acidity again by using a litmus paper

Blending/Crushing

Addition of NaOH

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 34
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

1. Selection of Suitable Acid


1. Banana peeling collected are washed and cut into small pieces.
2. Weigh 200 grams of banana peelings and mill it with the addition of
0.05M of HCl solution at a ratio of 3:1, HCl solution to banana peelings.
(Fichtali et al., 1997)
3. Store the mixture for 1 hour before filtering the starch solution from
the mixture.
4. Wash the residue with water in the ratio of 1:1.5.
5. Weigh the residue and the filtrate.
6. Repeat procedures 1-5 using, Tabulate the results.

Parameters
Washed banana
200 200 200
peelings, g
Weight of base, g 600 600 600
Weight of wash
300 300 300
water, g
Weight of residue, g 165.2 170.6 173.2
Weight of filtrate, g 934.8 929.4 926.8
1200

1000 165.2 170.6 173.2

800

600
934.8 929.4 926.8
400

200

0
NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2
Filtrate Residue

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 35
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Analysis: Among 3 bases, NaOH, KOH, and Ba(OH)2, NaOH yielded the
most amount of starch solution.

2. Determination of Suitable Concentration of NaOH


1. Banana peeling collected are washed and cut into small pieces.
2. Weigh 200 grams of banana peelings and mill it with the addition of
0.01M of NaOH solution at a ratio of 3:1, NaOH solution to banana
peelings.
3. Store the mixture for 1 hour before filtering the starch solution from
the mixture.
4. Wash the residue with water in the ratio of 1:1.5.
5. Weigh the residue and the filtrate.
6. Repeat procedures 1-5 using 0.05M and 0.10M of NaOH solution.
Tabulate the results.

Parameters 0.01M 0.05M 0.10M


Washed banana
200 200 200
peelings, g
Weight of base, g 600 600 600
Weight of wash
300 300 300
water, g
Weight of residue, g 178.0 165.2 168.6

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

180 178

175

170 168.6

165.2
165

160

155
0.01M 0.05M 0.10M
Weight of Residue

Analysis: Varying the concentration of NaOH using 0.01 M, 0.05 M and


0.10 M, 0.05 M yielded the least amount of residue thus creating a greater
amount of filtrate.

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 37
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

CUTTING AND PRESERVATION DECANTATION BOILING


PRETREATING

PLASTICIZING ACID MASHING DRYING


HYDROLYSIS

ADDITION OF HEATING COOLING


BASE

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
A. Conclusion
B. Recommendation

Extraction of starch from Banana (Musa Sapientum)


peel to produce Bioplastic Page 39
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

REFERENCES

A Pilot Scale Study for Banana Starch Production. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02,
2017, from
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/star.19870390103/abstract

Banana starch: Production, physicochemical properties, and ... (n.d.). Retrieved


February 2, 2017, from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01448617/59

Effect of processing on the viscoelastic, tensile and ... (n.d.). Retrieved February
2, 2017, from https://www.scipers.com/cPaper-View-Effect-of-processing-on-
the-viscoelastic-tensile-and-optical-properties-of-albumenstarch-based-
bioplastics.html

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