You are on page 1of 28

DOCUMENT NO 276 Sept 2015

A.P.A.C. Ltd.
Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy

ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF

REPORT

WB/CAE4/15

Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent

MONMOUTHSHIRE COUNTY COUNCIL

Planning Applications: DC/2014/00657

repared for:
MR M Gaskill

By: Dr N. Phillips.
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Summary

This document comprises report for Archaeological Watching Brief undertaken


during ground disturbance works necessary for the construction of a new rear
porch on an existing property.

The property lies within an archaeologically sensitive area; Scheduled Monument


(MM001).

Cadw granted Scheduled Ancient Monument consent for the proposed work, with a
condition requiring that a watching brief should be undertaken during ground
disturbance work.

Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust (GGAT) also advised Monmouthshire


Council Council (MCC) that as the proposed work at the site could likely impact
on archaeological resources, a condition requiring an intensive archaeological
watching brief should be imposed.

The work did not impact upon any archaeological resources but did confirm that
the area excavated had already been extensively disturbed by earlier service
installations.

Copyright Notice:
A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains
otherwise with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover Photograph: DSCO8670. Plan area prior to excavation work

1
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Contents

Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 1
Contents........................................................................................................................................... 2
Figures: ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Plates: .............................................................................................................................................. 3
Appendices ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Site Location and Description ......................................................................................................... 5
Brief archaeological and historical background .............................................................................. 5
Aims and Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 7
Watching Brief ................................................................................................................................ 7
Watching Brief Results ................................................................................................................... 7
Interpretation ................................................................................................................................... 8
Staff ................................................................................................................................................. 8
Archive: ........................................................................................................................................... 8
Acknowledgements: ........................................................................................................................ 8
Bibliography and References: ......................................................................................................... 9

Figures:

Fig 01 Site location map.


Fig 02 Site Plan, trench

2
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Plates:

PL 01 Area prior to excavation showing contexts: [100], [101], [102].


PL 02 Position of Manhole [104], abutting north of trench with remains of patio flagstones [100], [101]
& [102] to south.
PL 03 Initial disturbance to context [102] revealing [103]. 2, 6inch parallel plastic pipes [106] in fill
[107]
PL 04 Section of northern edge of trench. Main stratigraphic sequence [100], [101], [102], [103] with gas
pipe [113], cut [112] and fill [114] indistinct.
PL 05 Manhole, [104] connection to plastic pipe [106] showing branch (left to right) beneath proposed
trench depth.
PL 06 Depth of gas pipe [113] in W section
PL 07 Depth of final excavation at 150mm below level shown as yellow line on door step
PL 08 Overview of completed trench

Appendices

Appendix I HER Listed Buildings


Appendix II HER NMR Listings
Appendix III HER Event Records
Appendix IV HER Core records
Appendix V Context sheet
Appendix VI Digital Photograph list
Appendix VII Finds list

3
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Introduction

This Watching Brief Report has been prepared by Dr Neil Phillips, A.P.A.C. Ltd, in response to a proposed
programme of works to replace a ‘conservatory with two-storey timber framed extension of existing stone walls and
new rear porch’ at Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent, planning application DC/2014/00657, fig01.

The property is situated at NGR: 346827 190656 which is within the Roman town of Venta Silurum; present day
Caerwent, and as such is part of the designated, Scheduled Ancient Monument (MM001).

In order to undertake the proposed work, Scheduled Monument Consent (SMC) was sought from Cadw: to
remove/dismantle the existing timber conservatory and erect a one and a half storey timber framed extension on the
same dwarf walls at the site of the above scheduled ancient monument.

SMC consent was approved on 10/09/2014, (SMC 10/09/2014), with conditions:

• That Cadw shall be given at least one weeks’ notice, in writing, of the date of
commencement of the work or of any subsequent adjustment to this date, to allow
Cadw’s representatives to monitor the activity.
• That access to the site shall be afforded to representatives of Cadw.
• That any modification to the proposed work shall require the written approval of Cadw,
before it is undertaken.
• That prior to the works commencing Cadw shall approve in writing the appointment of
a suitably qualified and experienced archaeological contractor who must be a
corporate member of the institute of archaeologists (IFA) to undertake the watching
brief. (Now the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists)
• That all contractors working on the site shall be aware of the scheduled status of the
site, the constraints that this imposes and the conditions of the consent.
• That the ground shall not be disturbed during works to dismantle the existing structure.
• That the foundation trench for the raft foundation shall not extend to more than a depth
of 300mm below the existing ground surface.
• That the excavation of the raft foundation trench shall only take place when the
approved archaeologist is present.
• That if any structures should be found during the excavation of the raft foundation
trench, Cadw must be informed immediately and all works on site must be halted until
Cadw’s archaeologist (.) has had an opportunity to undertake a visual inspection.
• That the affected areas of the site be left in a stable and tidy condition on completion of
the works.
• That Cadw shall be informed immediately in writing on completion of the works. That
within twelve weeks of completion work, a digital copy of the archaeological report
shall be submitted by email to (.) Cadw for approval. The report must include
photographs (before, during and after) and meet the relevant (IFA) standards and
guidance for watching briefs. The report shall describe the findings from the
archaeological work on site and relate them where possible to previous investigations
of the scheduled ancient monument. Once Cadw has provided written confirmation of
approval, digital copies of the final report shall be deposited with:- Cadw, GGAT HER,
RCAHMW NMR.

Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust, (GGAT), advisors to the planning department also advised that conditions
should be imposed on any planning approval:

No development shall take place until the applicant, or their agents or successors in title,
has secured the implementation of a programme of archaeological work in accordance
with a written scheme of investigation which has been submitted by the applicant and
approved in writing by the local planning authority.
MON2114/JBHD

4
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Both Cadw and GGAT conditions required a Written Scheme of Investigation for the required archaeological work,
which was duly submitted and approved in writing before any work began, WB/CA4/15.

Site Location and Description

The location of the site can be gained from the A448, Chepstow – Newport Rd, fig 01. Approximately 4½ miles
after leaving Chepstow on the A48, turn left at the sign for Caerwent Roman City.

Drive into the town through the old east gate and past the Coach & Horses to the war memorial and turn right;
Pound Cottage is the last property on the left at the junction with Pound Lane.

Geology and Topography

The solid geology at the site is Avon Group, mudstones and limestone with a possible superficial deposit of silts,
(BGS), although these have been largely disturbed by building development in the area of the site.

Brief archaeological and historical background

The archaeological record of the Caerwent area is well represented from prehistory to present, with resources from
late prehistoric times to present surrounding the village.

Indeed a 5km diameter search around Caerwent would reveal archaeological resources from the Bronze Age, Iron
Age, Roman, Early Medieval, Medieval, Norman, Post medieval and even Modern WWII.

However, as the search area is reduced, the resources become more Roman based, which is no surprise, for as stated
above; the site lies with the area of the Scheduled Ancient Monument of Venta Silurum, SAM MM001, the Roman
civitas of the Iron Age Silures.

The scheduled area itself is also included within one of Monmouthshire’s 31 designated conservation areas since its
designation in 1976, (CCAAMP, p6 2012).

A 500m diameter search centred on the proposed site was commissioned from the Historic Environment Record
(HER) held by GGAT; appendices I-IV.

The search map, fig 02, shows the concentration of both Core and Event records around the site as provided by the
HER. (the full 500m search cannot be represented in a clear way as there are too many detail entries, Hill, S GGAT
HER).

The HER search revealed records for a total of 18 Listed Buildings, Appendix I and 19 sites within the National
Monuments record for the above search area, Appendix II.

The HER search also provided a list of 37 Events for the 500m search, Appendix III, of specific interest due to close
proximity are:

E001345: a watching brief by Monmouth Archaeology in 2009 at Museum Cottage which resulted in the
confirmation of archaeological resources in the form of a large Roman building with hypocaust
structures, walling and drainage. (MA. 209/02).
Originally excavated in 1901-03. (Ashby, Hudd, & Martin 1902).

E001364 A GPR survey carried out by GSB Prospection in 2009 which revealed the presence of a villa
complex with a good potential for surviving flooring and densely packed structural remains. (GBS
209/03).

5
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15
Other useful sources of information, not included with the above HER, were:

Myrtle Cottage, Caerwent:

1. A report on an Earth Resistance and Ground Penetrating Radar Survey by Archaeological Surveys Limited,
J535 2014.

Resistivity data and GPR was mostly inconclusive and possibly representative of recent ground
disturbance from gardening activities; however some linear anomalies were suggested.

.
2. Archaeological watching brief. Foundations Archaeology. 1015 2014.

At a depth not exceeding 150mm below ground surface on an area to the north west of the garden:

‘The archaeological watching brief has demonstrated that no archaeological features


or deposits were present within the excavated area’.

3. Archaeological Evaluation. Foundations Archaeology. 1046 2015.

Trench 1, 60m north west

Later Post medieval/Modern soil deposits (1001), (1002) and (1003) were present to a
minimum depth of 1m below the Modern ground level, 6.1.3.

Trench 2, 45m north, north west

Later Post medieval/Modern soil deposits (2001) was present to a minimum depth of
1.1m below the Modern ground level, 6.2.3.

Trench 3, 40m north

In the northern half of trench 3Post medieval/Modern soil deposits (3018) was present
to a minimum depth of 0.18m below the Modern ground level, but in the southern half
this increased to 0.39m, 6.3.8.

Roman features were also recorded at 0.49m and 0.4m below ground level and the
geophysics results of the 2014 survey were found to be incorrect.

The WSI by Foundations Archaeology, preceding their work at the Myrtle Cottage site provided an interesting
assessment of the site:

3.11
Myrtle Cottage and its boundary wall appear to be post-Medieval in date as they
appear on the 1842 Tithe map…

Despite the proximity of known archaeological remains, especially the Roman


workshops, there are no ridges or hollows, platforms or depressions in the garden that
might indicate the presence of buried Roman features…

No archaeological features are visible on aerial photographic coverage of the site and
no relevant detail was identified through map regression.

Foundations Archaeology MCC14wb/ver1.1 2014.

Possibly the greatest relevance to the site but surprisingly not included in the HER was an Archaeological
Evaluation at New House (Pound Cottage) in 2003 by Monmouth Archaeology MA 02/03:

As a condition for Scheduled Monument Consent to build an extension to New House,


three evaluation trenches were excavated, revealing Roman structural remains at
500mm below surface with alignments to the adjoining insula, (MA, p6 2003).

6
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

The above records would infer a high probability that any ground disturbance is likely to encounter archaeological
resources heavily biased towards the Roman period but with the potential of later disturbance.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of the watching brief was to preserve by record, within the resources available, any archaeological deposits
uncovered during groundwork.

The watching brief also ensured that: in the event of archaeological resources of significance, being discovered and
requiring treatment beyond the remit of the watching brief, that steps would be implemented to ensure that their
treatment would be undertaken within the standards recommended by the CIFA.

Watching Brief

The watching brief was undertaken on 5th August 2015.

The site had been cleared of obstructions, paving slabs had been removed and the limit of the raft foundation trench
marked prior to hand excavation.

Initial recording

A record of the features and stratigraphy exposed during excavation was kept including written notes and
photographs.

Measurements were taken regularly using Leica Disto 510, laser measurement device.

A limited number of finds were recovered and retained for post excavation processing.

Post Ex

Following the watching brief, the field notes and photographs were digitised to produce the context record of the
stratigraphy; Appendix V, and an annotated list of the photographs, Appendix VI.

The finds which were washed by hand, dried, identified, photographed and packed in sealed and ladled bags were
recorded in Appendix VII.

The three appendices; V Context and VI Photographs VII finds were cross referenced ready for inclusion in the
report.

Watching Brief Results

Presentation Notes:

All contexts are denoted [#] in the text, listed in Appendix V, cross referenced in Appendix VI, to the plates section.
Photographs used in the text are listed Pl # and a complete list of photographs can be found in appendix VI with
contact sheets.
Finds are listed {#}.

Work began at the site with the removal of the flagstones, [100], PL01, to reveal a grey/pink bedding of ‘ferrous
slag, [101], imported from nearby Llanwern Steelworks’ (pers comm, client, Mr Gaskell).

The ferrous bedding [101] averaged around 50mm in depth beneath the 70mm thickness of the flagstones [100].

Context [101] was removed to expose a further thin depth of bedding composed of pinkish ‘dust to sand’ [102],
PL02.

7
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Removal of context [102] exposed two underlying deposits: [103] a black sandy clay with flecks of plaster which
was found over the mid and western two thirds of the trench and [107], a yellow coarse fill of sand along the eastern
third of the trench, PL03.

Deposit [102] extended beyond the excavation limit but had a minimum thickness of deposit of 150mm, PL04.

Fill [107] had been cut [105] into [102] in order to install the drainage [104] & [106], PL05.

The excavation also exposed three decommissioned gas pipes [113], PL04, PL06 and PL07 with associated cut and
fill events most of which were two indistinct to record but all within deposit [103].

One more context was exposed towards the south west corner of the trench, a sandy red/brown deposit under [102].

Only a small amount of this deposit was exposed and it did not produce any finds.

Finds

The site provided a small amount finds ranging from Roman ceramics to a plastic button all of which were retained
for post excavation processing before being returned to the client.

Deposit [101] produced eight ceramic sherds of a type associated with late 19th to 20th century domestic ware
production.

Deposit [102] yielded finds assemblage {2} with its range of Roman, Post Med, Industrial and Modern ceramics,
indicative of re-distributed ground fill.

Included within {2} was a spherical lump of mineral assumed to be calcium carbonate but unlikely to have been
formed by the normal method understood for the formation of stalagmites or stalactites.

At the time of writing, analysis is being awaited from The Natural History Museum.

This object has been imported to the site but when or why will always be a matter of speculation.

Interpretation

The entire excavation was confined to a depth wherein no archaeological resources were disturbed.

The extent of deposit that was excavated would appear to be of recent redistributed land fill/levelling.

Staff

Dr. Neil Phillips, ACIFA.


Post ex
Mr A. O. Phillips.

Archive:

The original archive for this project will remain with APAC Ltd and a copy deposited with Monmouthshire County
Archive

Copies of the report will be deposited with the client, Cadw, GGAT HER, RCAHMW NMR & MCC Planning.

Acknowledgements:

Thanks to Mr M Gaskell for allowing access to his site, and his groundwork’s contractors for their assistance and
efficient handling of the excavations.

8
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Bibliography and References:

APAC.Ltd WB/CAE5/15. Written Scheme of Investigation for an Archaeological Watching


Brief. Myrtle Cottage, Caerwent. July 2015.

Archaeological Surveys Myrtle Cottage Caerwent Monmouthshire. A Report on an Earth Resistance and
Ltd. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey. REF: J535 March 2014.

Ashby, T.,
Hudd, A.E.,
& Martin, A.T., 1903 Excavations at Caerwent, Monmouthshire on the Site of the Romano-British City of
Venta Silurum in 1902. J.B. Nichols 1903.

Cadw: Application for Scheduled Monument Consent Proposed works at: Caerwent
Roman Town (MM001). 10/09/2014.

PL App.No: DC/2011/00800. Proposed development: Replace conservatory with


two-storey timber framed extension off existing dwarf walls and new rear porch.
20/10/2014.

Chartered Institute for


Archaeologists. Standard and Guidance for an archaeological watching brief. 2014.

Code of Conduct and the Code of Approved Practice for the regulation of
Contractual Arrangements in Field Archaeology. 2008.

Standard and Guidance for the collection, documentation, conservation and


research of archaeological materials. 2014.

English Heritage Management of Archaeological Projects (1991).


(Historic England)

F G Design Mr & Mrs Gaskill. Pound Cottage, Caerwent.


Drawings:
Plans EXTG. 1236/1. Apr 14.
Plans Proposed. 1236/3. Apr 14.
Elevations Proposed. 1236/4. Apr 14.
Ground Levels. Raft details.

Foundations Archaeology Written Scheme of Investigation for a programme of Archaeological Monitoring


and Recording, Myrtle Cottage, Caerwent MCC14wb/ver 1.1. 2104.

Myrtle Cottage, Caerwent, Monmouthshire. Archaeological Watching Brief.


No:1015. 2014.

Myrtle Cottage, Caerwent, Monmouthshire. Archaeological Evaluation.


No:1046. 2014.

GGAT. 2014. MON2114/JBHD. Re: Proposed Replacement of Conservatory with Two-Storey


Timber Framed Extension: New Rear Porch: Pound Cottage, Pound Lane,
Caerwent. PL.App.No.: DC/2014/00657.

GGAT HER 5043 HER 500m search centered at ST4682790656, Caerwent.

Howell, R., 1988 A History of Gwent, Gomer

9
A.P.A.C. Pound Cottage, Pound Lane, Caerwent WB/CAE4/15

Monmouth Archaeology New House, Pound Lane, Caerwent. An Archaeological Evaluation For Mr & Mrs
M. Gaskill. MA02.03. 2003.
Monmouthshire County
Council Approval of Planning Permission. DC/2014/00657.

7/11/2014 (pl.app.no DC/2014/00657).

January 2012. Caerwent Conservation Area Appraisals & Management Proposals,


(CCAAMP). Project No: 2009/089. Draft 5, March 2013. Cdn Planning.

The Society of Museum


Archaeologists Towards An Accessible Archive (1995)

United Kingdom Institute


for Conservation. Guidelines for the Preparation of Excavation Archives for Long-Term
(Archaeology Section) Storage (1990)

WOC 60/96 Planning and the Historic Environment: Archaeology.


Welsh Office Circular 60/96. Section 23.

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

British Geological Survey http://www.bgs.ac.uk/GeoIndex/


British Listed Buildings http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/
Google Earth http://www.google.co.uk/
Magic http://magic.defra.gov.uk/
RCAHMW http://www.coflein.gov.uk/

The copyright for this report shall be retained by A.P.A.C. Ltd.

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: 36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny Monmouthshire NP7 7RG.


Tel: 07734962919. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com
Company Registration No 5041541 VAT Reg No 826 3628 19
Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil. BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE. ACIFA.

10
Pound Cottage, Caerwent

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
A
Adapdted
adapted from M.J. Crowther & Associates
1328-7
Adapted from
MCC planning Portal DC/2014/00657
Scale 1:500

1k
Map data ©2015 Google

Fig 01: Location A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/CAE4/15


Pound Cottage, Caerwent

ad
Ro

Pound Cottage
N

0 2m
Ex

ion
te
ns

MH
vat
io

xca
n

[104]
fe
it o

3]
Lim

[11

[10
6]
5]

[103]
[10

[113]

[11
3]
[10 6]
[10
6]

[115]

[107] [10
9]
HOUSE

0 1 2

Fig 02: Trench A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/CAE4/15


Pound Cottage, Caerwent

DSC08670

DSC08672
Plate 01: Area prior to excavation showing contexts: [100], [101], [102]. Plate 02: Position of Manhole [104], abutting north of trench with
remains of patio flagstones [100], [101] & [102] to south.

DSC0676
DSC08674

Plate 03: Initial disturbance to context [102] revealing [103]. 2, Plate 04: Section of northern edge of
A.P.A.C. Ltd CAE4/15
6 inch parallel plastic pipes [106] in fill [107] trench. Main stratigraphic sequence
[100], [101], [102], [103] with gas pipe [113], cut [112] and fill [114]
indistinct.
Pound Cottage, Caerwent

DSC08677

DSC08682
Plate 05: Manhole, [104] connection to plastic pipe [106] showing branch Plate 06: Depth of gas pipe [113] in W section
(left to right) beneath proposed trench depth.

DSC0684
DSC08683

Plate 07: Depth of final excavation at 150mm below level shown Plate 08: Overview of completed trench
A.P.A.C. Ltd CAE4/15
as yellow line on door step
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix I WB/CAE4/15

HER Report 5043. Listed buildings

Record no: Grade PRN Name Site Type NGR


2014 II* Church of St Stephen & St Tathan Medieval ST46879048
2776 II 04021g Caerwent House Post-Medieval Farm ST46939056
23058 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23057 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23056 II 03118g Burton Homes Post-Medieval Farm ST47159052
23055 II 03115g Burton Homes Post-Medieval Farm ST47159052
23054 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23053 II 03140g Burton Homes Post-Medieval Farm ST47159052
23052 II 03150g Burton Homes Post-Medieval Farm ST47159052
23051 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23050 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23049 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23048 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23037 II War Memorial 1948 ST46859056
23036 II Burton Homes Alms-houses 20th c ST47159052
23035 II Lych-gate 1902 ST46869055
23033 II Railed enclosure in churchyard 1800 ST46849052
23034 II Philpot tomb 1820 ST46849052

(Extra information from www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/)


A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix II WB/CAE4/15

HER Report 5043. National Monument Record Listings

NPRN NMRW NAME PRN Site type NGR


415442 St Stephen's Church, Caerwent, Paulinus Stone 09863g Medieval ST46879049
403922 Basilica and Forum at Caerwent Roman City 03096g Roman ST4691790591
403916 Roman temple at Caerwent Roman City 03098g Roman ST4695890564
405354 West Gate Farm 03086g Roman ST4674090593
401216 Roman amphitheatre, Caerwent Roman ST46999066
93753 Caerwent Roman City; Venta Silurum 01055g Roman ST4691790591
10509 Baptist Chapel, Caerwent Post-med ST46869070
20477 New House, Pound Lane Garden, Caerwent Post-med ST4683090640
21078 Vicarage Post-med ST47199041
31954 Caerwent Infants School Post-med ST46889059
31955 Caerwent Institute Post-med ST46849075
33166 Caerwent General ST46909054
36544 Burton Trust Homes, Caerwent Post-med ST47179053
36557 Caerwent House Post-med ST46939056
36971 Great House Post-med ST46969045
43262 Laurels The Post-med ST47149051
45026 Laurels Post-med ST47149051
307963 Caerwent, motte 01071g Norman ST47079031
221367 St Stephen's Church, Caerwent 01064g Medieval ST46889048

(Extra information from www.coflein.gov.uk/)


A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix III WB/CAE4/15

HER Report 5043. Event Record

PRN NAME Event Contractor Period NGR


E000139 Westgate Farmhouse Watching Brief FA 2008 R ST46619058
E000313 Vicarage garden Excavation GGAT 1977 Not recorded ST47249042
E00944 Westgate Farmhouse Watching Brief FA 2008 R ST46619058
E001043 Vicarage orchard Excavation Na. 1910 Not recorded ST7189046
E001044 Vicarage orchard Excavation Na. 1973 Early M ST7189046
E001045 Vicarage orchard Excavation Na. 1977 M ST4691790591
E001129 South Caerwent Visit GGAT 2006 BA ST46949029
E001337 3 Lawrence Cres Watching Brief MA 2009 19th-20th ST47240773
E001345 Museum Cottage Watching Brief MA 2009 R ST46869071
E001360 Caerwent Investigation TT 2008 R ST469905
E001361 Caerwent GPR GSB 2008 R ST4675990761
E001362 Caerwent Topo UB 2008 Not recorded ST46909054
E001363 Caerwent Evaluation TT 2008 R ST4695990505
E001364 Caerwent GPR GSB 2008 R ST4675690719
E001567 Stoneville Geophysical GSB 2008 Not recorded ST4718290383
E001642 Briardene Watching brief C&SAS 2009 R-20th ST4683890592
E002239 Vine Tree Cottage Evaluation D&M 1996 Not recorded ST46879069
E00422 King’s Cottage Evaluation CWA 1997 M ST47079031
E002528 Coach & Horses Evaluation MA 2011 R ST46889048
E002548 West Gate Watching Brief CAP 2008 R & Post M ST4669490601
E002557 Barn, west gate Watching Brief MA 2001 Not recorded ST46749059
E002586 Vine Tree Cottage Evaluation MA 2000 R, M & 19th ST468590679
E002598 2 Lawrence Cres Evaluation WA 2000 BA & 20th ST47249071
E003131 Llanfair Rd Watching Brief MA 2010 20th ST467909
E003138 Museum Cottage Watching Brief MA 2010 R&M ST46869071
E003148 Berwyn Evaluation C&SAS 2010 R ST46899053
E003563 Westgate Farm Excavation CAP R, Post M & 19th ST4661190582
E003626 Mayfield Watching Brief MA 2011 R ST4729790789
E003738 Coach & Horses Watching Brief MA 2001 20th ST471590411
E003914 Caerwent DBA GGAT 1994 Not recorded ST46909054
E004335 Coach & Horses Watching Brief MA 1998 R, M & Post M, ST4710690479
E004336 Stoneville Watching Brief GGAT 1997 Not recorded ST47179035
E004343 Benches Watching Brief GGAT 1998 R ST4665190431
E004351 Byways Watching Brief MA 1997 Post M & 20th ST4685590727
E004352 War Memorial Watching Brief MA 1998 Not Recorded ST4687490563
E004411 Gateway Trees Watching Brief GGAT 1996 R ST470905

Contractors:

CAP Cambrian Archaeological Projects


C&SAS 2009 Church and Site Archaeological Services
CWA Centre for Wetland Archaeology
D&M Darbyshire, G., & Mourne, R.
FA Foundations Archaeology
GGAT Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust
GSB Geophysical Surveys of Bradford
MA Monmouth Archaeology
TT Time Team
UB University of Birmingham
WA Wessex Archaeology
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix IV WB/CAE4/15

HER Report 5043. Core Record

PRN NAME Period Site type NGR


01055g Venta Silurum R Roman Settlement ST468905
01064g St Stephen’s & St Tathern’s M Church ST46889048
01065g Unknown Sub R Postulated Church ST4699053
01066g St Tathern’s monastery Early M Documentary ST47169045
01069g Cemetery R/Early M Documentary ST46799052
01070g East Gate Na Inhumation ST47189055
01071g Motte N Motte ST47079031
01072g Unknown M Cross head ST46929044
01073g Unknown Post M Dovecote. ST47199041
01074g House XVIIS R Inhumations ST46829046
01075g Village green Na Documentary ST46889056
01082g Unknown M Cross head ST46879047
02345g Vicarage garden M Ditch ST47249042
02345g Vicarage garden R Town Defences ST470905
02857g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST467904
02858g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST467904
02859g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST467904
02860g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST468905
02861g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST468905
02862g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST468905
02863g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST468905
03083g South gate R Town Defences ST46919034
03084g East gate R Town Defences ST47149049
03083g North gate R Town Defences ST46909076
03084g West gate R Town Defences ST46679060
03088g Town Defences R Bastion ST47099069
03089g Town Defences R Bastion ST47039073
03090g Town Defences R Bastion ST46679039
03091g Town Defences R Bastion ST46749038
03092g Town Defences R Bastion ST46799037
03093g Town Defences R Bastion ST46839036
03094g Town Defences R Bastion ST46979034
03095g Town Defences R Bastion ST47039032
03096g Basilica R Basilica ST46889065
03097g Forum R Forum ST46939057
03098g Central Temple R Temple ST46969056
03108g Mansio R Mansio ST46859037
03109g House 28 R Bath house ST46899053
03110g House 3S R Documentary ST46729043
03111g House 2S R Documentary ST46739047
03112g House 3S R Documentary ST46679045
03113g House 4S R Documentary ST46769047
03114g House 6S R Documentary ST46789045
03115g House 9S R Documentary ST47310500
03116g House 5S R Documentary ST46769042
03117g House 25S R Documentary ST46859045
03118g House 10S Post M Building ST4717290495
03119g Unknown R Documentary ST46889042
03120g House 7S R Documentary ST46689057
03121g House 8S R Documentary ST46729056
03122g House 15S R Documentary ST46759055
03123g House 14S R Documentary ST46749052
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix IV WB/CAE4/15

03124g House 16S R Documentary ST46789056


03125g House 18S R Documentary ST46809055
03126g House 20S R Documentary ST46819055
03127g House 21S R Documentary ST46829054
03128g House 17S R Documentary ST46769052
03129g House 22S R Documentary ST46879054
03130g House 24S R Documentary ST46749052
03131g House 25S R Documentary ST46899053
03137g House 27N Post M Not recorded ST46829064
03138g House 26N Post M Not recorded ST46829059
03139g Houses 9N, 10N. 11N Post M Not recorded ST46879064
03140g House 7N Post M Not recorded ST4717490523
03141g House 18N Post M Not recorded ST46979055
03142g House 19N Post M Not recorded ST47009054
03143g House 20N Post M Not recorded ST47029054
03144g House 8N Post M Not recorded ST47059067
03145g House 22N Post M Not recorded ST47089067
03146g House 23N Post M Not recorded ST47079060
03147g House 25N Post M Not recorded ST47079062
03148g House 24N Post M Not recorded ST47049063
03149g House 5N Post M Not recorded ST46969064
03150g House 6N Post M Not recorded ST4717790528
03151g House 1N Post M Not recorded ST46849073
03152g House 3N Post M Not recorded ST46949073
03153g House 2N Post M Not recorded ST46899071
03154g House 4N Post M Not recorded ST46919068
03155g House 8N Post M Not recorded ST46909065
03156g House 14N Post M Not recorded ST46939065
03157g House 15N Post M Not recorded ST46949064
03169g House 13S Post M Not recorded ST46939037
03170g Baths R Documentary ST47039036
03171g Extra mural Temple Post M Temple ST47189057
03172g House 17N Post M Not recorded ST46999059
03173g Vicarage orchard R, Early M Town defences & cremation ST47189046
03316g Unknown R Coin Hoard ST468904
03729g Great House Post M Building ST46969045
03751g Vicarage orchard R Documentary ST47189046
03786g Unknown Iron Age Find spot ST469905
03807g Unknown R Inscribed stone ST47029050
04021g Caerwent House Post M Farm ST46939056
04030g Berwyn R Find spot ST469906
05668g Vine Tree Cottage R Wall ST46879069
07572g South of walls U Barrow/natural ST46949029
07628g Unknown R Wall ST46789078
07718g Vicarage orchard U Inhumations ST47189046
07719g Vicarage orchard U Inhumations ST47189046
07720g Vicarage orchard U Inhumations ST47189046
07721g Vicarage orchard U Inhumations ST47189046
07722g Vicarage orchard U Inhumations ST47189046
08152g Churchyard M Documentary ST46889048
08153g Churchyard M Documentary ST46889048
08457g Churchyard Early M Carved stone cross slab ST46889048
09216g Insula 1 R Winged corridor house ST4676490764
09217g Insula 14 R Building complex ST4695990505
09347g Briardene R Walls ST46939056
09863g War Memorial 20th War Memorial ST4687490563
(Extra information from www.coflein.gov.uk/)
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix V WB/CA4E/15
Context Sheets

Site: Pound Cottage, Grid Ref: Site No: Alternate No:


Caerwent 346827 190656 WB/CA4/15 Trench
CONTEXT AREA FEATURE DESCRIPTION FINDS PHOTOGRAPHS
100 All Surface Flagstones DSC08670, DSC08671,
DSC08672, DSC08674,
DSC08676, DSC08681,
DSC08682, DSC06884.
101 All Bedding Compacted ferrous slag from Llanwern Steelworks DSC08670, DSC08671,
50mm DSC08672, DSC08673,
DSC08674, DSC08675,
DSC08676, DSC08677,
DSC08681,DSC08682,
DSC08683,DSC06884.
102 All Bedding Pink, dust/sand 80mm DSC08670, DSC08671,
DSC08672, DSC08673,
DSC08674, DSC08675,
DSC08676, DSC08677,
DSC08678, DSC08680,
DSC08681,DSC08682,
DSC08683,DSC06884.
103 All Deposit Black sandy clay with flecks of plaster. 150mm DSC08674, DSC08675,
below ground level. DSC08676, DSC08677,
DSC08678, DSC08679,
DSC08680, DSC08681,
DSC08682, DSC08683,
DSC06884.
104 North east Drain Manhole DSC08670, DSC08671,
DSC08672, DSC08674,
DSC08676, DSC08677,
DSC08681,DSC06884.
105 North east Cut
106 East Pipe 150mm orange plastic, foul DSC08673,DSC08674,
DSC08675, DSC08677,
DSC08681,DSC08682,
DSC08683,DSC06884.
107 East Fill Yellow, coarse sand DSC08673,DSC08674,
DSC08675, DSC08677,
DSC08678, DSC08681,
DSC08682, DSC08683,
DSC06884.
108 East Cut
109 East Cable Electric DSC08670, DSC08673,
DSC08674, DSC08683,
DSC06884.
110 East Cut
111 East Fill Indistinct
112 North, Cut
east &
west
113 North, Pipe Metal gas pipe DSC08679,DSC08681,
east & DSC08682, DSC08683,
west DSC06884.
114 North, Fill Indistinct
east &
west
115 South Fill Red/brown sandy deposit DSC08679,DSC08680,
west DSC08682, DSC06884.
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix V WB/CA4E/15
Context Sheets
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix VI WB/CAE4/15
Digital photograph list

Photo no Date Camera L or P View Description Plate


DSC08670 05/08/15 DSC F828 L NE Area prior to excavation showing contexts: [100], [101], [102]. PL01
DSC08671 05/08/15 DSC F828 L SW Position of Manhole [104], abutting north of trench with remains of patio flagstones [100], [101] & [102] to south.
DSC08672 05/08/15 DSC F828 L NE Position of Manhole [104], abutting north of trench with remains of patio flagstones [100], [101] & [102] to south. PL02
DSC08673 05/08/15 DSC F828 L V 6 inch plastic pipe, [106] in cut [105] and fill [107].
DSC08674 05/08/15 DSC F828 L NE Initial disturbance to context [102] revealing [103]. 2, 6inch parallel plastic pipes [106] in fill [107] PL03
DSC08675 05/08/15 DSC F828 L V Detail of initial excavation into [103]
DSC08676 05/08/15 DSC F828 L NE Section of northern edge of trench. Main stratigraphic sequence [100], [101], [102], [103] with gas pipe [113], cut [112] and fill [114] indistinct. PL04
DSC08677 05/08/15 DSC F828 L V Manhole, [104] connection to plastic pipe [106] showing branch (left to right) beneath proposed trench depth. PL05
DSC08678 05/08/15 DSC F828 L V Trench bottom, sequence 1 of 3, [103] with [113] to the left.
DSC08679 05/08/15 DSC F828 L V Trench bottom, sequence 2 of 3, [103] with [113] to bottom right.
DSC08680 05/08/15 DSC F828 L V Trench bottom, sequence 3 of 3, [103] with [113] to the bottom.
DSC08681 05/08/15 DSC F828 L NE Main stratigraphic sequence [100], [101], [102], [103] with gas pipe [113], and foul pipes [106] in [107].
DSC08682 05/08/15 DSC F828 L SW Depth of gas pipe [113] in W section PL06
DSC08683 05/08/15 DSC F828 L SE Depth of final excavation at 150mm below level shown as yellow line on door step PL07
DSC08684 05/08/15 DSC F828 L SW Overview of completed trench PL08
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix VII WB/CAE4/15
Finds Index

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


1 102 1 Sherd glazed earthenware 19th 05/08/15
7 sherds white china, blue decoration 19th/20th
Find no Area Context
2 103 3 sherds red sandstone roof tiles R? 05/08/15
1 sherd earthenware pot base, oxidised grey core R?
3 sherds glazed Somerset earthenware 17th/18th
2 sherds glazed dark brown earthenware 18th/19th
2 sherds local glazed earthenware trencher pot rims
1 sherd white glazed stoneware with embossed emblem
1 clay pipe stem
1 clay pipe partial bowl
2 sherds Dundee marmalade jars, one grey, one white
1 sherd glazed local earthenware
1 sherd Staffordshire “Queen Ann” slipware
2 sherds earthenware flower pot rims 19th
1 sherd pearlescent glazed stoneware
2 sherds yellow glazed stoneware, 1 sherd a handle
2 sherds (refit) Creamware jug, 1 sherd a base, 1 sherd a rim
4 sherds white china with blue decoration
2 sherds white china with green decoration
3 sherds bone china, 1 sherd tea cup base
1 sherd bone china cup rim, with green decoration
19th/20th
2 sherds modern roof tile
4 sherds white china
2 shards aqua green glass, 1 shard a bottle neck
1 sherd earthenware pot rim, glazed orange with yellow 20th
decoration
1 pearl effect button, (plastic)
1 fragment of graphite from inside of battery
1 spherical rock of unknown origin
POUND COTTAGE, CAEWENT Appendix VII FINDS

DSC08720
1

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


1 102 1 Sherd glazed earthenware 18th/19th 05/08/15
7 sherds white china, blue decoration 19th/

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/CA4/15


POUND COTTAGE, CAEWENT Appendix VII FINDS

DSC08721
2

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


2 103 3 sherds red sandstone roof tiles R? 05/08/15
1 sherd earthenware pot base, oxidised grey core R?
3 sherds glazed Somerset earthenware 17th/18th
2 sherds glazed dark brown earthenware 18th/19th
2 sherds local glazed earthenware trencher pot rims
1 sherd white glazed stoneware with embossed emblem
1 clay pipe stem
1 clay pipe partial bowl
2 sherds Dundee marmalade jars, one grey, one white
1 sherd glazed local earthenware
1 sherd Staffordshire “Queen Ann” slipware
2 sherds earthenware flower pot rims 19th
1 sherd pearlescent glazed stoneware
2 sherds yellow glazed stoneware, 1 sherd a handle
2 sherds (refit) Creamware jug, 1 sherd a base, 1 sherd a rim
4 sherds white china with blue decoration
2 sherds white china with green decoration
3 sherds bone china, 1 sherd tea cup base
1 sherd bone china cup rim, with green decoration
2 sherds modern roof tile 19th/20th

4 sherds white china


2 shards aqua green glass, 1 shard a bottle neck
1 sherd earthenware pot rim, glazed orange with yellow 20th
decoration
1 pearl effect button, (plastic)
1 fragment of graphite from inside of battery
1 rock of unknown origin

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/CA4/15


POUND COTTAGE, CAEWENT Appendix VII FINDS

DSC08722
2

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


2 103 3 sherds red sandstone roof tiles R? 05/08/15
1 sherd earthenware pot base, oxidised grey core R?
3 sherds glazed Somerset earthenware 17th/18th
2 sherds glazed dark brown earthenware 18th/19th
2 sherds local glazed earthenware trencher pot rims
1 sherd white glazed stoneware with embossed emblem
1 clay pipe stem
1 clay pipe partial bowl
2 sherds Dundee marmalade jars, one grey, one white
1 sherd glazed local earthenware
1 sherd Staffordshire “Queen Ann” slipware
2 sherds earthenware flower pot rims 19th
1 sherd pearlescent glazed stoneware
2 sherds yellow glazed stoneware, 1 sherd a handle
2 sherds (refit) Creamware jug, 1 sherd a base, 1 sherd a rim
4 sherds white china with blue decoration
2 sherds white china with green decoration
3 sherds bone china, 1 sherd tea cup base
1 sherd bone china cup rim, with green decoration
2 sherds modern roof tile 19th/20th

4 sherds white china


2 shards aqua green glass, 1 shard a bottle neck
1 sherd earthenware pot rim, glazed orange with yellow 20th
decoration
1 pearl effect button, (plastic)
1 fragment of graphite from inside of battery
1 rock of unknown origin

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/CA4/15