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Masters in Design

Animation
Courses of Study
IDC, IIT Bombay
M.Des in Animation
The Animation program in IDC will strive to create
people with expertise who will eventually emerge
as leaders to influence the future of Animation. IDC
expects the students to assume direct responsibility

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


for nearly all aspects of the film making process.
The students will have access to cutting edge IT
capabilities and the proximity to other engineering
disciplines which would facilitate cross disciplinary and
collaborative projects, also new areas for animation
applications can be explored and experimented with.
The proposed course content includes all areas of
study essential to nurture a well rounded approach to
learning and understanding in the field of animation.

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Animation Course Content - Semester 1

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

VC 601 Visual Language – Syntactics 0 0 4 6.0

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


AN 601 Animation Principles and History 1.5 0 2 6.0

AN 603 Animation Process and Visual Form 0 0 4 6.0

VC 609 Art, Design and Society I 2 0 0 4.0

ID 643 Design Issues 2 0 0 4.0

Elective I 6.0

Elective II 6.0

Total Credits for Semester I 38.0

Animation Elective Courses - Semester 1

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

VC 603 Image Making and Representation I 0 0 4 6.0

VC 605 Photo Communication 0 0 4 6.0

ID 627 Elements of Design 0 0 4 6.0

ID 629 Media Investigation and Communication Methods 0 0 4 6.0

ID 645 Exposure to Design 0 0 4 6.0

ID 667 Design Workshop I 0 0 4 6.0

AN 609 Life Drawing 0 0 4 6.0

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AN 601 Animation History
Animation Principles And History 1.5 0 2 6 • To gain an understanding of the evolution of animation
• Delving into animation history- both of India and
Principles the world.
• Understanding principles that translate sequential • Precursors to animation: Cave paintings, animation toys

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


images into action to make animation believable • Animation before Disney
• Understanding properties of matter • Studio animation
• Making use of the wave principle, delayed secondary • Feature animation
action, slow and fast action impact , speed, • Experimental animation
weight, tendency of weight to move in a certain • Personal films and expression
way, recoil effects, squash and stretch related to • Adult animation
weight, overlapping action, follow through • Animation Today
• Animating force acting on objects , object
weight, construction, flexibility, object References for principles and theory
behaviour when force acts on them • Harold Whitaker and John Halas, Timing for
• Principles of Timing Animation, Focal Press, Oxford, 2002
• Gaining an insight into the invisible • Preston Blair, Cartoon Animation, Walter
concept of time in nature Foster Publishing Inc., CA, 1995
• Understanding the basic unit of time in animation • Edited by Peter Hames, Dark Alchemy, The Films
• Emphasizing the difference between of Jan Svankmajer, Greenwood Press, 1995
caricature, drama, humour • John Culhane, Disney’s Aladdin – The Making
• Timing governing acting and movement of an Animated Film Hyperion, NY, 1992
• The use of anticipation, action, reaction
• Methods of doping, writing exposure sheets, bar sheets References for History
• Planning accents, beats, scene timing, spacing • Dave Smith, The Official Encyclopedia –
of drawings, holds, easing in and out Disney A to Z Hyperion, NY, 1998
• Animating to music • Vol : 18, Special Issue of Art History, March 1985
• Principles of Movement • Leonard Maltin, Of Mice and Magic – A
• Understanding the meaning of movement and History of American Animated Cartoons
movement in nature and what movement expresses Plume, Penguin Books. USA, 1990
• Awareness of how mood and feeling can be • Bob Thompson, Disney’s Art of Animation –
conveyed through movement and animate From Mickey Mouse to Hercules Hyperion,
and inanimate object behaviour • NY, 1997
• Examining the laws of motion in the context of • Donald Craften, Before Mickey – The Animated
animation; cause and effect, thrown objects, rotating, Film [1898 – 1928], The University of Chicago
force, oscillating movement, friction, resistance • Press, 1993
• Studying the tendency of weight to • Peter Hames (edited by), Dark Alchemy, The Films
move in a particular manner of Jan Svankmajer, Greenwood Press, 1995
• Simplification and exaggeration of movement • John Culhane, Disney’s Aladdin – The Making

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of an Animated Film Hyperion, NY, 1992 • Animation as an artistic medium
• Alan Cholodenko (edited by), The Illusion of Life- • Visual Concepts, Character Exploration & Storyboards
Essays on Animation Power Publication in • Animatics
• association with Australian Film Commission, SYD, 1991 • Character Design & Model Sheets,
• Eric Smoodin (edited by), Routledge, Disney Discourse Layouts & Scene Planning

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


– Producing the Magic Kingdom, London, 1994
• Jay Leyda (edited by), Eisnstein on Disney, Production
Seagull Books, Calcutta, 1986 • Animation
• Ernest Pintoff, Animation 101Michael • Acting - Animation is not about moving
Wiese Productions, CA, 1999 images but moving people
• Traditional 2D anim
• a. Linetests - Keyframes & Timing (breakdowns
AN 603 & inbetweens) also brief introduction to
Animation Process And Visual Form 0046 thumbnailing (for quick exploration of
alternative methods of animating a scene)
Animation Processes • Study comparisons between different
• Covers the entire process from script to screen in rhythms of animation
process for an animation film (short or feature) • Executing straight ahead and inbetweened planned
• Overview of the Process animation, limited animation full animation
• Preproduction, Production, Post Production • Drawing key frames, breakdowns,
• A comparison between live action film making & inbetweens, animation cycles
animation The primary difference being that an • Cleanups
animation film tends to be pegged down pretty
accurately by the end of the preproduction process itself Post Production
whereas for a live action film it is close to completion only • Voice, Music & Effects
at the end of editing which is a post production process. • Understanding the dynamics of sound design and
use of sound as a key component of animation
Preproduction • Designing a sound track for animation including
• Story to Script music, dialogue, voice overs, lip synch and FX
• Whether adapted or original, taking the story from a • Recording and mixing multiple tracks
verbal or spatial medium like a book or graphic novel to a • Post processing sound
form suitable for making a film. What makes a good story? • Compositing & Editing
• Plot & Character: Action Plots & Mind Plots. • Work in Progress. Development of a film from Animatic
Analysis of different types of plots to Edit with different scenes at different stages.
• Archetypes v/s Stereotypes - understanding • Coming together of the various elements of the scene.
of archetypes and a brief introduction to • Final Mixing of Sound & Final Edit
the mono myth (hero’s journey). • Understanding the dynamics of camera
• Why Animation? (instead of live action) moves and magnifications
• Animation as a story telling (narrative) medium • Experimenting with camera techniques

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and working directly under camera References for Visual Form
• - Using registration fields, table • Mark Cotta Vaz, The Art of Finding
moves and peg movements Nemo, Cronicle Books, 2003
• Screening & Feedback • Gary Russell, The Art of The Fellowship of
• Pitching a Project, Financing, Production & Distribution the Rings, Houghton Mifflin, 2002

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


• Gary Russell, The Art of The Two Towers (The
Visual Form Lord of the Rings), Houghton Mifflin, 2003
• Exploring the look and feel for • Gary Russell, The Art of The Return of the King
animation through concept art (The Lord of the Rings), Houghton Mifflin, 2004
• Planning character design, layout design, illustration • Will Eisner, Graphic Storytelling, Poorhouse Press, 1996
style, composition, staging, backgrounds • Will Eisner, Comics and Sequential
• A study of indigenous design and painting, both Art, Poorhouse Press, 1985
contemporary and traditional to understand and • Scott McCloud, Understanding Comics,
analyze a variety of styles and visual language Perennial Currents, 1994
• Bradford W. Wright, Comic Book Nation,
References for processes Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003
• Shamus Culhane, Animation from script to • Stephen Missal, Exploring Drawing for
screen, St.Martin’s Griffin Press, NY, 1990 Animation (Design Exploration Series),
• Richard William, The Animators Survival Kit, • Thomson Delmar Learning, 2003
Faber and Faber, New York, London, 2002
• Kit Laybourne, The Animation Book, AN 609
Crown Trade Paperbacks, NY, 1998 Life Drawing 0046
• Tony White, The Animator’s Workbook- Step
by Step Technique of Drawn Animation, • To become fluent with capturing the
Watson-Guptill Pulications, 1988 human and animal form
• Mascelli Joseph V, The Five C’s of • Proportions, structure, volume and shading techniques
Cinematography: Motion Pictures Filming
Techniques, Silman-James Press, 1998 References
• Daniel Arijon, Film Technique, Silman-James Press, 1991 • John.V.Vanderpoel, The Human Figure,
• David Sonnensch, Sound Design: The Expressive Dover Publication Inc., NY, 1958
Power of Music, Voice and Sound Effects in • George.B.Bridgman, Bridgman’s Life, Drawing
Cinema, Michael Wiese Productions, 2001 Dover Publication Inc., NY, 197
• David Lewis Yewdall, Practical Art of Motion Picture • Betty Edwards, The New, Drawing on the Right Side
Sound, Second Edition, Focal Press, 2003 of the Brain, Harper Collins Publishers, 2001
• Tomlinson Holman, Sound for Film and • Betty Edwards, The New, Drawing on the Right Side of
Television, Second Edition, Focal Press, 2001 the Brain, Workbook Souvenir Press Ltd., London, 2002
• Stephen Missal, Exploring Drawing for Animation
(Design Exploration Series), (Paperback)
Thomson Delmar Learning, 2003

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Animation Course Content - Semester 2

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

AN 602 Animation Design and Theory 1.5 0 2 6.0

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


AN 604 Animation Scripting and Methods 0 0 4 6.0

VC 654 Semantics and Communications Theory 1.5 0 2 6.0

VC 614 Art, Design and Society II 2 0 0 4.0

AN 605 Computers for Animation Audit

Elective III 6.0

Elective IV 6.0

Total Credits for Semester I 34.0

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Animation Elective Courses - Semester 2

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


VC 602 Image Making and Representation II 0 0 4 6.0

VC 604 Digital Video Communication 0 0 4 6.0

VC 618 Information Graphics 0 0 4 6.0

VC 620 Advanced Typography 0 0 4 6.0

VC 624 Designing Interactive Experiences 0 0 4 6.0

VC 626 Story and Narrative 1.5 0 2 6.0

ID 634 Sketching for Designers 0 0 4 6.0

ID 638 Product Interface Design 0 0 4 6.0

IN 604 Usability Evaluation 1.5 0 2 6.0

IN 612 Interactive Media 0 0 4 6.0

IN 614 Soft Prototyping Techniques 0 0 4 6.0

AN 608 Anatomy and Drawing 0 0 4 6.0

ID 668 Design Workshop II 0 0 4 6.0

Institute Elective 6.0

Institute Elective 6.0

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AN 602 Animal movement
Animation Design and Theory 0046 • Reflecting on animal movement
• Gaining an insight into creating believable action
• Study of Animation Techniques & styles developed • Practicing the mechanics of quadraped- walks,
and used over the years in animation. runs, gallops; bird movement and flight

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


• Appreciating the difference between the processes
of the basic 3 methods of animation, namely Sfx
• frame by frame creation of animation (like traditional 2D) • An awareness of and an ability to
• modification of object or image to produce create convincing atmosphere
animation. (like paint on glass, sand on glass, • Creating animated environments and
simple claymation without armatures etc) atmosphere like flames, smoke, water, rain,
• manipulation of objects to produce animation. snow etc. to offset principal animation
(like 2D cutout animation, 3D claymation with • Creating Special effects such as
armatures, simple object animation, Puppets, etc) explosions, speed lines etc.
• Exploring & developing the animation world based
on the technique you might choose for animation. Theory
• The Digital World and the avenues opened • Understanding contemporary trends in
by it in terms of animation design. animation making in terms of content,
styling, techniques and applications
Animation articulation and performance • Studying animation films through film viewing,
• Understanding the role of drama and acting in appreciation, criticism, theoretical
creating convincing characterization and emotion writings, essays , research studies
• Creating believability by taking off on the • Aesthetics: Introduction to Aesthetics
natural, making objects behave in character (Indian and Western)
• Expressing attitude, gesture, body language • Introduction to major art movements
• Role playing through actual and mental miming • Narrative: Introduction to narrative
• Character acting, reacting, take structures (Indian and Western)
• Expressing exaggeration through caricatured • Modes of Narrative
matter acted upon by caricatured forces • Narrative Discourse
• Film Theory: Perception
Character Animation • Representation
• Reflecting on human movement • Signification
• Gaining an insight into creating believable action • Genres
• Practicing the mechanics of biped • Identification and Psychoanalysis
walks, runs, head turns, gestures • Interpretation
• Methods of lip-syncing to sound breakdowns
• Posing characters in scenes References:
• Ed Hooks, Acting for Animators
Heinemann, Reed Elsevier, 2000

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• Eadweard Muybridg, The Human Figure in • Sculpting, mould making, armature
Motion, Dover Publication Inc., NY, 1995 construction and casting techniques.
• Richard William, The Animators Survival Kit, • Methods to fabricate a stop-motion animation puppet
Faber and Faber, New York, London, 2002 • Techniques for set construction.
• David Choquet, 1000 Game Heroes, Taschen. 2002 • Doping, animating, lighting and shooting

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


• Eadweard Muybridg, Animals in Motion, • Post production techniques
Dover Publication Inc., NY, 1957
• Alan Cholodenko (edited by), The Illusion of Life- References for Methods
Essays on Animation Power, Publication in association • Robert Russett and Cecile Starr, Experimental Animation,
with Australian Film Commission, SYD, 1991 Origins of a New Art A Da Capo Paperback, NY, 1998
• Eric Smoodin (edited by), Disney Discourse – Producing • Peter Lord and Brian Sibley, Cracking Animation –The
the Magic Kingdom Routledge, London, 1994 Aardman book of 3D Animation, Thames & Hudson, 2000
• Jay Leyda (edited by), Eisnstein on Disney • Richard Taylor, Encyclopedia of Animation
Seagull Books, Calcutta, 1986 Techniques, Book Sales, 2004
• Ernest Pintoff, Animation 101, Michael • Michael Frierson, Clay Animation: American Highlights
Wiese Productions, CA, 1999 1908 to Present, Twayne Publishers, 1994
• Chris Patmore; The Complete Animation Course: The
Principles, Practice, and Techniques of Successful
AN 604 Animation, Barron’s Educational Series, 2003
Animation Scripting and Methods 0046 • Frank Thompson, The Making of The Nightmare
Before Christmas, Disney Editions, 2002
• Experimenting with techniques for visual storytelling, • Peter Lord and Brian Sibley, Cracking Animation –The
structure, story building, writing for animation Aardman book of 3D Animation, Thames & Hudson, 2000
• Examining indigenous narratives, both contemporary
and traditional to gain an understanding of References for scripting
storytelling methods pertinent to our culture • Marilyn Webber, Gardner’s Guide to Feature
• Creating dramatic flow, planning, pacing, sequencing, Animation Writing: The Writer’s Road Map
organizing visual flow and continuity in storyboards Garth Gardner Company, 2002
• Co-ordinating character, scene length, pace of action • Jeffrey Scott, How to Write for
• Choreographing scene change and camera movement Animation, Overlook Press, 2002
• Planning, examining, analyzing and • Marilyn Webber, Gardner’s Guide to Animation
pacing character behaviour Scriptwriting: The Writer’s Road Map,
• An exposure to various animation techniques • Garth Gardner Company, 2002
• Workshops using both 2D and 3D techniques • Jean Ann Wright, Animation Writing and
on Computer, Film, Video etc. Development: From Script Development to Pitch
• Production of professional stop-motion • (Focal Press Visual Effects and
animation puppet and usable set props. Animation), Focal Press, 2005
• Understanding how a stop-motion
animation production works

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AN 605 References:
Computers for Animation Audit • Dark Alchemy, The Films of Jan Svankmajer
• Edited by Peter Hames, Greenwood Press 1995
• To enlarge the repertoire of tools to create animation • Disney’s Aladdin – The Making of an Animated Film
• An experience of working across varied • John Culhane, Hyperion, NY, 1992

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


Animation Software like Maya, Animo, • The Illusion of Life- Essays on Animation
• 3D Studio Max, Flash etc. • Edited by Alan Cholodenko, Power Publication in
association with Australian Film Commission, SYD, 1991
References • Disney Discourse – Producing the Magic Kingdom
• Dan Ablan, Digital Cinematography & • Edited by Eric Smoodin, Routledge, London, 1994
Directing, New Riders Press, 2002 • Eisnstein on Disney
• Jeremy Birn, Digital Lighting & Rendering, • Edited by Jay Leyda, Seagull Books, Calcutta
New Riders Press, 2000 • Animation 101
• Owen Demers, Digital Texturing & • Ernest Pintoff, Michael Wiese Productions, CA, 1999
Painting, New Riders Press, 2001
• Glenn Kirkpatrick, Flash Cartoon Animation: Learn
from the Pros, A-Press, 2003 AN 608
Anatomy and Drawing 0046

AN 606 • Understanding of the relationship of bones and


Animation Theory 0046 muscles at rest and in movement to be able to translate
this to creating and maintaining correct volumes
• Understanding contemporary trends in animation making • Studying human and animal movement through
in terms of content, styling, techniques and applications sequential drawings, gesture drawing
• Studying animation films through film
viewing, appreciation, criticism, theoretical References
writings, essays , research studies • Victor Perard, Anatomy and Drawing,
• Aesthetics: Introduction to Aesthetics (Indian and Western) Dover Publications Inc., NY, 2004
• Introduction to major art movements • Steve Roberts, Character Animation in 3D: Use
• Narrative: Introduction to narrative traditional drawing techniques to produce
structures (Indian and Western) stunning CGI animation, Focal Press, 2004
• Modes of Narrative • Christopher Hart, Drawing Cutting Edge
• Narrative Discourse Anatomy: The Ultimate Reference for Comic,
• Film Theory: Perception • Watson-Guptill Book Artists Publications, 2004
• Representation • Eadweard MuybridgE, Animals in Motion,
• Signification Dover Publication Inc., NY, 1957
• Genres • Eadweard MuybridgE, The Human Figure in
• Identification and Psychoanalysis Motion, Dover Publication Inc., NY, 1995
• Interpretation

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Animation Course Content - Semester 3

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

AN 610 Sound and Camera 0 0 4 6.0

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


VC 615 Indian Thoughts and Traditions 2 0 0 4.0

Elective V 6.0

Elective VI 6.0

ANP 601 Summer Project 1 ( Mid May - Mid June) 6.0

ANP 602 Design Project 2 (Mid June - End November) 18.0

Total Credits for Semester III 46.0

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Animation Elective Course Content - Semester 3

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

VC 627 Advanced Digital Video Communications 0 0 4 6.0

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


VC 619 Advanced Photography 0 0 4 6.0

VC 635 Studies in Human Computer Interaction 0 0 4 6.0

VC 637 Experimental Animation 0 0 4 6.0

VC 667 Visual Culture 1.5 0 2 6.0

ID 639 Design Management and Professional Practice 1.5 0 2 6.0

ID 653 Product Detailing 0 0 4 6.0

ID 657 Advanced Ergonomics 0 0 4 6.0

ID 659 Product Semantics 0 0 4 6.0

ID 665 Craft, Creativity and Post-Modernism 0 0 4 6.0

ID 669 Design Workshop III 0 0 4 6.0

ID 675 Designing Game for Children 0 0 4 6.0

IN 653 Instructional Design 1.5 0 2 6.0

AN 611 Representation Methods for Animation 0 0 4 6.0

Institute Elective 6.0

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AN 610 References
Sound and Camera 0046 • George.B.Bridgman, The Book of a Hundred
Hands, Dover Publication Inc., NY, 1972
• Understanding the dynamics of sound • Richard Taylor , Encyclopedia of Animation
design and use of sound as a key Techniques, Book Sales, 2004

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


• component of animation • Robert Russett, Experimental Animation: Origins
• Designing a sound track for animation including of a New Art Cecile Starr (Editor), Capo, 1988
music, dialogue, voice overs, lip synch and FX • Alan Watt, M. Advanced Animation and Rendering
• Recording and mixing multiple tracks Techniques Watt, Addison-Wesley Professional, 1992
• Post processing sound
• Understanding the dynamics of camera AN 613
moves and magnifications Animation Technology 0046
• Experimenting with camera techniques
and working directly under camera • An exposure to the latest that technology has to offer
• Using registration fields, table moves when it comes to applications in the filed of animation.
and peg movements • Student will be kept abreast with innovative and
ground breaking techniques adapted/invented
References which have pioneered the process of animation.
• Mascelli Joseph V, The Five C’s of
Cinematography: Motion Pictures Filming • Simulation (Environments etc.)
Techniques, Silman-James Press, 1998 • Crowd Control
• Daniel Arijon, Film Technique, Silman-James Press, 1991 • MOCAP (Motion Capture)
• David Sonnensch, Sound Design: The Expressive • VR (Virtual-reality)
Power of Music, Voice and Sound Effects in • Rendering Technologies
Cinema, Michael Wiese Productions, 2001 • Digital Lighting
• David Lewis Yewdall, Practical Art of Motion Picture • Compositing Techniques
Sound, Second Edition Focal Press, 2003 • Effects - reflections, refractions, global
• Tomlinson Holman, Sound for Film and illumination and caustics.
Television, Second Edition Focal Press, 2001 • Motion Building
• Alternative Modelling Methods – eg.: Luxology Modo,
AN 611 • CLOTHFX
Representation Techniques For Animation 0 0 4 6 • Studio visits

• Different techniques of representations for animation.


• Experiment with different methods of representation
• Exploring different skills, tools and
medias to represent for animation.

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ANP 601
Summer Project I 6 Credits

(Mid June to mid July)


This is a summer project that can be done with an

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


industry, professional design firm, an institution or
an organisation like an NGO. The objective of this
project is to be part of the process where design is
being implemented, contribute towards the process
and learn from the situation. The project is meant
to expose the student to design practices in his
chosen area of interest. This project is expected
to influence the degree project in many cases.

ANP 602
Design Project II 18 Credits

(Mid July to November end)


• An independent project with one of the following focus:
• Design project of student interest and / or
faculty interest and / or industry project
• Re-design project that relooks at an
existing problem or situation
• Research project, delving into
methodological or pedagogic issues
• Exploration project, exploring application possibilities
in a new technology or medium or variations

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Animation Course Content - Semester 4

Course Number Course Name L T ST Credits

AN 614 Design Research-Seminar 0 0 4 6.0

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


ANP 603 Design Project III – Stage 1 (from December 1st – end February) 12.0

ANP 604 Degree Project III – Stage 2 (from March – April /June) 24.0

Total Credits for Semester IV 42.0

Total Credits for M Des. programme in Animation 160.0

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AN 614 ANP 604
Design Research-Seminar 0046 Degree Project III Stage 2 24 Credits

• The course involves student researching in an area • Duration: 2-4 months from March – end June.
related to design and is expected to produce an • This project will be an extension of the project II

Animation Design | IDC, IIT Bombay


insightful report or a paper on the topic. Students and should include development of the final design
need to choose a topic suggested by a faculty member concept. The defence presentations will be held
and work under faculty guidance. The work may during the month of April and time given till the
involve primary and secondary research, creative end of June to complete the jury feedback, final
exploration out alternatives, experimental set-ups and drawings and finer detailing of the project
methodical documentation. Students are encouraged
to explore new fields, materials and media, with a • The evaluation of the Stage 2 of Project II is done
focus on analysis. The student is required to present by a panel of examiners appointed by DPGC. The
a seminar on the topic at the end of the semester. panel will consist of external jury member along
with an internal examiner, the guide and the
ANP 603 chairman (A Professor or an Associate Professor
Degree Project III Stage1 12 Credits from another Department of IIT Bombay)

• Duration: 3 months from December – end of February.


• This project could be an extension of the previous
project (if the scope of the project justifies
the extension) or it could be an independent
project with one of the following focus:
• Design project of student interest and / or
faculty interest and / or industry project
• Re-design project that relooks at an
existing problem or situation
• Research project, delving into
methodological or pedagogic issues
• Exploration project, exploring application possibilities
in a new technology or medium or variations.
• The evaluation of the Stage 1 of Project II is done
internally with a panel appointed by the DPGC in
consultation with the guide. The panel will consist
of the guide and two other faculty members.

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